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[See: Hypotheses on evolution of geographic distribution in Salticidae]

Salticidae: Diagnostic Drawings Library Supplement

by Jerzy Proszynski 2003

 Division on subfamilies
by: Proszynski J. 1976 and Maddison W.P., Hedin M.C. 2003b
Historical division by genital organs, accepted or proposed 
by Proszynski 1976. Two additional subfamilies proposed in  
2003:   Agorinae and Myrmarachninae

(former subfamily classification  from Bonnet 1959: 5052-5054)
Reclassification proposed by W.P. Maddison and 
M. C. Hedin 2003 - by gene cladistic analysis
 See also tree    
I - informal taxa obove subfamily level
Proposed subfamilies Include genera I
Subfamilies
Include genera
 Aelurillinae  Sim., 1901
(sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Aelurillus Sim. 1884 (Pelleninae)
Langona Sim., 1901 (Thyeninae)           
Menemerus Sim., 1901(Salticinae)          
Thianella Schkl., 1963 (-)           
Yllenus  Simon, 1868 (Sitticinae)           
  Aelurillinae
Phlegra + other Old World genera
     
Freinae - 
informal group
Chira
Freya
Frigga
 Kalcerrytus
Nycerella 
Pachomius. 
Sitticinae Simon, 1901 (sensu Proszynski, 1976)

Neon Simon, 1876

Sitticus Simon, 1901

A
m
y
c
o
i
d
a
Amycinae
(proposed here)
sampled genera included: 
cf. Agelista
Ailutticus
Amycus+Noegus+Hypaeus+Mago+Encolpius
cf. Arachnomura
Cylistella
cf. Cyllodania
Hurius
Jollas+Sitticus
Sarinda
Scopocira
Synemosyna
Thiodina
Zuniga
Dendryphantinae 
Menge, 1879
(sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Cheliferoides F.P - Cambr., 1901
Dendryphantes C.L.Koch,1837
Eris C. L. Koch, 1846
Paradamoetas Peck., Peck., 1885
Phidippus C. L. Koch, 1846
Rhetenor Sim., 1902 (Zygoballinae)
Sassacus Peckham, 1895
Thiodina Sim., 1900 (Thiodinae)
Wala Keyserling, 1884
M
a
r
p
i
s
s
o
i
d
a
Dendryphantinae
                          sampled genera included:
Beata,          
Bellota, 
Eris. 
Mabellina. 
Pelegrina, 
Phanias, 
Phidippus, 
Rudra, 
Terralonus.          
Zygoballus        
                                       in the Old World: 
Dendryphantes, 
Macaroeris  
Rhene 
Marpissinae Sim., 1901
 (sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Marpissa C. L. Koch, 1848 
(Salticinae)
Marpissinae 
sampled genera included: 
Maevia,          
Marpissa, 
Metacyrba, 
Platycryptus, 
Psecas
presumed to be marpissines 
Balmaceda, 
Breda
Fuentes
Mendoza
Paramaevia
Parkella
sister taxon of unspecified rank
Peckhamia (and presumably, the similar
 Synageles.
 Descanso and 
Cheliferoides), the beetle-like 
Attidops (and presumably, the similar 
Admestina) and the elongate        
Itata
sister taxon of unspecified rank
Pachyballus
Mantisatta
'probably  other Old World genera such as: 
Ballus
Marengo 
Euophryinae  Sim., 1901
(sensu Proszynski, 1976)

Admestina Peckh.,Peckh., 1888 (Dendryph.)
Agobardus Keys., 1884 ( Zygoballinae)
Chalcoscirtus Bertkau, 1880 ( Sitticinae)
 Corythalia C. L. Koch, 1851 ( Plexippinae) 
Euophrys C. L. Koch, 1834 ( Heliophan.)
Habrocestum Sim., 1876 (Pelleninae)
Laufeia Sim., 1889 (Cytaeinae)
Marchena Peckh., Peckh., 1888 (Itatinae)
Neonella Gertsch, 1936 ( Sitticinae)
Saitis Sim., 1876 (Plexippinae)
 Stoidis Simon, 1901 (Plexippinae)
Talavera Peckham, 1901 (Dendr.)
Thiania C. L. Koch. 1846 (Itatinae)
  Euophryinae 
 75 genera :
A) sampled genera included:
 Chalcotropis, 
Corythalia, '
Euophrys
Lagnus
 Lepidemathis,        
Mexigonus
Naphrys
Thiania 
cf. Thorelliola
B) other genera:
Anasaitis.Ascyllus, Athamas, Bathippus, Canama, 
Chalcoscirtus, Chapoda, Cohanus, Cytaea, Euophrys, 
Euryattus, Hypoblemum, Jotus, Lagnus, Maeota, Maratus, 
Omoedus, Pensacola, Pseudeuophrys, Pystira, Saitis,
Servaea, Sidusa, Siloca, Spilargis, Talavera and Zenodorus.
Heliophaninae 
Petrunk.,1928 
(sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Carrhotus Thorell. 1891 / Hyllinae / 
Chrysllla Thorell, 1887 
Dexippus Thorell, 1891 / Saltlclnae /
Helicius Proszynskl. 1977 / gen. n. '/
 Heliophanus C. L. Koch, 1833 ' 
Icius Simon, 1876 / Dendryphantinae / 
Pseudicius Sim., 1885 (Dendr.) /
 Siler Simon, 1889. 
Silerella Str.in B.et Str., 1906 (Cytaeinae)
  Heliophaninae
sampled genera: 
 Menemerus
Phintella + v. many in the Old World
                         New World genera:
Helvetia
Marchena
Theriella
Yepoella
Hyllinae Simon, 1901
(sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Hyllus C. L. Koch. 1846 
Philaeus Thorell, 1869
     
Pelleninae Petrun., 1928
 (sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Bianor Peckham, 1885(Dendr.)
 Evarcha Simon, 1903 (Hyllinae)
 Habronattus F. 0. P. - Cambr., 1901
 Hasarius Simon, 1871 (Hasariinae)
 Maevia C. L. Koch, 1848 (Maeviinae) 
 Neaetha Simon, 1884 
 Pellenes Simon, 1876
 Yaginumaella Proszynski, 1977

 

 

 

 

P
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p
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a




 
sampled genera included:          
Pellenes, 
Habronattus, 
Havaika, 
more distant 
Bianor,
Harmochirus,
Microbianor 
Modunda
Sibianor 
Plexippinae Simon, 1901
  (sensu Proszynski, 1976)
Cyrba Simon, 1876 (Thiodininae)
Mogrus Simon, 1882 (Pelleninae)
 Plexippoides Proszynski, 1977 
 Plexippus C. L. Koch, 1846 
Viciria Thorell. 1877 (Hyllinae)
Thyene Simon, 1885 (Thyeninae)      
Plexippinae
sampled genera included: 
Epeus
Evarcha, 
Plexippus
Telamonia 
some other:
Thyene,  Hyllus, some Bianor 
 
Salticinae Blackwall, 1841 
Salticus Latreille, 1804
     
Synemosyninae 
Banks, 1892
 (sensu Proszynski 1971) 
 Bellota Peckham, 1892 / Synagelinae / 
 Leptorchestes Thorell, 1870 / Synagelinae /
 Myrmarachne Mac Leay, 1839 (Myrmar.) 
Peckhamia Simon, 1901 / Peckhaminae /       
 Sarinda Peckham, 1892 
Synageles Simon, 1876 / Synagelinae / 
 Synagelides Str. in B. et Str., 1906 (Synag.)/ 
Synemosyna Hentz,        1846
     
     
Uncertain genera,  
not classified in 1976
 Ballus C. L. Koch. 1851 / Magoninae / 
Boethus Thorell. 1878
Bredana Gertsch, 1936 Davidia Schenkel, 1963 Gertschia Kaston, 1945 Hasarina Schenkel, 1963 Harmochirus Simon, 1885 Modunda Simon, 1901 Metacyrba F. 0. P. - Cambridge, 1901 Paramaevia Barnes, 1958 Phintella Str.in B.et Strand. 1906 Poultonella Peckham, 1909 Pseudoheliophanus Schenkel, 1963
   
Carrhotus
Hasarius
 I would add now (2003) the following subfamilies
     
Agorinae
Agorius
Chalcolecta 1/
Diolenius 1/
Efate 1/
Furculattus 1/
Lystrocteissa 1/ 
Ochilimia 1/
Sobasina 1/2/
Synagelides 
Tarodes 1/
1/Information from PhD thesis by J. Gardzinska
     
Myrmarachninae
Belippo Simon 1909          
Bocus Peckham et Peckham, 1892 
Damoetas 2/  Peckham et Peckham, 1908 
Emertonius          
Ligonipes 2/ Karsch, 1878          
Myrmarachne 2/          Mac Leay, 1839 
Rhombonotus 2/          L. Koch, 1879 
2/ Relationship indicated first by Davies,  Zabka 1987

Salticidae subfamilies omitted by Proszynski 1976 and not studied by Maddison and Hedin, 2003

Lyssomaninae 
Spartaeinae
 
  

Comments  by Maddison and Hedin,  2003,
 on Old World versus New World origin of subfamilies and genera of Salticidae. 

... a deep biogeo-graphical division between the Old World and New World. With the exception of the euophryines, major speciose groups are either restricted, or nearly
 restricted, to one hemisphere or the other. ... almost all neotropical salticid species appear to belong to four groups: amycoids, marpissoids, freyines and euophryines. 
Euophryines are found abundantly in the Old World, but the other three groups are apparently poorly represented. Amycoids, which are so diverse in body forms and 
numerous in genera and species in the neotropics, are represented in the Old World, as far as known, by a single group (Sitticus and Attulus). One of the two major
groups of marpissoids, the marpissines, is represented in the Old World by Marpissa and Mendoza only. ... the dendryphantines, is perhaps the most speciose group 
of salticids in North and Central America and yet is represented in the Old World by a few small clades. If Ballus, Marengo and similar salticids arc marpissoids, then
they may represent the largest marpissoid radiation in the Old World. If Ballus, Marengo and similar salticids arc marpissoids, then they may represent the largest 
marpissoid radiation in the Old World. Freyines are absent in the Old World, unless the aelurillines (including Phlegra) are derived within the freyines.
Conversely, two groups that are diverse in the Old World, the heliophanines and the plexippines, have few species in the New World. There is one Nearctic heliophanine 
species (Marchena minuta) and several neotropical species (in Helvetia, Yepoella and Theriella). Whether these represent a single clade is not known. New World
 plexippines are likely to have been introduced recently - Evarcha as boreal migrants, Plexippux as a cosmotropical salticid ambassador. These are not the only large
 clades far more diverse in one hemisphere than the other. Aelurillines, with many Old World species, have only a single known New World species. 
The spartaeines, ... are restricted to the Old World, although the neotropical Lapsias may belong with them ...).
Difference in species number cannot be used on its own to interpret biogeographical history. The phylogenetic placement of the species matters also. Although we know little about the relationships within each of these clades, it seems likely that the amycoids and marpissoids in the Old World, and the plexippines and heliophanines in the New World, represent a few migration events from groups diversifying in the other hemisphere. This is perhaps clearest for the plexippines as each of the few New World species has many close relatives in the Old World. If indeed each major group diversified primarily in one hemisphere, it would suggest that much of the diversification of salticoids has occurred since continental drift limited communication between the Old World from the New World by the late Mesozoic (Wing and Sues 1992). The factors that explain the occurrence of high diversity on the euophryines within both hemispheres are unclear. Our view of the deep biogeography of salticids will become clarified as additional taxa are sampled. In particular, our sample of Old World taxa is weak. The reader will notice that many of the unassociated genera near the base of the summary tree (Salticus through Myrmarachne) are Old World genera. Placements of these genera were strongly inconsistent from one analysis to the next. By adding Old World species, we would start to find close relatives of these genera, breaking up long phylogenetic branches, which can promote better resolution of other interrelationships (Hillis 1998). . Sources: 1. Bonnet P. 1945-1961. Bibliographia Araneorum. Analyse methodique de toute la litterature araneologique jusqu'en 1939 .Toulouse, 2 T-Z, 1959: : 5052-5054. 2. Maddison W.P., Hedin M.C., 2003b. Jumping spiders phylogeny. Invertebrate Systematics, 17: 529-549. 3. Proszynski J. 1976. Studium systematyczno-zoogeograficzne nad rodzina Salticidae (Aranei) Regionow Palearktycznego i Nearktycznego. Rozprawy Wyzszej Szkoly Pedagogicznej, 6. Siedlce: 1-260, 450 ff., 218 maps.