RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - Abstract - INDEX of Genera - FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - AEURILLINES - Comparison HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - AMYCINES- AMYCOIDA VARIA - ASTIAINES - BELIPPINES - CHRYSILLINES - COCALODINES - COLONINES [=Thiodinines] - DENDRYPHANTINES - DIOLENINES - EUOPHRYINES-PART 1 Introduction-Donoessus- EUOPHRYINES-PART 2 Echeclus-Pystira - EUOPHRYINES- PART 3 Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - EUPOAINES - EVARCHINES - FOSSILS - HABRONATTINES - HARMOCHIRINES - HELIOPHANINES - HISPONINES - HYLLINES - ICIINES - LAPSIINES - LIGONIPEINES - LYSSOMANINES - MENEMERINES - MYRMARACHNINES - NOTICIINES - PELLENINES - PSEUDICIINES - SIMAETHINES - SITTICINES - SPARTAEINES - THIRATOSCIRTINAE - YAGINUMAELLINES - YLLENINES - UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY - Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae

Classification of the Salticidae genera of the World
group of genera

AELURILLINES

by Jerzy Prószyński
Version December 31st, 2015

Disclaimer,This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed taxonomic names included here are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on illustrations. This introduction to classification of Salticidae includes only species defined by diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature, arranged by similarities of embolus and spermophor. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of theoretically closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, whera are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.

Gen. Langona Simon, 1901 (38 species)

Type species Langona redii.
DIAGNOSIS. Confront to general characteristics of AELURILLINES which have the whole bulbus covered by opaque sclerotized tegulum and a coil of embolus hidden behind anterior part of tegulum, from where only its tip protrudes. Bulbus usually ends posteriorly by sharp pointed triangle, sometimes with narrow "tail". There is often also a small, conical protuberance ("bump") on tegulum. Tibial apophysis is short and robust, sometimes sclerotized and hook like, often accompanied dorsally by fleshy protuberance. Female epigyne, usually in a form of sclerotized flat plate, with indistinct, small copulatory openings, but often with sclerotized "wings" or edges, spermathecae in form of a pair of compact bodies with convoluted internal chambers, or a chain of irregular chambers. Copulatory ducts are sclerotized, or short and indistinct, even invisible.
However, the genus Langona departs strikingly from general characters of the group of genera by the following features. In females epigyne is divided into two part parts occupying different levels. The sclerotized part is limited to anterior half of epigyne and has a form of sclerotized rim, surrounding huge, membranous, white "window". It is separated by high, vertical wall, from posterior, lower part. There is a pair of strange, sclerotized internal balloons, having no discernible connections with any other structures, possibly providing skeletal support to the elevated part. The depressed part has thinner, softer tegument, is broad oval shaped and extending towards edge of epigyne. Spermathecae in a form of bent, sausage shaped compact bodies, consisting of a maze of irregular chambers and convoluted ducts. Copulatory openings hidden under lateral rims of the "window", copulatory ducts thin walled, short, barely visible on the background of sclerotized structures. In males tibial apophysis is single, narrow, of moderate length and slightly bent, or inclined. It is accompanied by bunch of stiff, black bristles. Dorsum of cymbium with broad, scattered scales. Body of both sexes dark gray with white abdominal streak and a pair of less striking white streaks along edges of thorax. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

Langona redii : Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 51: 82-84, figs 309-314, 322-324. By courtesy.
Langona oreni : Proszynski 2003a. Ann.zool.: 82, figs 315-317, 319-321 + ©Photo Oren Hasson. By courtesy.
Langona alfensis : Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 226-227, ff. 3, 6-7, 22-23, 28-29. By courtesy.
Langona albolinea : Caleb et al., 2015. Tamil Nadu. Peckhamia 124(1): 3-4, f 6-15.. By courtesy.
+
Langona bhutanica : Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 230-232, ff. 10-11, 19-21, 36 + Proszynski 1978a. Ent. bas.,Basel, 3, 7: 10-11, ff. 4-6. By courtesy.
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Langona bristowei : Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 211, f. 16, 26+ Berland L., Millot J. 1941. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur. 12, 2: 304 f. 4. +Wesołowska, Russel-Smith. .Ann. zool. 61(3): 579-580, f 90-92 [conspecific?]. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Langona goaensis +b) kurracheensis +c) mallezi +d) sp [Sarawak] : Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool., 44, 9: 183, fig. 72-75 +b) Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 228-229, ff. 13-14, 33, 41 +c) Proszynski 2003a.Ann. zool.,: 84, f. 318 +d) Proszynski (unpublished Langona sp [Sarawak]) - (specimen sent to G. Azarkina). By courtesy.
+
+b)
Langona pallida +b) pallidula : Proszynski 2003a. Ann.zool.: 82, figs 315-317, 319-321 +b) Wesolowska, van Harten 2010: UAE, 3: 37, pl 9-11, f 25-30 + Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13(6): 221-222, f 8-14 +b) Logunov, Rakov 1998. Artropoda Selecta, 7(2): 122, figs 18-24, . By courtesy.
b)
Langona simoni +b) tortuosa : Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 227, f. 24, 30-31 +b) Wesolowska 2011 © Genus, 22(2): 330-331, f 56-60.. By courtesy.
+
++
Langona tartarica : Proszynski J. 1979. Ann. zool., 34: 323, ff. 11-14 +b) Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 229-230, ff. 8-9, 18, 34-35, 42-43 + Logunov, Rakov 1998. Arthr. Sel., 7(2): 122, figs 25-36 +.Proszynski 2003a. Ann.zool.: 82, figs 315-317, 319-321 + Wesolowska W., van Harten A. 2007. Fauna of Arabia, 23: 224-225, f 99-102, phot 25 [©Photo B. Knoflach]. By courtesy.
b)+
Langona tigrina +b) trifoveolata: Heciak, Proszynski 1983. Ann. zool., 37, 4: 228, ff. 17, 32, 39 +b) 211, ff. 15, 27, 40 + Logunov, Azarkina 2006. Revue Suisse de zoologie, 113(4): 739-241, f 54-55. By courtesy.
+b)
Langona bethae +b) fusca [both MISPLACED] : Wesolowska & Cumming, 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. .7: 81-83, f 23-31, 92-93 +b)Wesolowska 2011. © Genus, 22(2): 324-325, f 41-42. By courtesy.
Langona hirsuta : Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 79-82, f 64-65, 76-84.. By courtesy.
b)c)
Langona improcera +b) lotzi +c) magna : Wesolowska, Russel-Smith, 2000. Trop. Zool., 13 (1): 60-61, f 148-150 +Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 82-84, f 66-67, 85-92 +c) Caporiacco 1947d. Annls hist.-nat. Mus. nat. hung. 40: 238, T. 2 F. 71.. By courtesy.
b)c)
Langona mediocris +b) pilosa +c) sabulosa : Wesolowska W. 1999a. Arnoldia Zimbabwe, 10(15): 156-157, figs 30-38 +b) Wesolowska 2011. © Genus, 22(2): 325-327, f 43-48 +c) 327-329, f 49-55, 90-91. By courtesy.
b)+
Langona bitumorata +b) pecten : Prochniewicz, Heciak 1994. Ann.zool.: 45: 35-36, f 2a-k. +b) 36, figs 3a-f +Wesolowska, Cumming, 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. .7: 83-84, f 32-34. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Langona vitiosa +b) avara +c) ukualuthensis +d) senegalensis : Wesolowska 2006b. Afr. Ent., 14 (2): 239, f 58-62 +b) Peckham, Peckham 1903: 241 T. 28 F. 5 +c) Lawrence, 1927. 34 (17): 61 T. 2 F. 47 +d) Berland L., Millot J. 1941. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur. 12, 2: 305, f 5. By courtesy.
Langona warchalowskii : Wesolowska 2007b: 18(4): 783-786, f 1-8. By courtesy
Langona zimbabwensis : Wesolowska & Cumming, 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. .7: 84, f 35-39, 101. © By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Langona atrata +b) biangula +c) maculata +d) hongkong : Peng X., Tang G., Li S., 2008.© Acta zootaxon. sin. 33: 248, f 1-4 +b) Peng X.J., Li S.Q., Yang Z.Z. 2004. Raffles Bull. Zool. 52:202, f 1a-e +c) 203, f 2a-e +d) .Song, Zhu, Chen 1999: 532, figs 302I-J. By courtesy.
b)
Langona aperta +b) calcuttaensis: Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13(6): 220-221, f 1-6. + Denis, 1958. Videns. Meddrdansk naturh. Foren.: 110, f. 41 +b) Biswas B. 1984. Bull. Zool. Surv. India 6: 123-125, f 11-13. By courtesy.