[Country selection page] ]Lista  Salticidae Polski][Salticidae України ] [Salticidae Европейской России]
 [Salticidae of Israel - checklist]  [Salticidae of Israel - key to genera]
[Türkiye’nin Salticidae Listesi] [Türkiye’nin Salticidae Cinslerine ait TeşhisAnahtarları] [ Fotoğraflar]
[Checklist of Salticidae of Turkey] [Key to genera of Salticidae of Turkey] [ Photographs]

Museum and Institute of Zoology PAN, Warszawa, POLAND

Jerzy Prószyński
2008

 * Turkiye ve komşu ülkelerden bilinen Salticidae (Araneae) türleri *
Salticidae (Araneae) known from Turkey and adjacent countries

 Salticidae (Araneae) of the World web sayfasından bir bölüm 2008
a selection of www pages from  Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 2008
    Salticidae Cinslerine Ait Teşhis Anahtarı
Key to identification of genera of Salticidae 


Ingilizce/Türkçe English/Turkish
Preliminary remarks. Genera of jumping spiders (Salticidae) - are easily recognizable by their general appearance, behavior and environmental 
requirements, which should be memorized. A key could  be used for first acquaintance with a genus, or for solving doubts resulting from rich diversity 
of species. Identification by key characters should be confirmed by comparison of specimens with photographs and good diagnostic drawings. Names 
of genera, listen below, are simultaneously links to characteristic species.   
Salticidae are medium size, or small spiders, recognizable by unique anterior end of body broadly truncated, 
 "face"(anterior surface) with 2 pairs of eyes arranged in a single row (ARE; straight or bent up, or down): large anterior median
(AME), and smaller by half anterior lateral (ALE). Remaining two pairs of eyes (of II and III row) located on dorso-lateral
edges of cephalothorax. Space between eyes is called eye field, takes about half of cephalothorax, is quadrangular or trapezium
 shaped. Body compact, legs short with Ist pair usually longer in males. Move about by jumping, running or creeping; active
 hunters with complex behavior. European genera spun silky retreats and cocoons but not catching webs. Family Salticidae - 1. 

- anterior end of body looking different, body shape and proportions different, behavior different - other families of spiders.

1(0) Body shape resembling ants (an adaptation to hide from predators among ants), abdomen elongated and constricted in the middle, petiolus long, not hidden beneath anterior edge of abdomen - 2 Ant-like
- body not resembling ants – 4

2(1) Medium size spiders - 3
- Very small spider, cephalothorax not constricted, flat and low. MALE bulbus small, pear shaped with a white  membranous
 spot corresponding with inflatable receptacle, embolus located anteriorly and short. FEMALE epigynum  sclerotized, 
smooth, openings located in mid-length, usually somewhat laterally, spermathecae very small  Synageles

3 (2) Eye field  distinctly elevated above thorax, which is constricted. MALES chelicerae enormous, stretching horizontally forwards, embolus making 2 or more loops around the bulbus, small coil of seminal receptacle in anterior half of round bulbus, tibial apophysis very small and hook like bent. FEMALE epigynum with white membranous area located posteriorly, divided medially by internal sclerotized channels, prominently visible through membrane - Myrmarachne

- Eye field and cephalothorax flat, on the same level. MALE embolus broad, about 1/3rd width of bulbus, arising in mid length
of bulbus from its swollen basal part.  FEMALE copulatory openings located anteriorly and separated by median ridge stretching
over anterior half of epigynum, channels are straight and thick walled, like spermathecae - Leptorchestes 

4(1)Shape of male palp organ and epigynum typical for subfamily Euophryinae (see below). Non ant-like, very small 
species, shorter than 4 mm (that size also Sitticus caricis - see at 20, and Heliophanillus) - 5 
- Shape of male palpal organ and epigynum different. Non ant-like, medium size or large species, from 4 to 12 mm long - 7  
5(4) Dark colored, tegument reflecting light: in MALES whole body reflects, abdomen with scutum, seminal receptacle duct 
meandering, embolus coiled atop bulbus, in some species in a form of a thick fleshy process. FEMALES only cephalothorax 
is light reflecting, but abdomen is soft and dark gray; epigynum weakly sclerotized, usually with single white membranous 
"window", more rarely two - oval or round, spermathecae round, or oval, visible as darker spots behind the "window" 
- Chalcoscirtus .

- Tegument not reflecting light, MALE without abdominal scutum 6.

6(5) Usually sexually dimorphous, females are lighter. Abdominal pattern in males with dark chevrons on light background, or entirely dark, sometimes also with a few pairs of small light dots. MALE embolus coiled atop bulbus, seminal receptacle channel meandering forming broad loops. FEMALE epigynum like in Chalcoscirtus - with two membranous "windows", spermathecae globular, ducts very narrow, in distal part sometimes membranous and making small loop. Separation of females uncertain, always require preparation of epigynum Euophrys

 

- Closely related to Euophrys and externally similar, more contrasting pattern. Males differ by embolus larger, making coil around top pit, or inside that pit. Females with spermathecae oval, located behind "windows", or parallel to them, channels broader - Pseudeuophrys

- Spiders very small, resembling Euophrys. MALES with broad bulbus, embolus very small, atop broad fleshy process, makes small coil or just bent, tibial apophysis (RTA) absent. FEMALES epigynum with two white, membranous "windows" spermathecae globular, ducts very thin and small - Talavera

ATTENTION. Species of Chalcoscirtus, Euophrys, Pseudoeuophrys and Talavera have very similar genital organs, typical for subfamily Euophryinae. Identification of females always require mounting cleared and stained preparations on microscopic slides, especially during first identification of EACH species, these should be documented by drawings or digital automontage photographs.

- Palpal organ and epigynum resembling Euophrys; but MALE with fringe of black setae along tibia and metatarsus III; FEMALE abdomen with scattered, small, dark dots, epigynum with windows extending over the whole length of epigynum (two Mediterranean species Saitis barbipes + tauricus) - Saitis

- Small, similar to Euophrys from which differs by genital organs, abdominal pattern  often forms a delicate dark network on light background, connected with thin median chevrons, cephalothorax broad. MALE embolus making short coil on side of bulbus, around with small protuberance covered with spikes. FEMALE epigynum with two grooves (instead of membranous "windows") surrounded by sclerotized dark rims, spermatheca relatively large, consists of two chambers, ducts in some species long and make complicated coils (N. rayi, N. levis), in other short and straight (N. reticulatus) - Neon

7(4) - Palpal organ and epigynum   different from Chalcoscirtus, Euophrys, Pseudoeuophrys, Talavera, Neon - 8

8 (7) Cephalothorax  broad, swollen laterally, coloration dark, often black  - 9 
- Cephalothorax of usual proportions, with sides more or less parallel, color pattern less uniform - 11
- Cephalothorax narrow, with lateral edges almost parallel - 12

 9 (8) Eye field relatively long, takes about half of length of cephalothorax, broadest at eyes III, eyes at edges of dorsal
 surface - 10 
- Eye field distinctly shorter than half of cephalothorax and narrower, cephalothorax high with sloping lateral surfaces, 
usually strikingly swollen beneath eyes III. Colorful spider. MALE palpal organ with  bulbus round and with triangular
 flap-like protuberance, twice encircled by embolus. FEMALE epigynum with white anterior window, narrow and square,
 coiled membranous duct, spermathecae with particularly long duct of "accessory scent gland" - Thyene 
 

10(9) Posterior slope of cephalothorax broad and steep, margin of abdomen extends above posterior  part of thorax, (particularly striking in males), surface of carapace rough, light reflecting, abdomen broader than cephalothorax. Eye field broadening posteriorly and taking longer than half of flat dorsal surface of cephalothorax. MALE embolus making tight, transversal coil atop bulbus, but seminal receptacle duct does  not make loops. FEMALE copulatory openings in anterior median part of pit with surrounding rim unsclerotized, ducts running medially posteriorwards, make coils in the posterior part of the pit - Ballus

- Posterior slope of cephalothorax narrowing, surface of carapace smooth, abdomen  almost black, often with 
pairs of white spots. MALE bulbus round, slightly flattened apically, or transversally oval, with small conical 
protuberance, embolus arising laterally and making small bent. FEMALE anterior half of epigynae white, 
membranous, oval, with prominent sclerotized median pocket Sibianor 

genus almost identical, differs by lack of conical protuberance on bulbus Bianor

11(8) Abdominal    pattern consists of pairs of transverse marginal whitish spots on darker, reddish or greenish 
background. MALE bulbus bag shaped with twin sclerotized processes, short, atop white apical pad. FEMALE
epigynum copulatory openings located anteriorly, often in a distinct semilunar groove, spermathecae posterior,
compact bodies - Dendryphantes  (contain some 46 species, in Europe: D. hastatus lives on young pine trees, D. rudis    on pine crowns).
 

 

- Abdominal pattern consists of pairs of marginal darker spots on whitish background. MALE embolus long, gently bent, arising antero-laterally on anterior part of bulbus. FEMALE copulatory  openings located antero-laterally, but not in a semilunar groove, channels converging posteriorwards, sclerotization of the epigynum less striking - Macaroeris 

12(8) Cephalothorax low and long, legs I strikingly larger than II-IV, particularly in MALES - 13 
- Cephalothorax high, if legs I larger then not so strikingly - 15 
- Profile of cephalothorax very high, body "hairy" - 16 
- Cephalothorax  giving no clear impression of being either high or low, just "average" - 17 

13(12) A row of stridulatory spines on tubercles under eyes lateral and corresponding microspines prolaterally on 
femur I, tibia I swollen medially, with reduced rudimentary spines, or devoid of them, and with several long an thin,
usually bent sensory hairs (trichobothria) - Pseudicius (a few species in Europe, 80 Africa, Asia, Oceania and 
Australia)
   

- Spider without row of stridulatory spines under eyes lateral, tibia not swollen, armored with  normal spines - 14

14(13)  Abdomen particularly long. MALE palpal organ with flattened lateral surface. FEMALE epigynum in a form
 of a smooth plate without sculpture. except single groove,  internal structures with short initial ducts pass into complicated
 knots of long loops (translucent by tegument), without distinct spermathecaeMarpissa

- FEMALE epigynum in a form of a smooth plate, with posterior edge carved into two bays, separated by a median triangular 
"promontory", copulatory openings hidden under posterior edge of epigynum; short ducts run from the sides of triangle
 anteriorwards and turns into knot of short, coiled spermathecae chambers, translucent by tegument as dark spots. 
MALE palps resembles Marpissa - Mendoza 
 - Abdomen elongated, in MALES with red and white stripes, in FEMALES median stripe lighter with darker spots laterally.
MALES legs I longer, bulbus bag shaped, extendes in front of seminal receptacle, tibial apophysis (RTA)  biramous, short. 
FEMALES epigynum with a pair of anterior copulatory openings, copulatory ducts run straight posteriorly, spermathecae 
transversal - Icius hamatus      

- Body long, low, abdomen broad. MALES bulbus divided almost by half, with broad base of embolus; palpal tibia short, broader than cymbium, expanded transversally. FEMALES copulatory openings anterior, ducts straight, spermathecae globular - Menemerus

- Body not as long, proportional – 15

15(12) Cephalothorax usually with longitudinal light and dark strippes along thorax and on abdomen. MALE 
bulbus relatively large oval, embolus hidden dorsally behind tip of bulbus, where makes invisible coil with only tip 
protruding; tibial apophysis (RTA) biramous, with rami separated by grove, "U" or "V" shaped. FEMALE copulatory 
openings posterior, large and prominent, copulatory ducts after short anterior run bent transversally and pass into
posterior convoluted chambers of spermathecae, arranged linearly towards posterior end - Phlegra 

- Similar to Phlegra, but body uniformly dark, without stripes or chevron mark on the eye field. MALE  ventral apophysis narrow and slightly bent laterally, FEMALE epigynum with openings near posterior corners, copulatory channel running straight, then bent, spermathecae  median convoluted chambers - Asianellus

- Cephalothorax  apears higher than in Phlegra, no striped pattern. MALES. In some species whitish, or silver chevron 
mark on the eye field; palpal organ with ventral  tibial apophysis triangular, separated from the dorsal apophysis by 
"V" shape grove. FEMALES: epigynum with two "wings" - sclerotized diagonal edges, spermathecae in a form of complicated 
sclerotized chambersAelurillus 

16(12) Profile of cephalothorax triangular, with eyes III at the top, from which eye field sloping forward,  posterior slope of 
cephalothorax begining right beyond the eye field, tarsi I-II with dense brush of setae - scopulae, retrolateral margin of 
chelicerae and tooth not developped, prolateral one with a thin sclerotized edge ending with a small tooth pointed  forward. 
MALE pedipalpal femur halfcrescent and broad, often with small ventral protuberance, embolus  always folowed by conductor.
FEMALE epigynum highly sclerotized with openings located anteriorly,  median part elevated, triangular posterior rim pushed
inside abdomenYllenus 

- Profile of cephalothorax  rounded, body coloration dull greyish with ill defined lighter spots, palpal organ and internal structure 
of epigynum characteristic Carrhotus 

- FEMALES and immature MALES black, with two long white spots on abdomen, sometimes two regular parallel white lines;
in MALES abdomen red with longitudinal black streak encircled by a thin white margin. FEMALE only external walls of copulatory
openings are sclerotized and form sharp triangle in the anterior part of epigynum, followed by broad ducts running  posteriorwards, 
remaining part of epigynum not sclerotized and covered by long dense setae. MALE Embolus very long, posterior half of bulbus 
makes long narrow protuberance, bent under angle Philaeus  (Very common in Mediteranean, in C Europe on isolated xerothermic 
spots).

- Abdomen ligt with median dark serrated streak, margins and sides dark. MALE - lateral protuberance on bulbus, embolus encircling part of bulbus, tibial apophysis long, set diagonally. FEMALE epigynum oval with bent slits, copulatory ducts membranous, broad, spermathecae small, sclerotized - Mogrus (females make characteristic white retreats and cocoons atop shrubs, several centimeters diameter, males dwelling on ground)

                               -  
  
17(12) Abdomen uniformly colored, with, or without white pattern  - 18  
- Abdomen with  irregular dark lines, or mosaic of dark, brown or grey spots and patches of  various sizes, with or without 
white pattern  19
- Abdomen with broad median light longitudinal streak, posteriorly with a pair of lateral spots and a few chevrons, extended 
anteriorly by light thoracal streak, in some forms reaching eyes I; bulbus expanded laterally with short bent embolus anteriorly;
epigynum sclerotized with posterior median groove; large or medium size spider Plexippus 

-  Striking bright coloration (particularly in MALE): cephalothorax and abdomen anteriorly pink, posteriorly black;
 palpal organ with anterior embolus running around anaterior and lateral edge of bulbus (typical for subfamily Spartaeinae) and long
 articulating tibial apophysis. FEMALE - epigynum characteristic shield with sclerotized edge, globular spermathecae and anterior
 arches of ducts translucent trough the body wall - Cyrba algerina 

18(17)  Abdomen often irridescent: uniformly black blue, violet or green, light reflecting due to colorless scales, in some species 
one or more pairs of small white marginal spots and a semicrescent anterior line, legs often yellow, medium-small spiders. 
MALE pedipalpal femur with large horn like protuberance (single, bifurcated or trifurcated).  FEMALE epigynum with either 
single or two separate sclerotized depression, round or transversally oval, sometimes partially, or entirely surrounded by 
an elevated  rim, copulatory openings usually located laterally or, more rarely posteromarginally, sometimes hidden under rim; ducts 
and spermathecae short and simple Heliophanus

- Color pattern like Heliophanus, but much smaller, abdomen with 3-4 pairs of white spots. MALE palpal organ resembling Icius, 
tibial apophyses (RTA) short,  femur and patella without protuberance. FEMALE epigynum resemblisng Icius - Heliophanillus 

 

- Abdomen dark with pairs of transversal or diagonal white stripes or their rudiments ("zebra spider") but no median line. 
MALE chelicerae overgrown, palpal organ with large and broad apophysis, bag shaped bulbus and short embolus. 
FEMALE  epigynal depression extended by posterior elongate part, sometimes anteriorly hidden under a roof like rim, 
ducts and spermathecae more  complicated than in HeliophanusSalticus   

- Abdomen black with contrasting white line, continuous or interrupted, in some species there are one or two pairs of 
diagonal white lines marginally and thick anterior line; in some species on cephalothorax white spots behind eyes III and 
median white line. MALE bulbus oval with embolus usually bifurcated (details visible only under higher power of a 
stereomicroscope), tibial apophysis supported on some kind of swelling of cymbium (in P. tripunctatus and P. seriatus 
three swellings, apophysis grown into wall of cymbium). FEMALE entire epigynum sclerotized, with median ridge separating 
two semicircular grooves, location of median pocket opening varies from anterior to posterior in various speciesPellenes 

19(17) Abdomen with pairs of dark diagonal lines, usually on darkish or even entirely black background, giving spiders dull 
blackish appearance, sometimes with white marginal  lines on abdomen and sides of cephalothorax. Relatively large spider 
(7 mm) with characteristic genital organs. MALE bulbus large - round, oval or narrowing  posteriorly, embolus relatively broad,
protruding from under anterior prolateral angle of bulbus, apophysis of medium length or longer. FEMALE anterior half of 
epigynum white membranous "window", the posterior half being strongly sclerotized (in some species with postero-lateral 
sclerotized pockets) in E. laetebunda reduced to narrow posterior rim - Evarcha  

-  Resembling Evarcha, large spider. differs by details of genitalia - Hyllus 
-

                                                        
- Abdomen with  mosaic dark, brown or grey spots, chevrons and/or  patches of various sizes, usually with a pair of median
 white spots slightly behind mid-length of abdomen  20  
 - White abdominal spots different than those in Sitticus (see below), genital organs different, cheliceral dentition different - 21
20(19) Very characteristic cheliceral dentition: retrolateral margin of chelicerae not developed, a tooth with several conical 
cusps on prolateral margin. Genital organs of several related types. Abdominal pattern: in a few species no white spots, 
males of some high mountain species have abdomen black, bissected by white longitudinal line [in Europe only alpine Sitticus longipes]

A  FEMALE epigynum with a central pit, copulatory openings are hiden under sclerotized rims, ducts running 
outwards from the pit. MALE bulbus round, ventrally flattened, with embolus arising laterally or basally and making 
either half circle arround bulbus, or encircling it, with characteristic loop of seminal receptacle duct, tibial apophysis
small or largeSitticus floricola(and related species, S. floricola builds white retreats atop water shore vegetation, S. caricis among 
roots of tussocs of grass, S. rupicola under stones on rock)  

B - MALE  bulbus elongate oval or bag shaped, embolus slightly longer than bulbus, arising usually at its latero basal angle, 
small tibial apophysis. FEMALE epigynum  with copulatory openings in a form of spaced diagonal slits in the mid length of 
surface of epigynum, spermathecae form single bend ("C"-like) in the posterior half of epigynum.  - Sitticus - (species related to S. 
  distinguendus)

CMALE tibial apophysis large, bulbus round, embolus long and thin, bending around bulbus. FEMALE copulatory ducts initially broad, semiarching around cental complicated knot (simplified on drawings) of coiled thin posterior parts of ducts – Sitticus terebratus

D - MALE tibial apophysis large, bulbus round, embolus short and thick arising laterally. FEMALE epigynum  in a form of simple
depression, followed posteriorly by two less sclerotized  lobes, spermathecae centrally located, in a form of sclerotized simple 
chambers with reduced ducts - Sitticus pubescens

21. MALE abdomen with a pair of posterior, small white spots, separated by median light streak, anterior rim white; single bicusps retrolateral cheliceral tooth (fissidentate). Pedipalpal tibia long, with long mane of white setae, bulbus split longitudinally, embolus anterior, short. FEMALE abdomen with lighter median streak of fused spots; epigynum in a form of simple depressed plate with indistinct semilunar rims of openings, spermathecae consist of a few sclerotized chambers, arranged in a line perpendicular to plate - often distorted during mounting in a slide - Hasarius adansoni (cosmopolitan species)

 

 

=-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADDITIONS

- MALE - Basis of embolus as broad as bulbus, characteristically bent, embolus short, arising in the midddle of cymbium. FEMALE - epigynum with twosemicircular grooves anteriorly, posterior part of epigynum trianular with characteristic round internal structure -Habrocestoides  (syn. Chinattus)

 
  

- MALE posterior retrolateral angle of cymbium drawn into needle shaped process, touching similarly shaped tibial apophysis (RTA), ventral depression of cymbium broader than bulbus, leaving broad margin retrolaterally. FEMALE epigynal groove median, delimited by lateral sclerotized edges, posteriorly with a pair of small, lateral pockets; spermathecae in a form of sclerotized compact bodies with internal convoluted chambers (in other species there could be coiled sclerotized ducts channels) - Plexippoides (P. gestroi & P. flavescens)

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COMMENT. The species pages enclosed in this work contain almost all diagnostic drawings published
 in the literature to date, reflect different attitudes and opinions. Nothing is final and studied to the end. 
The reader can form his own opinion on particular species and their classification. It is obvious that there is a 
lot to discover: new occurrence, new ecological properties, new behavior, new definitions and new species. The
 reader is encouraged to add his contributions to this branch of science.

Copyrights  © by J. Proszynski. 2008