[Title Page] [List of Genera] Comparison of Drawings] [Regional Keys to Genera] [Descriptions of New Taxa] [Geographical Distribution] [Color Photographs] [See also Catalogue of Salticidae: Phlegra bresnieri] [Genus: Phlegra - List of Species] [See: Introduction to paper by Heciak]


Stefania Heciak 2003


Genus Phlegra Simon, 1876 and related  of genera (Araneae: Salticidae). 
PhD paper, Poznan University.( Zaklad Zoologii WSRP, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland)



List of species

[1.  bresnieri][ 2. chrysops] [3. cinereofasciata ][4. crumena ][6. fasciata ][7. fulvastra ][8. fuscipes ][9. imperiosa ][
10. kagokana sp.n.][11. levis ][12. lineata ][13. loripes ][14. lugubris][15.memoralis ][16. msilana sp. n.][17. nitidiventris ]
[18.nobilis ][19. nuda ][20. particeps ][21.peninsulana sp. n.][22. pisarskii ][23. purcelli sp. n.][24. rogenhoferi ]
[25. samchiensis ][26. sierrana ][27. sogdiana ][28. sophiae sp. n.][29. thibetana] [5. v-epigynalis ]

Taxonomic descriptions of 30 species the genus Phlegra (one of them as incertae sedis) are presented, including five new species (P. kagokana, P. msilana, P. peninsulana, P. purcelli and P. sophiae). Five species are excluded from the genus Phlegra. On the basis of the copulatory organs genus Phlegra is  divided into two groups: bresnieri and fasciata and several sub-groups.


The genus Phlegra  was set up by Simon (1876) for Attus fasciatus (Simon, 1868) and a few other species excluded from other genera. Harm (1977) revised three Central European species: fasciata, v-insignitus and festivus and included them into Phlegra. Her opinion was followed by Weiss (1978), Weso³owska (1981), Wunderlich (1987), others rejected it (Prószyñski 1978, 1982, Schmidt 1990, Próchniewicz 1994). Recently Logunov and Hêciak (1996) transferred  Aelurillus (Phlegra) festivus to a new genus Asianellus. At present the genus Phlegra Simon, 1876 consists  (till 1996) of 55 nominal species distributed in the Palaearctic (37 species), Ethiopian (14 species) and Oriental Regions (4 species). P. fasciata is also reported from Nearctic Region. In 1996 Logunov described two new species of Russia, in 1998 Prószyñski described 11 new species from Israe and 2003 Azarkina. described…… species.


The paper is based on the following collections:

BMNH - British Museum, London - Mr. F.R. Wanless;

HEC - Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford -

Dr. I. Lansbury;

HNHM - Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum Allatara, Budapest - Dr. S. Mahunka;

IZPAN - Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa -Mgr A. Slojewska, Dr W Jedryczkowski;

MCZ - Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge,

Mass., - Dr. H. W. Levi, Dr. W.P. Maddison;

MM - Moravske Museum, Brno - Dr. J. Stehlik;

MNHN - Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Zoologie, Paris - Dr. J. Heurtault;

MZF - Museo Zoologico, Instituto di Zoologia della Universita, Florence - Mrs. S. Mascherini;

NHM - Naturhistorisches Museum, Bazylea - Dr. W. Wittmer;

NHR - Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm - Dr. T. Kronestedt;

SAM - South African Museum, Cape Town - A. J. Hesse;

WSRP - Instytut Biologii WSRP, Siedlce - Dr. M. Zabka

ZIN - Zoologiczeskij Institut, St. Petersburg - Dr. V. Ovcarenko

ZMK - Zoologisk Museum, Kopenhagen - Dr H. Enghoff;

ZMM - Zoological Museum, Moscow University, Moscow - Mr. K. Mikhailov;

ZMU - Zoologisk Museum, Kopenhagen; Zoological Museum of Uppsala

University, Uppsala - Prof. A Holm.

I wish to express my warmest thanks to the curators for their help and co-operation. I also wish to acknowledge the assistance given by my colleagues in Siedlce: K. Andrejewa-Prószynska, J. Prószynski, W. Starêga, W. Weso³owska and M. ¯abka. The research was supported, in part, by a grant from the Research Project 18/91/S sponsored by the Committee for Scientific Research (KBN).


Abbreviations used: AE - width of anterior eyes, AL -length of abdomen, AMED - diameter of anterior median eyes, ALED - diameter of anterior lateral eyes, CH - height of carapace, CL - length of cephalothorax,  CM - maximal width of cephalothorax, CPME -width of cephalothorax PME level, CW - width of carapace, EFL - length of eye field, lu -  P. luteofasciata, EFL - length of eye field, PME - width of posterior eyes.


Methods. The study was carried out using preserved specimens, often much deteriorated, under a stereomicroscope (Zeiss-Jena "Citoval") with an effective magnification up to about 200 times. Drawings were made using grid system. The internal structure of the epigyne was studied using routine methods described elsewhere (e.g. Prószyñski 1968). Measurements were taken following method used by Prószynski (1968), together with a few additional measurements.


Taxonomic characteristic of species.

Cephalothorax long, flattened and low. In male of P. nitidiventris there is a triangular protuberance on thorax. Eye field usually dark, often black, with metallic gleam, about 1/3rd length of cephalothorax. Width of anterior eyes usually equal to width of posterior eyes. Maximal width of cephalothorax is 20% larger than width of anterior eyes, at posterior eyes bigger by 10%. Height of clypeus about equal to ALE diameter. Leg formula: IV, III, I, II, with exceptions of P. nuda and P. peninsulana: IV, I, III, II. Leg percentage coefficient according to Prószynski (1993) gives percentage values of legs lengths on the basis of the first legs (minimum-medium-maximum). Length of legs proportions are as follows:

Leg           I                 II              III                       IV

Male       100%           92%     90-110-135%     122-145-183%

Female    100%           95%   100-118-174%     140-161-189%.

Colour pattern consists of light and darker longitudinal stripes on cephalothorax and abdomen, in a few species replaced by rows of spots, chevrons or leafy pattern. In males of P. nitidiventris majority of abdomen is covered by black, light reflecting scutum; hardened abdominal integument of other species sometimes resembles „scutum”. Body is usually covered with addressed or protruding setae, sometimes giving „hairy” appearance. Colour of setae surrounding anterior eyes is the significant diagnostic character. Clypeus covered usually with setae, sometimes longer and contrasting coloured, in some species they form dense fur, some of these setae may overhung cheliceral bases as a kind of "beard". Contrasting setae on pedipalps are the useful diagnostic characters, spines on metatarsus and tibia I make two or three pairs (2x2 or 3x2), some of them may be doubled. Chelicerae have always one retrolateral tooth and two prolateral ones. Labium and maxillary plates as in other Salticidae.

Male palpal organ has two tibial apophyses (fig. 1d, e), the ventral and dorsal one (figs. 1d, e). Embolus may be thin, hair-like, or may have semitransparent, membranous structure (fig 1b). Copulatory canal is of variable length and runs laterally anteriorwards, rarely medially, joining sclerotized chambers of spermathecae. Accessory glands are long and thin, arise from the first chamber of spermathecae or from the junction area of canal and spermatheca, rarely from the canal itself. It ends by minute perforation in the integument of epigyne depression near copulatory opening. Shape and location of the canal of accessory gland  (or pore) is a good diagnostic character.

Diagnosis of the genus Phlegra

Body elongated, eye field shorter than thorax, legs delicate, the IVth pair being the longest. Tarsi I-II with scopula. Body fawn to dark, with colour pattern or without it. Two tibial apophyses, embolus hair-like or with membranous structure. Copulatory openings located medially or posteriorly on epigyne, often followed by sclerotized rims and separated by sclerotized septum. Copulatory ducts long, funnel-like, or sack shaped. The accessory glands with long or of medium length canal. European species live on the ground, in dry sunny places.

Type species: Attus fasciatus Hahn, 1826.