COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS: assimilis by Jackson] [ bakeri by Jackson] [ plataleoides by Jackson][and by J. Koh][ formicaria Barbara Knoflach][japonica][maxillosa] [melanotarsa][3 sp. from Malaysia] [brasiliensis] [sumana] [sp. - from Amazon] [cf. chickeringi][cf. chickeringi 2][sp. Amazon tgef02] [sp. from India: Kerala]
DRAWINGS - ENTRY TO GROUPS: [ electrica GROUP ] formicaria GROUP] [ tristis GROUP ] [ volatilis GROUP] [ENTRY TO THE GENUS: Emertonius ][Relations and definition]
SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES
[ brasiliensis] [ centralis ] [ chickeringi ] [ galianoae] [ guaranitica ] [ mocamboensis] [ panamensis ] [ parallela ] [ penicillata ] [ sumana]
SPECIES NON-ALIGNED OR BELONGING TO SMALL GROUPS
[ augusta ] [ nubilis ] [ mahasoa ] [ eumenes ] [ andringitra ] [ electrica ] [Emertonius eugenei ] [ peckhami ] [ simplexella] [ ransoni ] [ diegoensis ]
[albosetosa] [ andrewi ] [ andringitra ] [ annamita] [ assimilis ] [ augusta ][aureonigra] [ bakeri ] [ bamakoi ] [ bengalensis ] [ bicolor ] [ bidentata - TYPE ] [ bidentata - specimen of Barrion][biseratensis] [ calcuttaensis ] [ caliraya ] [ chapmani ] [ cognata ] [ collarti ] [ confusus ] [ constricta ][cornuta][cowanii ] [cuneata]
[ daitarensis] [ diegoensis ] [ dilatata ] [ dubia ] [ dundoensis ]
[ edentata ] [ edentula ][ edwardsi ] [ eidmanni ] [ electrica ] [ elongata ] [ eugenei] [ eumenes ][ exasperans][exasperans - type] [ erythrocephala ] [ evidens ]
[ foenisex ] [ M foreli ] [ formicaria ] [ formicaria by Logunov ] [ formicaria by Zabka ] [galianoae][gedongensis][gigantea][giltayi ] [ gisti: Song et al.] [ globosa by Zabka ] [ globosa by Wanless] [grossa] [guaranitica ][ hanoii] [ hesperia ][hirsutipalpi] [hispidacoxa] [ ichneumon ][imbellis][incerta] [ inermichelis ] [ inflatipalpis ] [ insulana ] [ iridescens] [ isolata ] [ jajpurensis = plataleoides] [ japonica] [ kiboschensis] [ kiboschensis by Wanless ] [ kilifi ] [ kitale ] [ kuwagata]
[ laurentina ] [ lawrencei ] [ legon] [ legon by Wanless ] [ leleupi ] [ lesserti ][ linguiensis ] [ longiventris ] [ luachimo ] [ luctuosa ] [ lugubris ] [ lulengana ] [ lulengensis ] [ lupata ]
[ mahasoa ] [malayana] [ maratha] [ markaha ] [ marshalli ] [ marshalli- Scanning Microphotographs ] [ maxillosa ] [ maxillosa septemdentata ] [ mcgregori ][melanotarsa - social][ militaris ] [ mussungue ][myrmicaeformis]
[ naro ] [ natalica ][nemorensis][nigella] [ nigeriensis ] [ nubilis ] [ onceana ] [ opaca ] orientalis [paivae][ palladia ][parallela] [ peckhami][penicillata] [ piercei ] [ pinakapalea ] [ pinoysorum ] [ pisarskii ] [ plataleoides][platypalpus] [ poonaensis ] [providens]
[ ramosa - coll. Edmunds ] [ ransoni ] [ richardsi ] [ rufisquei ][robusta] [ M russellsmithi ][schenkeli] [ seriatis ] [ simoni ] [ simonis no drawing yet] [ simplexella] [ solitaria ][spissa] [ striatipes ][sumana] [ M sp. from Australia Davies et Zabka, 1989 ]
[ tagalica ] [ thai] [ topali] [ tristis from Israel ] [ tristis from Saudi Arabia ] [ tristis by Wanless ] [ turriformis - coll. Edmunds]
[ M uelensis ][uniseriata] [ uvira ] [ M vanessae ] [ vehemens no drawing yet] [ volatilis by Zabka ] [ volatilis by Wanless ] [ vulgarisa ] [wanlessi]
Species not described
[ species 1+2] [ sp. uncertain Palau] [ sp. 5 from Bali] [ sp. 12 from Bali ] [ sp. 13 from Bali ]
From peninsula Malaya by M. Edmunds and J. Proszynski (in prep) NOT DESCRIBED
[ SP-20 ] [ SP-22 ] [ SP-BD ] [ SP-DP ]
Indian descriptions (doubtful)
[ himalayensis] [ incerta] [ ludhianensis ] [ manducator ] [ paivae] [ platypalpus ] [ ramunni] [ satarensis ] [ uniseriata] .
Diagnoses of genera of South East Asia: 51.3 Ant mimics, coloured black, brown or amber. Found on shrubs, on plants and in leaf litter. General remarks: Most, and the best, ant mimicking salticids do not prey on ants but appear to gain protection by living close to ants. These spiders are more or less coloured black, brown or amber depending on the colour of the ants they are mimicking. When running with ants, it is the movements that the spider has to make in order to avoid and keep the ants at an acceptably safe distance that signals the presence of the spider. Other, but not nearly so good, ant mimicking spiders actually prey on ants. It is fascinating and rewarding to watch one of these salticids stalking and killing an ant. Another useful clue to the presence of ant mimicking salticids is when an observer sees what appears to be an ant emerging from a silken cell!
Genus: Myrmarachne . See also Koh, pp. 127-132. Myrmarachne,
with nearly 80 [in SE Asia, actually 211 worldwide]
described species (and more to come), is by far the largest salticid genus
in our area. They are good ant mimics. Typically the cephalothorax is about
twice as long as wide with the cephalus raised and squarish. The join of the
cephalus to the lower and narrower thorax produces a characteristic waist.
The abdomen is often about as long as the cephalothorax and can be oval or
long and thin, often with a noticeable waist. On Myrmarachne the pedicel
is visible from above and on some species can be quite long and narrow. The
overall colour varies from black, brown, yellow or even a mixture depending
on the ant being mimicked. There are are often white hairs in the waists of
both cephalothorax and abdomen. Professor Edmunds observed one African species
of Myrmarachne whose pattern when immature mimicked one species of
ant and when mature had a modified pattern which mimicked a different species
of ant. The legs of Myrmarachne are long and thin, often light-coloured,
with some segments of parts of segments coloured much as the body. Characteristic
of Myrmarachne are the thick, long, parallel, forward projecting chelicerae
of the male which can vary from about half to nearly as long as the carapace.
The top of the chelicera is flat, has a keeled exterior edge and often has
a formidable row of similar and equispaced teeth on the interior margin. The
fangs are about as long as the chelicerae and are hooked at the tip.
Distribution: The main region for Myrmarachne is the tropical belt from Africa to Australia, but several species also occur in the warmer parts of the Old World and in the tropics and warmer parts of the New World. Murphy & Murphy 2000: 304. By courtesy of the Authors' and the Malaysian Nature Society.
See also Relations and definition.
Copyright © for the page by J. Proszynski, 2003.