[Title Page] [List of Genera] Comparison of Drawings] [Regional Keys to Genera] [Descriptions of New Taxa] [Geographical Distribution] [Color Photographs] [See also Catalogue of Salticidae: Phidippus]
Salticidae: Diagnostic Drawings Library Supplement
by Jerzy Proszynski 2001

Keys for Identification of Salticidae


KEY TO PHIDIPPUS
Peckham & Peckham, 1909

Revision of the Attidae of North America. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, XVI, 1, 5.

(ATTENTION:
THE SPECIES BELOW CAN BE RECOGNIZED FIRST OF ALL BY THEIR COLORATION, INVISIBLE ON BLACK AND WHITE DRAWINGS,
USE OF THIS KEY IS ADVISED PROVISIONALLY, UNTIL COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS TO ALL PHIDIPPUS SPECIES BECOME AVAILABLE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- J. PROSZYNSKI)


MALES
1. Abdomen RED or marked with RED 2
- Abdomen BLACK, marked with WHITE or covered, above, with SILVERY hairs....... 16
- Abdomen BROWN, GRAY, YELLOW or spotted ................ 19
2. Cephalothorax RED above (cardinalis, Whitmanii, ardens, McCookii) ..... 3
- Cephalothorax black with inconspicuous BLACK, BROWN or GRAY HAIRS (clarus, coloradensis, insolens, californicus, Johnsonii, ardens, formosus, brunneus) ............. 6
- Cephalothorax BLACK and WHITE (Tyrrellii, insignarius) ..... 14
- Cephalothorax RED and WHITE (coccineus, femoratus) ..... 15
3. Abdomen RED, WITHOUT black BANDS ...................... 4
- Abdomen RED WITH two black BANDS ........ McCookii (in part)
4. Cephalothorax ALL RED above; abdomen WITHOUT white spots; fringe on first leg BROWN or BLACK and WHITE; no white band on palpus .. 5
- Cephalothorax with bare BLACK region over front eyes: abdomen sometimes having a pair of WHITE SPOTS at end; fringe on first leg ALL WHITE; palpus with WHITE BAND above. A northern species ............... Whitmanii
5. First leg fringed with BLACK AND WHITE; abdomen without basal band. A southern and western species .... cardinalis
-First leg fringed with BROWN; abdomen with indistinct LIGHT basal band .. McCookii (in part)
6. Abdomen RED, or red BANDED WITH BLACK ................ 7
- Abdomen BLACK SPOTTED with RED ........... insolens (in part)
7. Abdomen banded with BLACK ............................ 8
- Abdomen UNIFORM RED .................................. 11
8. Abdomen with one BLACK BAND; outer corner of maxilla with hooked apophysis ..... 10
- Abdomen with TWO BLACK BANDS ........................ 9 9. Palpus all BLACK; outer corner of maxilla with hooked apophysis .............. ardens (in part)
- Palpus WHITE above; outer corner of maxilla with short point ........................ californicus
10. First leg longer than second by only tarsus and metatarsus; fringe on first leg not very heavy .......... clarus
- First leg longer than second by tarsus, metatarsus and part of tibia; fringe on first leg heavy and conspicuous coloradensis
11. Palpus with WHITE hairs above .......................... 12
- Palpus WITHOUT white hairs above ...................... 13
12. Distal end of femur of first leg with bunch of WHITE HAIRS below .............. insolens (in part) and brunneus
(If found in the north the spider is, almost certainly, brunneus, if in the south, insolens. These two species may be distinguished from each other by the palpi).
- nO DISTINCT BUNCH of white hairs below femur of first I leg ...... Johnsonii
13. Cephalothorax with BROWNISH HAIRS over a black ground; abdomen with scattered WHITE HAIRS, especially behind; no white hairs above femur of first leg .......... ardens (in part)
- Cephalothorax with BLACK HAIRS over a black ground; abdomen with scattered BLACK HAIRS; femur of first leg with WHITE HAIRS above ........................... formosus
14. Abdomen RED marked with BLACK and WHITE; first leg fringed with white insignarius
- Abdomen RED marked with WHITE only; first leg fringed with BLACK AND WHITE ..... Tyrrellii
15. Cephalothorax with WHITE BAND over front eyes and white side bands beginning at lateral eyes of first row; palpus with WHITE BAND on femur only; falces dark, with streaks of white hairs; femur of first leg with iridescent plate beneath ........................ femoratus
- Cephalothorax with NO WHITE BAND over front eyes and with white side bands running back from dorsal eyes; palpus with white band throughout length; falces bare, blue; no plate under femur of first leg...... coccineus
16. Cephalothorax DARK with a WHITE SPOT between dorsal eyes, a white bar on each side of head between eyes of second and third rows, and ridges of rusty hairs on cephalic plate. Femur of first leg with crest of hairs above and enlarged plate below ...... Putnamii (in part)
- Whole body BLACK, upper surface of cephalothorax and abdomen covered with SILVERY HAIRS opifex
- Cephalothorax black sometimes banded with white; abdomen BLACK with TRIPUNCTATE WHITE markings ...... 17
17. Cephalothorax banded with WHITE ....................... 18
- Cephalothorax ALL BLACK ................................ audax
18. Cephalothorax with wide white bands beginning at dorsal eyes and covering posterior sides ............... variegatus
- Cephalothorax with transverse scalloped white band behind dorsal eyes, on thorax ......... Howardii
19. Sides of head enlarged to form TUBERCLES; first leg heavily fringed with YELLOW HAIRS and ornamented, on upper side of femur, by a long PENCIL OF STIFF DARK HAIRS ......................................... arizonensis
- No tubercles nor yellow fringes ........................ 20
20. Small YELLOW spiders (6-7 mm.) with two dark bands dotted with white on abdomen (this species looks like faded specimens of McCookii but the palpus has the tube longer and narrower and there is no rugose part at the end of the bulb) ....... pius
- Body NOT YELLOW ........................................ 21
21. Fringe on first leg ALL BROWN, found on upper side of femur and below femur patella and tibia .......... octopunctatus
- Fringe on first leg NOT ALL brown ........................ 22
22. Cephalic plate with ridges of RUSTY RED hairs ............ 23
- Cephalic plate without ridges of hairs ................... 24
23. Cephalothorax DARK SPOTTED WITH WHITE; falces with long white hairs covering front faces; femur of first leg with crest of hairs above and enlarged plate below ..... Putnamii (in part)
- Cephalothorax with uniform covering of WHITE HAIRS; falces with white hairs cut squarely off halfway down; femur of first leg with a bunch of hairs at distal end above and a heavy fringe below .............. carolinensis
24. Cephalothorax with uniform covering of GRAY HAIRS ...... purpuratus
- Cephalothorax dark with wide white bands on sides .... otiosus

FEMALES
1f. Abdomen RED or marked with red ( Cambridge figures arizonensis bright red, but we have classed it with the yellow spiders because he describes it as yellow.) ............ 2
- Abdomen BLACK marked with white ...................... 18
- Abdomen BROWN, GRAY, YELLOW OR SPOTTED ................ 21
2f. Cephalic plate with two black patches between which the color is ORANGE OR RED; abdomen with SEVEN SPOTS RED, edged with black. A large hairy species from Florida and Texas ................................ miniatus
- Marking unlike that of mineatus ........................ 3
3f. Cephalothorax RED above (clarus, cardinalis, McCookii, insolens, ardens, Whitmanii, coccineus, femoratus ) ..... 4
- Cephalothorax BLACK or dark covered with inconspicuous brown, black or gray hairs (formosus, Johnsonii, coloradensis, ardens ) ... 13
- Cephalothorax DARK with WHITE hairs or bands on sides.... 16
4f. Abdomen marked with BLACK ............................ 6
- Abdomen all RED or red marked with white .............. 9
5f. Abdomen with TWO BLACK bands 6
- Abdomen with ONE BLACK band 8
6f. Abdomen with LIGHT basal band ....................... 7
- Abdomen WITHOUT light basal hand. A southern and western species .......................... cardinalis (in part)
7f. Abdomen with indistinct light basal band; black bands on abdomen going only halfway forward. New England, Pennsylvania, Missouri ....... McCookii (in part)
-Abdomen with DISTINCT WHITE basal band; black bands on abdomen going nearly to base. From all parts of United States ..................................... clarus
8f. Sides of cephalothorax black; abdominal black band reaching just in front of middle, without central whitespot. Middle and southern states .... insolens insolens (in part)
-Sides of cephalothorax covered with white hairs; abdominal black band reaching to near the base, and having a central white spot ........................ coccineus
9f. Abdomen ALL RED ....................................... 10
- Abdomen RED with WHITE SPOTS. California, New Mexico femoratus
10f. Cephalic plate ALL RED .................................. 11
- Cephalic plate with bare black region back of first row of eyes. New England, Virginia, Wisconsin ...... Whitmanii
11f. Abdomen with LIGHT BASAL BAND ........................ 12
- nO BASAL BAND on abdomen ................ cardinalis (in part)
12f. Sides of cephalothorax covered with YELLOWISH-RED hairs McCookii (in part)
- Sides of cephalothorax BLACK .............. insolens (in part) (Both McCookii and insolens sometimes turn yellow if kept for a time in alcohol.)
13f. Cephalothorax black with BLACK HAIRS. Iowa, Kansas, California ..... formosus
- Cephalothorax dark, covered with INCONSPICUOUS BROWN OR GRAY hairs 14
14f. Abdomen RED, with BLACK BAND notched on edges with white or red .... 15
- Abdomen red, with black band marked by CENTRAL WHITE SPOT in front; or abdomen black, spotted with white, and having an irregular red patch on each side; or abdomen black with bands and spots which are white in the upper and red in the lower part. ..... Johnsonii (in part)
15f. Fourth leg about as long as whole body .......... coloradensis
- Fourth leg only 3/4th as long as body .................... ardens
16f. Abdomen with central BLACK BAND; no square light spot on cephalothorax 17
- Abdomen with central WHITE BAND; cephalothorax with square light spot between dorsal eyes. New Mexico ..... comatus (in part)
17f. Sides of cephalothorax with white bands throughout length; abdomen with central black region which encloses, on the front of the dorsum, a LARGE RED SPOT sometimes broken into three smaller spots. Eastern and southern states and Kansas ............... insignarius
- - Sides of cephalothorax covered with white hairs; abdomen with dark central band not quite reaching base. Mexico and probably Idaho and Canada ...... montivagus (probably Tyrrellii)
- Sides of cephalothorax with white bands behind dorsal eyes; abdomen with dark central band not reaching base. Florida .............................. pulcherrimus (no drawing available) (pulcherrimus has no basal nor side bands on abdomen. These marks are seen, more or less distinctly, on closely allied species).
18f. Cephalothorax dark, DISTINCTLY MARKED WITH WHITE. Large spider, 11-16 mm. ....... 19
- Cephalothorax NOT DISTINCTLY MARKED with white. Size usually about 9 mm ...... 20
19f. Cephalothorax black with wide white bands on the sides of the thoracic part. Southern states .......... variegatus
- Cephalothorax dark brown or black with white hairs on the sides and a WHITE CRESCENT between the dorsal eyes. Texas ................................. Rauterbergii
20f. Cephalothorax ALL BLACK; abdomen black with tripunctate white marking and the ordinary white basal and side bands.Eastern, southern and middle states ........ audax
- Cephalothorax BROWN; abdomen black with tripunctate white marking and a scalloped white band which nearly encircles it. Texas ....................... farneus
21f. Spiders YELLOW or marked with yellow ................... 22
- Spiders GRAY, BROWN OR SPOTTED ......................... 25
22f. Legs heavily fringed with yellow; abdomen banded with yellow and having a central yellow spot; cephalothorax with wide yellow bands on sides. Arizona, Texas, California, Mexico ............................... arizonensis
- Whole spider YELLOW, abdomen marked only by two dark bands dotted with white on posterior hhalf. Kansas ....... pius
- - Abdomen marked with white or with yellow and white ... 23
23f. Abdomen BLACK, marked with white and yellow .......... 24
- Abdomen NOT BLACK, marked with white .............. [ obscurus
(Obscurus is difficult to place, since no perfect specimens are known, but the ground color is probably yellow, the pattern being in white and consisting of the ordinary basal band, triangle and spots. The venter Is yellow with two converging lines of spots which are light colored with dark edges. The size is 13 mm. and It is found in Georgia and Texas).
24f. Abdomen YELLOW in front, without central spot, but marked I with four pairs of white spots or bars. Arizona.... basalis
- Abdomen BLACK except for two irregular yellow patches notched with white on their inner edges, on posterior sides. Sisson, Cal............... Johnsonii (in part)
25f. Spider ALL GRAY, abdomen sometimes with one or two pairs of white dots. Size 15 mm. California, New Mexico, Colorado ..................................... opifex
- Spider ALL BROWN; abdomen sometimes showing two indistinct dark longitudinal bands arked with white dots. Size 9.5 mm. Massachusetts, New York ......... brunneus
- Abdomen more or less spotted or banded ..................26
- Abdomen with a WHITISH BASAL band and a single pair of white spots. Size 8 mm. Pennsylvania ........... princeps
- Abdomen with numerous spots and bands .............. 27
27f. A wide WHITE BAND crossing clypeus and covering upper sides of cephalothorax, edged below, on sides, with dark brown, the lower sides being covered with tawny hairs; upper surface of cephalothorax white and brown. Texas ................................. pruinosus
- Cephalothorax DARK with light bands or spots .......... 28
- Cephalothorax GRAY OR WHITE ............................ 29
28f. Cephalic plate WITHOUT WHITE spot; cephalothorax nearly ENCIRCLED by a WHITE band which crosses the clypeus; first leg heavily fringed. Size 10-15 mm. Southern states ...... otiosus
- Cephalic plate WITH A WHITE spot; cephalic part encircled by a white band, which passes around clypeus and crosses behind dorsal eyes. Size 12-14 mm. Habitat unknown ...... Workmanii
- A large light spot between dorsal syes; sides of cephalothorax covered with white hairs. Size 10 mm. New Mexico ........ .............. ........ comatus (in part)
(Comatus is properly classed with the red spiders, but since we have one example which has lost this color, through fading, we take it out under the second heading as well.)
29f. Cephalothorax gray WITH TRANSVERSE row of three white spots on cephalic plate. Texas, North Carolina .... mystaceus
- Cephalic plate WITHOUT TRANSVERSE row of white spots. Sides of cephalothorax without white bands ......... 30
30f. Cephalothorax covered with SNOWY WHITE HAIRS except for a band of reddish hairs between the eyes of the second row; abdomen light gray with white spots and bands outlined in black; falces with a band of white hairs above. North Carolina, Texas, Kansas ....... carolinensis
- Cephalothorax GRAY; abdomen with metallic band and four PAIRS WHITE SPOTS. Western, southern and eastern states, common in New England ............... purpuratus
- Cephalothorax covered with whitish hairs, more or less TINGED WITH YELLOW; abdomen with CENTRAL WHITE BAND, forked behind. Texas, Kansas ................... texanus

Copyright © for the page by J. Proszynski, 2001.