[Country selection page]  [Checklist of Salticidae of China and adjacent countries]  [Key to Salticidae genera of China] 
[Photographs of Oriental Salticidae] [Photographs of Palaearctic Salticidae]
Museum and i Institute of  Zoology PAN, Warszawa, POLAND

Salticidae of Selected Countries
Checklists and Keys
Jerzy  Prószynski 2008
   Key  to identification of genera of Salticidae (Araneae) known from China
     and adjacent countries (version under construction)

a selection of www pages from Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 2007

Preliminary remarks. Genera of jumping spiders (Salticidae) - are easily recognizable by their general appearance, behavior and environmental requirements, which should be memorized. A key could be used for first acquaintance with a genus, or for solving doubts resulting from rich diversity of species. Identification by key characters should be confirmed by comparison of specimens with photographs and good diagnostic drawings. Names of genera, listen below, are simultaneously links to characteristic species.
0. Salticidae are medium size, or small spiders, recognizable by unique anterior end of body broadly truncated, "face"(anterior surface) with 2 pairs of eyes arranged in a single row (ARE; straight or bent up, or down): large anterior median (AME), and smaller by about half anterior lateral (ALE). In a few genera lateral anterior eyes are located slightly behind and above anterior median eyes, making an additional row. Remaining two pairs of eyes (of II and III row) located on dorso-lateral edges of cephalothorax. Space between eyes - the eye field, takes about half of cephalothorax, is quadrangular or trapezium shaped. Body compact, legs short with Ist pair usually longer in males. Move about by jumping, running or creeping; active hunters with complex behavior. Spun silky retreats and cocoons but majority do not catching webs. Family Salticidae - A

- anterior end of body looking different, body shape and proportions different, behavior different - other families of spiders.

[see B. Palpal organ characters
Synagelides - enormous patella, tibia,      v. small femur
 C. Epigynum characters]
Synagelides - complicated epigynum, 2 spermathecae connected by channel

A. Body shape and color characters

1(0). Lateral anterior eyes are located slightly behind and above anterior median eyes - eyes II are very close anterior lateral ones, making a group of 4 eyes behind anterior median ones (unusual in Salticidae) - Asemonea

) Asemonea tenuipes (SE Asia Asemonea pinangensis (SE Asia)

- Onomastus Onomastus kanoi)

- eyes anterior median arranged in a single row, anterior lateral (ALE) sometimes located slightly more posteriorly but do not form an additional row - 2

3(1) Body shape resembling ants (an adaptation to hide from predators among ants), abdomen elongated and constricted in the middle, petiolus long, not hidden beneath anterior edge of abdomen - 2 Ant-like

- Eye field distinctly elevated above thorax, which is constricted. MALES chelicerae enormous, stretching horizontally forwards, embolus making 2 or more loops around the bulbus, small coil of seminal receptacle in anterior half of round bulbus, tibial apophysis very small and hook like bent. FEMALE epigynum with white membranous area located posteriorly, divided medially by internal sclerotized channels, prominently visible through membrane - Myrmarachne

Myrmarachne bakeri (from Philippines)

Myrmarachne cornuta (from Singapore)

- Very small spider, cephalothorax not constricted, flat and low. MALE bulbus small, pear shaped with a white membranous spot corresponding with inflatable receptacle, embolus located anteriorly and short. FEMALE epigynum sclerotized, smooth, openings located in mid-length, usually somewhat laterally, spermathecae very small – Synageles (for Synageles - see Central Asian mountains and deserts)

Synageles dalmaticus (Mediterranean)

- body not resembling ants – 4
4(1)Shape of  palp organ and epigynum typical for subfamily Euophryinae (see below). Non ant-like, small species, shorter than 4 mm - 5
- Shape of male palpal organ and epigynum different. Non ant-like,    medium size or large species, from 4 to 12 mm long - 7 

5(4) Dark colored, tegument reflecting light: in MALES whole body reflects, abdomen with scutum, seminal receptacle duct meandering, embolus coiled atop bulbus, in some species in a form of a thick fleshy process. FEMALES only cephalothorax is light reflecting, but abdomen is soft and dark gray; epigynum weakly sclerotized, usually with single white membranous "window", more rarely two - oval or round, spermathecae round, or oval, visible as darker spots behind the "window" - Chalcoscirtus

        
Chalcoscirtus infimus and Ch. alpicola (both Palaearctic)

- Tegument not reflecting light, MALE without abdominal scutum – 6.

6(5) Abdominal pattern in males with dark chevrons on light background, or entirely dark, sometimes also with a few pairs of small light dots, in females lighter. MALE embolus coiled atop bulbus, seminal receptacle channel meandering forming broad loops. FEMALE epigynum like in Chalcoscirtus - with two membranous "windows", spermathecae globular, ducts very narrow, in distal part sometimes membranous and making small loop. Separation of females uncertain, always require preparation of epigynum – Euophrys


    Euophrys frontalis (type species, from Europe)
- Closely related to Euophrys and externally similar, more contrasting pattern. Males differ by embolus larger, making coil around top pit, or inside that pit. Females with spermathecae oval, located behind "windows", or parallel to them, channels broader - Pseudeuophrys
          
Pseudeuophrys erratica and                           P. obsoleta (both Palaearctic) 

Pseudeuophrys iwatensis (from Korea, Japan)

- Spiders very small, resembling Euophrys. MALES with broad bulbus, embolus very small, atop broad fleshy process, makes small coil or just bent, tibial apophysis (RTA) absent. FEMALES epigynum with two white, membranous "windows" spermathecae globular, ducts very thin and small - Talavera

 

Talavera aequipes (Europe)

Talavera trivittata (from Korea, Japan)

ATTENTION. Species of Chalcoscirtus, Euophrys and Talavera have very similar genital organs, typical for subfamily Euophryinae. Identification of females always require mounting cleared and stained preparations on microscopic slides, especially during first identification of EACH species, these should be documented by drawings or digital automontage photographs.

- Small, similar to Euophrys from which differs by genital organs, abdominal pattern often forms a delicate dark network on light background, connected with thin median chevrons, cephalothorax broad. MALE embolus making short coil on side of bulbus, around with small protuberance covered with spikes. FEMALE epigynum with two grooves (instead of membranous "windows") surrounded by sclerotized dark rims, spermatheca relatively large, consists of two chambers, ducts in some species long and make complicated coils (N. rayi, N. levis), in other short and straight (N. reticulatus) - Neon

N. reticulatus

7(4) - Palpal organ and epigynum different from Chalcoscirtus, Euophrys, Talavera, Neon - 8

Division by Murphy and Murphy

Division by Murphy
2.    Square headed with long thin, colorful abdomens (found on shrubs and plants)    295-303
4. Colorful    mimics of ?wasps or ?beetles (on schrubs) 311-312.
5. Broad, squat, hairy brownish    salticids with flattish carapace (on shrubs and plants) 312-316.
 6. Dark with    broad, flattish carapace and long front legs (on shrubs and plants) 316-317.   
 7. Long, mottled grey salticids, some flattish (on warm walls, rocks and treetrunks    in the open) 317-321.
 8. Long, green or yellowish (on shrubs and plants) 322-324   
 9. Cryptic, mottled brown or grey, stealthy and not seen to jump (on tree trunks    and mossy rocks in rain forest) 324-329.
 10. Cryptic, mottled brown on or near    webs in shrubs and on walls) 330-332. 
11. Dull brown, stout to large (on shrubs    and plants) 333-338. 12. Dull brown, small to medium (on shrubs and plants)    338-340. 
13. Small, squat, yellowish brown or blackish (at ground level at bases    of planrs and in litter) 340-344. 
14. Smart and/or furry (warm, stony or bare    areas) 344-347.
 15. Light or colorful, sometimes irridescent (shrubs, plants,    especially broad leaved) 347-356.

Square headed with long thin, colorful abdomens (found on shrubs and plants)

Chrysilla. C. lauta, has a male with the characteristic, long thin body and carapace shape of a number of rain forest salticid genera. The carapace is a fairly broad oval, longer than wide, but with a pronounced notch near the pedicel. The cephalus is flat and relatively small, with the long thorax and sides sloping away steadily to the margin. The carapace is covered in dense orange-red hairs. Straight across the front and back of the cephalus between the eyes there is a narrow band of shiny bluish-white, iridescent hairs. There is a narrow band of similar hairs along the margin. Although the chelicerae are robust and diverge, they do not project forward. The abdomen is long, narrow and tubular, rounded anteriorly and tapering very gradually to a bluntish posterior. There is a long scutum which, except near the shoulders and near the spinnerets, entirely covers the dorsal side of the abdomen. It is dark brown in colour and covered with dense, bronze coloured hairs. The legs are long, slender and, except for the ventral spines on the tibiae and metatarsi of leg I, are not particularly spiny. Save for legs I and metatarsi IV which are brown, the remaining segments are uniformly brownish-yellow.

Chrysilla CHRYSILIA LAUTA Chrysilla versicolor (syn. Phintella v.)

Epeus alboguttatus Epeus bicuspidatus Epeus glorius Epeus guangxi Epeus tener

Epeus. This is a colourful salticid associated with broad-leaved plants or shrubs of rain forest and suitable gardens. It is long legged and has a long but not particularly thin abdomen. Characteristic of the the male is a conspicuous v-shaped crest of raised, long hairs on the cephalus (somewhat akin to a punk hair style). The shape of both the cephalothorax and the abdomen are similar to those of Bathippus, except the abdomen of the female Epeus is more oval. For E. glorius the carapace is pale orange in colour with the striking crest of hairs deep orange. The eye pattern is 2,2,2,2 with the rear three pairs having black surrounds with white squamose hairs. The abdomen is uniformly pale yellow. The legs are long, slender and shiny. The two front pairs of legs of the male are brown with yellowish tarsi and the rear two pairs are, overall, a lighter brown. Ventrally on metatarsi I of the male, and to a much lesser extent on metatarsi II, there is a noticeable black fringe. The legs of the female are uniformly pale yellow with the tips of all the tarsi black. There are numerous fairly long, strong spines. Epeus

Epeus flavobilineatus Epeus sp. (male Philippines)

Epeus sp. (from Sumatra)

Telamonia festiva Telamonia luxiensis Telamonia vlijmi

Telamonia. With its somewhat cube-shaped cephalothorax and long, slightly tapering, tubular abdomen, a typical of a number of colourful salticid genera which occur in rain forest. There are nearly twenty species of this genus in our area. The cephalothorax is high, with the cephalus flat, the sides almost vertical and the thorax sloping steeply to the rear margin. In plan, the carapace is longer than wide, oval and moderately widely truncate at the rear. With the anterior lateral eyes just behind the medians, the pattern is more or less 2,2,2,2. The abdomen is long and tubular, rounded at the front and tapering gradually to a bluntish rear. The legs are long, slender and carry numerous thin spines. The front legs of the male are longest and carry noticeable dorsal and ventral fringes on all segments except the tarsi. The colour patterns vary considerably between the sexes and between the species. Typically, the cephalic part of the carapace is usually coloured and there are usually two coloured longitudinal stripes running the length of the abdomen. The overall effect can be very striking. For example, on the female T. dimidiata, the general background colour is light yellowish but the cephalus is covered in very white hairs with bright, widish red rings surrounding the narrow black rings round the eyes. For good measure the two longitudinal stripes on the abdomen are also bright red. Telamonia

<==>

[Telamonia vlijmi (Japan) <=========================>TELAMONIA FESTIVA

TELAMONIA FESTIVA

5. Broad, squat, hairy brownish salticids with flattish carapace (on shrubs and plants) 312-316.

Irura hamatapophysis Irura longiochelicera Irura trigonapophysis Irura yueluensis Irura yunnanensis

Irura - small, squat salticids with broad carapaces such as seen also in Rhene, Simaetha and Ligurra. Characteristic is the shape of the broad, flat thinnish carapace and the swollen front legs which are held curled inwards, just in front. From above, the combination of the carapace and the front legs reminds one strongly of a very small crab. On the sides of the carapace of some species there are dense white hairs that stick out sideways. Medium size or small, found in retreats in the seed heads of plants or between two small leaves close together. Except in their cheliceral dentition, the three genera Ligurra, Simaetha and Stertinius are very close and may well prove to be synonymous.
The carapace is flat, oval, broader than long, widest at the level of the rear eyes and moderately truncated at the rear. The abdomen is a broad oval that tapers very slightly to the rear. Legs I are not particularly long and much more robust than the others and carry quite strong spines, ventrally, on the tibiae and metatarsi. For the female of I. mandarina the carapace is orange-brown and covered with iridescent, grey and orange, squamose hairs, with the eye surrounds grey-brown. The abdomen is yellowish-grey carrying numerous fine, shiny, yellow and orange-brown hairs and a number of characteristic, orange-coloured sigilla. Legs I are orange-brown in colour and covered in fine orange brown hairs. The remaining legs are paler. (Sri Lanka, P. Malaysia and Vietnam).

Irura sp. from Kalimatan

[Irura mandarina

 

Rhene albigera ] [Rhene atrata ] [Rhene biembolusa ] Rhene canariensis Rhene flavigera[ ]Rhene indica ] Rhene ipis ]Rhene plana ]Rhene rubrigera] ]Rhene setipes] [Rhene triapophyses ]

Rhene - small furry salticids with broad, oblong carapaces. often found spun up in retreats in the seed heads of plants. Typically the cephalothorax is fairly thick and flat on top. In plan, the carapace is broader than long and widest at the level of the rear eyes. The flat top is almost trapezoidal in shape, widest just behind the rear eyes and narrowest at the front row of eyes. The sides and most of the thorax are vertical, with the rear margin very wide and truncate. The abdomen is oval, slightly truncate at the front and slightly pointed at the rear. The legs are fairly sturdy with the femora, patellae and tibiae swollen. For the male R. flavigera the underlying colour of both carapace and abdomen is brown becoming darker towards the eyes and towards the spinnerets. Along the top of the front row of eyes and each side of the cephalus there is a band of long, very white hairs. There is also a very narrow band of white hairs along the lateral margins. On the abdomen, starting at the shoulders and proceeding down the sides, there are triangular areas of very white hairs. Nearer to the spinnerets there is a wide belt of similar white hairs. Altogether this gives the male a striking appearance. The female is less well marked and much more furry looking. The top of the carapace is covered in whitish hairs. Save for a brown area near the spinnerets the abdomen is entirely covered with fawn coloured hairs with a few vague, thin, wavy, transverse, white lines. The femora, patellae and tibiae of legs I are brown, with the metatarsi and tarsi yellowish-brown. Legs II are a paler edition of legs I, whilst legs III and IV are yellowish-brown with brown annulations (Africa to Japan, Philippines and Sulawesi, but not to Papua New Guinea and Australia, a few species in Central America and Brazil) - Rhene

RHENE FLAVIGERA

Dendryphantes chuldensis ' Dendryphantes fusconotatus ] Dendryphantes hastatus ]Dendryphantes linzhiensis ] Dendryphantes potanini ] Dendryphantes pseudochuldensis ] Dendryphantes yadongensis ]

11(8) Abdominal    pattern consists of pairs of transverse marginal whitish spots on darker, reddish or greenish 
background. MALE bulbus bag shaped with twin sclerotized processes, short, atop white apical pad. FEMALE
epigynum copulatory openings located anteriorly, often in a distinct semilunar groove, spermathecae posterior,
compact bodies - Dendryphantes  (contain some 46 species, in Europe: D. hastatus lives on young pine trees, D. rudis    on pine crowns).
 

 

- Abdominal pattern consists of pairs of marginal darker spots on whitish background. MALE embolus long, gently bent, arising antero-laterally on anterior part of bulbus. FEMALE copulatory  openings located antero-laterally, but not in a semilunar groove, channels converging posteriorwards, sclerotization of the epigynum less striking - Macaroeris 

 

Zeuxippus pallidus ] Zeuxippus yunnanensis

Zeuxippus - The cephalothorax is moderately thick, flat on top with the thorax and the sides very steep. In plan the carapace is a broad oval, widest at the level of the rear eyes and is about as long as wide. The rear margin is somewhat truncate. The abdomen is elongate oval, widest in the front half, and more slender than that of Rhene. Legs I are thick compared with the others and carry some short spines. For the male of Z. pallidus, the carapace is orange-brown and hairy. The hairs on the sides are greyish-white, long and stick out sideways. The abdomen is greyish orange-brown with orange sigilla and light transverse streaks posteriorly. Legs I are very hairy with long greyish-white and orange brown hairs. The other legs are yellow-orange, browner laterally and near the joints. The female is lighter in general and has greyish streaks on the sides of the abdomen. ( The three species of Zeuxippus are known from India, Myanmar, Vietnam and China) - Zeuxippus

ZEUXIPPUS HISTRIO

Zeuxippus pallidus

6. Dark with broad, flattish carapace and long front legs (on shrubs and plants) 316-317.

Tasa davidi] [Tasa nipponica
Tasa  -[ ATTENTION: rather with Aellurlinae ze wzgled u na bulbus] cephalothorax is shiny yellowish-brown with the eyefield brownish. The abdomen is dark grey with vague greyish-brown 
      chevrons. There are longitudinal lines of yellow dots on the sides and the spinnerets are black. Legs I are brownish-grey and 
       the remainder yellowish-grey with greyish annulations near some of the joints, ( S China and Japan)                                   - Tasa 
       
      Tasa  nipponica (Japan)

Thiania - cephalothorax flattish, rather broad, but still rather longer than broad. The sides are almost straight, converging very slightly to very wide anterior and curving to a wide truncated posterior. The abdomen is elongate, rounded at the front and converging steadily to the spinnerets. Typically the cephalus is black or dark brown and followed by a broad, crescent-shaped band of iridescent, bronze-coloured, squamose hairs. The sides and the rest of the thorax are brown. The colour and pattern on the abdomen can vary. For T. bhamoensis, in the front half, there appears to be a very broad, brown chevron, bounded on both sides by narrower chevrons of iridescent, bronze coloured, squamose hairs. Legs I are slightly swollen and larger than the others. Legs I and II are brown whilst III and IV are yellow except for brown femora. (India and Sri Lanka, throughout SE Asia, to Papua New Guinea) Thiania -

Thiania bhamoensis ] Thiania cavaleriei ] Thiania inermis ] Thiania luteobrachialis] Thiania suboppressa ]

Thiania bhamoensis

7. Long, mottled grey salticids, some flattish (on warm walls, rocks and tree trunks in the open) 317-321. Pseudicius (syn. Afraflacilla) Body long and flat, legs I stretched forvard, long and robust with swollen femor, patella and tibia (the latter often ovoid with very long dorsal,trichobothrium, often bent angularly), with reduced and/or modified variable spines, a row of stridulatory spines on tubercles under eyes lateral, corresponding with microspines on femur I. Embolus undervgoing evolution from short and straight, to long and coiled around bulbus, paralleled by lenghtening of copulatory duct in epigynum. (80 species in Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian Regions , also in Africa, and Pacific Is., absent in both Americas) - Pseudicius

Pseudicius cambridgei ] Pseudicius chinensis Pseudicius cinctus Pseudicius courtauldi ] Pseudicius deletus ] Pseudicius frigidus ] Pseudicius koreanus ] Pseudicius szechuanensis ] Pseudicius vulpes ] Pseudicius wenshanensis ] Pseudicius wesolowskae ] Pseudicius yunnanensis ] Pseudicius zabkai

-COMMON GENERIC CHARACTERS

Pseudicius sp. (Philippines) Pseudicius encarpatus (type species from Europe and Siberia)

Pseudicius krausi

Pseudicius koreanus

Pseudicius javanicus (sp. n. Proszynski 2006 = "punctatus" from Java)

Pseudicius maureri Pseudicius cinctus (related from Central Asia)

Pseudicius vesporum

 

Marpissa pulla is a flat, long spider,live under flakes of bark on fence stakes and on tree trunks. The carapace is oval, widest near the rear and tapers gradually to the truncated front. The abdomen is an elongate oval and pointed at the rear. Marpissa linzhiensis

Marpissa muscosa (Palaearctics)

Marpissa milleri (Japan - yn. M. dybowskii)

Mendoza. Mendoza magister - the carapace is yellowish-brown with the cephalus black. The grey abdomen has two complete, longitudinal black stripes forming altogether five stripes of roughly equal width - 3 grey and 2 black. The legs are pale yellowish with the front pair of legs darker and more robust. The front two pairs of legs are fairly spiny. (Important predator on rice field pest. Sumatra, Vietnam, S. China and Taiwan) Mendoza

Mendoza canestrini

Mendoza elongata (Japan)

Mendoza magister (= M. canestrini (?) Japan to Vietnam)

Nungia erected for a single female, N. epigynalis, collected in Vietnam. The carapace is longer than wide and the abdomen is a slender oval. The eye field is brown with the eye surrounds darker. The thorax is light brown. The abdomen is greyish-yellow in colour with longitudinal rows of grey spots. The femora, patellae and tibiae of legs I are light brown with the metatarsi and tarsi, yellow. The other legs are yellow (Vietnam). Nungia

Nungia epigynalis

NUNGIA EPIGYNALIS

Ocrisiona "Ocrisiona frenata" from Hong Kong is misplaced to the genus known from Australia, Tasmania and Lord Howe Is.

Ocrisiona frenata

"Ocrisiona frenata"

Plexippus P. paykulli is a most handsome jumping spider. The oblong carapace is longer than wide, truncated posteriorly, and then curves very gradually to just behind the front eyes where it briefly diverges. It is dark brown with the eye field black and a broad, white median band running from the posterior eyes (and sometimes from the front eyes) to the rear margin where it joins two equally wide, entire, submarginal bands. There is a narrow black marginal band. The abdomen is elongate oval with hunched shoulders anteriorly. It is dark brown in colour with a broad white median band, continuing the one on the carapace and almost reaching the spinnerets. The sides of the abdomen are white. At about a third of the way from the spinnerets there are two characteristic circular white spots adjacent to the white median band and two more near the spinnerets. On the lighter brown and more patterned female these white circular spots are still present and catch the eye immediately. They signal that the spider is likely to be a Plexippus species. The spiny legs are light brown in colour with the tibiae and metatarsi of legs I a darker brown. Other Plexippus species have different patterns but they mostly seem to have a well turned out appearance. Although not quite as striking as P. paykulli, there also occurs in our area P. petersi which has very similar genitalia and for this reason, until comparatively recently, the two were often confused. (distributed in the belt bounded by southern Central Asia to Japan in the north and by Africa to Papua New Guinea) Plexippus

Plexippus bhutani ] Plexippus paykulli ] Plexippus petersi ]Plexippus yinae

Plexippus petersi

Plexippus petersi

 

 

9. Cryptic, mottled brown or grey, stealthy and not seen to jump (on tree trunks and mossy rocks in rain forest) 324-329.

Cyrba widespread species C. ocellata. The top of the cephalothorax is slightly convex with the thorax falling off steeply near the posterior edge. In plan it is longer than wide with the sides almost parallel and the rear edge nearly semicircular. In colour it is brown suffused with black and has a thin band of white hairs along the margin as well as at places on the sides and thoracic slope. The abdomen is elongate oval, slightly rounded at the front and slightly pointed near the spinnerets. It is yellow-brown in colour suffused and mottled black, with patches of white hairs on the shoulders, in the middle, near the spinnerets and on the sides. The legs are moderately long, slender and carrying numerous strong spines. The femora are blackish with black hairs and the other segments yellow-brown suffused with black. (Cyrba ocellata stretches from East Africa through central and south east Asia to Australia.) (C. algerina runs from the Canary Islands through the Mediterranean region to the Himalayas. The other species are located in Africa and Madagascar.) Cyrba

Striking bright coloration (particularly in MALE): cephalothorax and abdomen anteriorly pink, posteriorly black; palpal organ with anterior embolus running around anaterior and lateral edge of bulbus (typical for subfamily Spartaeinae) and long articulating tibial apophysis. FEMALE - epigynum characteristic shield with sclerotized edge, globular spermathecae and anterior arches of ducts translucent trough the body wall - Cyrba algerina identify by enital organs

Comparative species Cyrba algerina dodać C. ocellata

[CYRBA ALGERINA (Palaearctic species)

Gelotia. close to Cocalus and Mintonia, dull coloured and has been found by beating shrubs in more open areas or in secondary rainforest. The cephalothorax is short and high with the flat cephalus sloping downwards very slightly and the thorax curving downwards very steeply from the rear eyes. The sides are vertical. In plan, the carapace is broad, more or less U-shaped, and not much longer than wide. The abdomen is a slender elongate oval, rounded at the front and slightly pointed at the rear. The spiny legs are long and slender, with legs I and IV noticeably longer than legs II and III. The eye area is yellowish-brown and the eye surrounds, black. The rest of the carapace is brown with wide, light, marginal bands on the sides and a narrow, very light, yellowish stripe running down the middle of the thorax. The underlying colour of the abdomen is a muddy-white with blackish mottled sides and chevrons at the rear. The legs are of a fairly uniform muddy-yellow suffused with black here and there. (P. Malaysia to Papua New Guinea) Gelotia to be identified by genital organs

Gelotia syringopalpis

Gelotia argenteolimbata

Gelotia bimaculata

 

Phaeacius hairy salticids with similar colour patterns. The cephalothorax is moderately high with the flattish cephalus sloping gradually to the front from the rear eyes and dropping suddenly and briefly behind the rear eyes before curving downwards to the posterior edge. In plan the carapace is oval, widest towards the wide posterior edge. It is orange-brown in colour, clothed in light recumbent hairs and with a narrow, white, submarginal band. The abdomen is an elongate oval, broadish anteriorly and pointed posteriorly. It is greyish yellow in colour with some orange brown hairs forming a leaf-like pattern. There are also two pairs of noticeable, bare, impressed spots. The legs are moderately long, robust and carry strong and numerous spines. In colour they are yellow grading to yellow-brown distally. (Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Myanmar, P. Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java and the Philippines). Phaeacius to be identified by genital organs

Phaeacius malayensis ] Phaeacius yunnanensis

Phaeacius malayensis PHAEACIUS FIMBRIATUS (or Phaeacius lancearius?)

Spartaeus - on their chosen background, their excellent cryptic appearance renders them almost invisible. Any spider which lives on tree trunks, rocks etc. is, of necessity, cryptic. The cephalothorax is moderately high with the flattish cephalus sloping gradually to the front from the rear eyes and then dropping steadily just behind the rear eyes to the posterior edge. In plan the carapace is oval, widest just behind the rear eyes and then rounded posteriorly. It is orange-brown in colour, mottled black and has a broad yellow, median band on the thorax. This band starts at the level of the rear eyes and tapers strongly to the rear edge. The eye surrounds are black. The abdomen is a rather elongate oval, wide anteriorly and gradually tapering near the spinnerets. The abdomen is noticeably narrower than the carapace. It is pale yellow in colour with black markings. The spiny legs are very long and slender. Legs I are yellow-brown with occasional dark markings except for the all yellow tarsi. The other legs are yellow to yellow-brown with the tarsi and metatarsi tinged with black apically. Legs are clothed in feathery hairs which can be useful for breaking up any shadows they may produce when at rest on the tree trunk. (Sri Lanka, Thailand, P. Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Amboina, the Philippines and probably S. China. ) Spartaeus to be identified by genital organs

Spartaeus jianfengensis ] Spartaeus platnicki ] Spartaeus thailandicus ] Spartaeus zhangi ]

SPARTAEUS SPINIMANUS

10. Cryptic, mottled brown on or near webs (in shrubs and on walls) 330-332.

Brettus B. cingulatus looks like Portia, might well live like Portia. The cephalus is high but differs from that of Portia being convex and not flat. In plan, the carapaces of the two genera are similar. The overall colour is similar but in Brettus the broad white marginal band runs along the entire length, and the white, median, thoracic band is lacking. The abdomen of Brettus lacks the erect tufts of Portia, in other respects the abdomen and legs of Brettus are comparable to those of Portia (six species - Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar and Sulawesi) Brettus to be identified by genital organs

Brettus albolimbatus

Portia One of the commonest is P. labiata. The cephalothorax is high with the rear eyes located nearby. The plane of the cephalic part slopes gently from the highest point to the front eyes whilst the thorax curves fairly steeply to the posterior edge. The carapace is broad, but longer than wide. In plan it is curved, with the widest part closer to the rear which is widely truncate, whilst near the front eyes it is briefly flared. The carapace is orange-brown in colour, covered in brown-black hairs and has a wedge-shaped white band running from the fovea to the rear edge and broad white marginal bands. From the front it has a characteristic broad white moustache and exceedingly hairy, light brown and white palps. Above the front median eyes, from a combination of the shape of the carapace and the colour, there appear to be two horns giving the spider a thoroughly demonic appearance. The abdomen is oval, slightly rounded at the front and slightly pointed at the rear. It is brownish with lighter markings and carries orange-brown hairs anteriorly and black hairs posteriorly. There are a number of characteristic tufts of erect, long orange-white hairs. The most notable feature of the legs is the contrast between the exceedingly long haired upper segments and the very thin tarsi and metatarsi - useful for making stealthy movements in the webs of potential prey. In general, the legs are dark brown in colour with light brownish-white markings. There are numerous, moderately strong spines. - Portia to be identified by genital organs

Portia fimbriata ] Portia heteroidea ] Portia jianfeng ] Portia orientalis ] Portia quei ]Portia songi ]

<====================[Portia fimbriata==============> [Portia labiata <=>

Portia fimbriata

 

11. Dull brown, stout to large (on shrubs and plants) 333-338.

Burmattus comparable to Evarcha in appearance. The cephalothorax is high and narrow with the sides almost vertical. It is flat on top for most of its length with the rear part of the thorax very steep. The abdomen is oval, tapering posteriorly. The legs not particularly long, with legs I longest and strongest. For the male of B. pococki, the eye area is brown and the eye surrounds black. The rest of the carapace is orange with white and dark brown hairs. The abdomen is dark grey becoming darker posteriorly. Anteriorly there is a longitudinal band with rows of small orange spots on each side and posteriorly two pairs of white tufts. Legs I are orange brown in colour with the tarsi paler. The other legs are grey orange-brown. The female appears to be a somewhat lighter coloured edition of the male. (Myanmar, Vietnam and (?Southem) China). Burmattus

Burmattus gerensis ] Burmattus nitidus ] Burmattus pococki ] Burmattus sinicus

BURMATTUS POCOCKI , (compare Arasia from Australia)

Carrhotus widespread genus of dull coloured salticids. The cephalothorax is quite high with the top slightly convex, with the rear of the thorax and the sides very steep. In plan, the carapace is U-shaped with the rear margin fairly widely truncated. The abdomen is oval, tapering somewhat towards the rear. The legs are longish, slender and all about the same length. For the male of the relatively common C. sannio, the eye area is blackish and the remainder of the carapace dark brown. There are numerous white hairs just below the rear eyes and on the sides of the carapace. The abdomen is dark brown with some thin white chevrons posteriorly and a widish collar of white hairs around the shoulders. The female is somewhat lighter in colour, and the corresponding hairs on both the carapace and the abdomen are fawn coloured. The legs are yellowish-brown with brown annulations (Palaearctic and the tropics from Africa to Borneo) Carrhotus

Carrhotus coronatus ] Carrhotus sannio ] Carrhotus viduus ]

[CARRHOTUS xanthogramma (type species - Palaearctics) [ [

[Carrhotus tristis CARRHOTUS VIDUUS

Evarcha stocky, dull brown coloured spiders, often associated with shortish plants in damp areas. The cephalothorax is thick, the top fairly flat with the rear of the thorax and the sides very steep. In plan, the carapace is a broad oval, longer than wide and truncated at the rear. The abdomen is oval, slightly pointed near the spinnerets. The legs are not particularly long but quite spiny, with legs I very slightly more robust than the others. For the female E. flavocincta, the cephalus is shiny black and the rest of the carapace yellowish-brown with streaks of dark brown hairs radiating from the fovea. The abdomen is greyish with numerous, dark brown flecks, anteriorly and posteriorly. It has a white median stripe bordered with two long black patches. The legs are fairly uniform yellowish-brown in colour.
(widely distributed)
Evarcha

Evarcha albaria ] Evarcha bulbosa ] Evarcha coreana ] Evarcha digitata ]Evarcha fasciata ]Evarcha flavocincta ]Evarcha hirticeps ]Evarcha hunanensis ] Evarcha michailovi ] Evarcha mongolica ] Evarcha optabilis ]Evarcha orientalis ]Evarcha paralbaria ]Evarcha pococki ]Evarcha proszynskii ]Evarcha pseudopococki ] Evarcha sichuanensis ]Evarcha wenxianensis ]Evarcha wulingensis ] Evarcha sp-Peng

Evarcha albaria (Koch, L.,

Evarcha flavocincta [Evarcha pococki

Hasarius is one of several "waste bucket" genera, into which a number of incidental species was described - usually unrecognisable from original descriptions, which should be reclasified elsewhere. In practice, the only species well defined is cosmopolite Hasarius adansoni, to which similar species could be added, after redescription. H. adansoni is a squat, dull brown coloured salticids with an appearance somewhat like Evarcha . H. adansoni, is a cosmopolite in warm areas and hothouses. The cephalothorax is thick, the flat top extends on to the thorax with the rear slope of the thorax to the margin very steep. The sides are vertical. In plan, the carapace is U-shaped with the sides virtually parallel and the rear margin moderately truncate. The abdomen is a broad oval, rounded at the front and very slightly tapering to the rear. The legs are long and moderately spiny, with legs I and II very slightly more robust than legs III and IV. The dark brown eye area of the male H. adansoni is bordered by a light, crescent-shaped area carrying white hairs. The rest of the carapace is dark brown. The underlying colour of the abdomen is a mottled dark brown. Around the shoulders there is a white crescent-shaped collar. Towards the rear there is a vague, broad lightish area in the middle and several white spots, two of which are prominent. The legs are uniform darkish brown. The female is a lighter edition of the male and the white spots on the abdomen are not evident. Hasarius

HASARIUS ADANSONI (csmopolitic in warm climate)

Hyllus large salticids with males of some species reaching up to 16mm, and "aggressive". They tend to be stout, hairy and dull coloured, something like an outsized Evarcha. The cephalothorax is fairly high, with a long sloping thorax and steep sides. The cephalus is relatively small and slightly convex. In plan the carapace is a broad oval, slightly longer than broad and has a somewhat truncated rear edge. The abdomen is oval, rounded at the front and tapering to a truncate rear. The legs are long and stout with legs I much the longest. A typical hyllid, H. lacertosus, has a shiny black cephalus and the rest of the carapace dark red and covered with short black hairs. The whole abdomen has a sinister, iridescent, dark brown appearance. There is a vague lighter median stripe and there are sparse, long black and white hairs. The legs are dark brown, very spiny and very hairy. The front legs in particular are covered with dense fringes of thin, black hairs. The carapace and legs of, the female are lighter editions of those of the male, but her abdomen is much more attractively patterned. The underlying colour is light brown with wide and narrow black bands radiating from the centre. There is a collar of long whitish hairs around the shoulders. The colour and pattern of other species vary but there is often a hint of the above involved. (Africa through the tropics to Australia, some Pacific islands, as well as China and Japan) Hyllus Hyllus diardi

Hyllus diardi

Hyllus janthinus

 

12. Dull brown, small to medium (on shrubs and plants) 338-340.

Gedea Gedea is close to Emathis. For G. tibialis, the carapace is dark brown becoming paler towards the margin and covered with adpressed hairs. The eye surrounds are black. The short abdomen has a broad median orange band anteriorly and is grey coloured becoming darker posteriorly. There are longitudinal grey streaks on the sides. The basal segments of legs I and II are greyish-orange with the other segments lighter. The other legs are orange with dark annulations near the joints. (Java, Vietnam and Thailand) Gedea

Gedea daoxianensis ] Gedea sinensis ] Gedea unguiformis ]

GEDEA FLAVOGULARIS

Gedea sp [from Ambengan]

 

Langerra a small single femal was beaten from bushes in forest in Vietnam. The cephalothorax is high and solid. In plan the carapace is oblong, slightly longer than broad and with a wide rear. The abdomen is a broad oval and is rather smaller than the carapace. Shape of legs not quoted. The carapace is orange-brown with a lighter patch towards the posterior margin. The eye surrounds of the front median eyes are dark brown and for the rest they are black. The abdomen is grey in colour, darkening to the rear and covered with grey brown hairs. Legs I and II are dark orange, with the femora slightly greyer and the tarsi yellow. Legs III and IV are lighter. All legs are hairy with grey fringes around the joints. (Vietnam) Langerra

Langerra longicymbium ] Langerra oculina

Langerra oculina

 

Laufeia from Japan is not congeneric with other species placed in the genus. For L. eucola the carapace is oblong, more or less parallel-sided and, at the rear, curves briefly to a wide posterior edge. The cephalus and half of the thorax are together fairly flat, but the sides and the rear of the thorax are steep. The eye area is black and this is followed on the flat top by a wide, transverse crescent-shaped area of white hairs. The sides and the rest of the thorax are dark brown. The abdomen is lengthwise oval, about as wide as the carapace, and slightly square-shouldered. It is dark grey in colour with a whitish band around the shoulders. The legs are quite long, fairly robust and not particularly spiny. They are uniform brown in colour with the front pair rather darker. L. aenea is similar in appearance to that of L. eucola, but differs in their genitalia. (The three species of Laufeia from P. Malaysia, Sumatra and Java appear to be congeneric, whilst it is les's certain that the species from Vietnam belongs to this group. There are also single species named Laufeia recorded from China and New Zealand. This genus is in urgent need of revision). Laufeia

Laufeia aenea ] Laufeia liujiapingensis - no drawing scanned ] Laufeia proszynskii [palpus resembles keyserlingi]

L. aenea - type species,

"Laufeia" (?) sp. (Singapore) "Laufeia" sp. (Java)

"Laufeia" keyserlingi

13. Small, squat, yellowish brown or blackish (at ground level at bases of plants and in litter) 340-344.

Bianor a small, squat salticid which is occasionally found when grubbing, and sometimes when sweeping, in grassy areas. The cephalothorax is moderately high, flat on top, with the thorax sloping steadily to the posterior margin and with very steep sides. In plan, the carapace is a broad, symmetrical oval, widest at the level of the rear eyes and has a somewhat truncated posterior margin. The abdomen is oval, not so wide as the carapace and very slightly pointed at the rear. The legs are sturdy and not particularly long, with the femora, patellae and tibiae of legs I swollen and much more robust than all the other segments. There are ventral spines on tibiae I and metatarsi I and a few more elsewhere. The colours and patterns vary. Typically the carapace is dark brown with some white hairs on the posterior and lateral surfaces. The abdomen is light brown and sometimes carries two or thee pairs of largish circular tufts of light coloured hairs. The swollen segments of legs I can be orange-brown and with thick grey-brown hairs with the other segments orange. The other legs are lighter in colour. (In SE Asia reported from Myanmar, Vietnam and S. China)

Bianor angulosus] Bianor hongkong ] Bianor incitatus

Bianor albobimaculatus type species from Australia

BIANOR MACULATUS

 

 

 

Bristowia From the side the cephalothorax is almost rhombus shaped with the cephalus flat and the thorax sloping fairly steeply to the posterior margin. The sides are vertical. In plan the carapace is U-shaped with somewhat truncate posterior margin. The abdomen is an elongate oval, narrower than the carapace, and is slightly rounded at the front and rear. The legs are relatively long and slender, with the femora, patellae and tibiae of legs I much more robust than any of the other leg segments. There are very long, strong spines beneath tibiae I and metatarsi I. Although at first glance the remaining legs appear spineless, there are in fact a few weak, almost colourless spines. The carapace is deep orange in colour with the eye surrounds black. On the surface there are numerous minute tubercles each carrying a stiff black hair. On the thorax and sides these tubercles form lines that radiate from the fovea. The abdomen is a very pale whitish-orange with a darkish line running all the way round just inside the perimeter of the abdomen. There are a few vague dark marks along the median, particularly at the rear. The swollen segments of leg I are brown and all the other segments are pale yellowish-orange. Beneath tibiae I there is a substantial fringe of long blackish hairs.
( first found on Krakatau, recently in Vietnam, P. Malaysia and Singapore, in such habitats as garden litter. Surprisingly, the genus has been neither expanded nor synonymised with a larger genus) Bristowia Bristowia heterospinosa

 

Palaearctic key
2(1) Medium size spiders - 3
8 (7) Cephalothorax  broad, swollen laterally, coloration dark, often black  - 9 
- Cephalothorax of usual proportions, with sides more or less parallel, color pattern less uniform - 11
- Cephalothorax narrow, with lateral edges almost parallel - 12

 9 (8) Eye field relatively long, takes about half of length of cephalothorax, broadest at eyes III, eyes at edges of dorsal
 surface - 10 
- Eye field distinctly shorter than half of cephalothorax and narrower, cephalothorax high with sloping lateral surfaces, 
usually strikingly swollen beneath eyes III. Colorful spider. MALE palpal organ with  bulbus round and with triangular
 flap-like protuberance, twice encircled by embolus. FEMALE epigynum with white anterior window, narrow and square,
 coiled membranous duct, spermathecae with particularly long duct of "accessory scent gland" - Thyene 
 

10(9) Posterior slope of cephalothorax broad and steep, margin of abdomen extends above posterior  part of thorax, (particularly striking in males), surface of carapace rough, light reflecting, abdomen broader than cephalothorax. Eye field broadening posteriorly and taking longer than half of flat dorsal surface of cephalothorax. MALE embolus making tight, transversal coil atop bulbus, but seminal receptacle duct does  not make loops. FEMALE copulatory openings in anterior median part of pit with surrounding rim unsclerotized, ducts running medially posteriorwards, make coils in the posterior part of the pit - Ballus

- Posterior slope of cephalothorax narrowing, surface of carapace smooth, abdomen  almost black, often with 
pairs of white spots. MALE bulbus round, slightly flattened apically, or transversally oval, with small conical 
protuberance, embolus arising laterally and making small bent. FEMALE anterior half of epigynae white, 
membranous, oval, with prominent sclerotized median pocket Sibianor 

genus almost identical, differs by lack of conical protuberance on bulbus Bianor

11(8) Abdominal    pattern consists of pairs of transverse marginal whitish spots on darker, reddish or greenish 
background. MALE bulbus bag shaped with twin sclerotized processes, short, atop white apical pad. FEMALE
epigynum copulatory openings located anteriorly, often in a distinct semilunar groove, spermathecae posterior,
compact bodies - Dendryphantes  (contain some 46 species, in Europe: D. hastatus lives on young pine trees, D. rudis    on pine crowns).
 

 

- Abdominal pattern consists of pairs of marginal darker spots on whitish background. MALE embolus long, gently bent, arising antero-laterally on anterior part of bulbus. FEMALE copulatory  openings located antero-laterally, but not in a semilunar groove, channels converging posteriorwards, sclerotization of the epigynum less striking - Macaroeris 

12(8) Cephalothorax low and long, legs I strikingly larger than II-IV, particularly in MALES - 13 
- Cephalothorax high, if legs I larger then not so strikingly - 15 
- Profile of cephalothorax very high, body "hairy" - 16 
- Cephalothorax  giving no clear impression of being either high or low, just "average" - 17 

13(12) A row of stridulatory spines on tubercles under eyes lateral and corresponding microspines prolaterally on 
femur I, tibia I swollen medially, with reduced rudimentary spines, or devoid of them, and with several long an thin,
usually bent sensory hairs (trichobothria) - Pseudicius (a few species in Europe, 80 Africa, Asia, Oceania and 
Australia)
   

- Spider without row of stridulatory spines under eyes lateral, tibia not swollen, armored with  normal spines - 14

14(13)  Abdomen particularly long. MALE palpal organ with flattened lateral surface. FEMALE epigynum in a form
 of a smooth plate without sculpture. except single groove,  internal structures with short initial ducts pass into complicated
 knots of long loops (translucent by tegument), without distinct spermathecaeMarpissa

- FEMALE epigynum in a form of a smooth plate, with posterior edge carved into two bays, separated by a median triangular 
"promontory", copulatory openings hidden under posterior edge of epigynum; short ducts run from the sides of triangle
 anteriorwards and turns into knot of short, coiled spermathecae chambers, translucent by tegument as dark spots. 
MALE palps resembles Marpissa - Mendoza 
 - Abdomen elongated, in MALES with red and white stripes, in FEMALES median stripe lighter with darker spots laterally.
MALES legs I longer, bulbus bag shaped, extendes in front of seminal receptacle, tibial apophysis (RTA)  biramous, short. 
FEMALES epigynum with a pair of anterior copulatory openings, copulatory ducts run straight posteriorly, spermathecae 
transversal - Icius hamatus      

- Body long, low, abdomen broad. MALES bulbus divided almost by half, with broad base of embolus; palpal tibia short, broader than cymbium, expanded transversally. FEMALES copulatory openings anterior, ducts straight, spermathecae globular - Menemerus

- Body not as long, proportional – 15

15(12) Cephalothorax usually with longitudinal light and dark strippes along thorax and on abdomen. MALE 
bulbus relatively large oval, embolus hidden dorsally behind tip of bulbus, where makes invisible coil with only tip 
protruding; tibial apophysis (RTA) biramous, with rami separated by grove, "U" or "V" shaped. FEMALE copulatory 
openings posterior, large and prominent, copulatory ducts after short anterior run bent transversally and pass into
posterior convoluted chambers of spermathecae, arranged linearly towards posterior end - Phlegra 

- Similar to Phlegra, but body uniformly dark, without stripes or chevron mark on the eye field. MALE  ventral apophysis narrow and slightly bent laterally, FEMALE epigynum with openings near posterior corners, copulatory channel running straight, then bent, spermathecae  median convoluted chambers - Asianellus

- Cephalothorax  apears higher than in Phlegra, no striped pattern. MALES. In some species whitish, or silver chevron 
mark on the eye field; palpal organ with ventral  tibial apophysis triangular, separated from the dorsal apophysis by 
"V" shape grove. FEMALES: epigynum with two "wings" - sclerotized diagonal edges, spermathecae in a form of complicated 
sclerotized chambersAelurillus 

16(12) Profile of cephalothorax triangular, with eyes III at the top, from which eye field sloping forward,  posterior slope of 
cephalothorax begining right beyond the eye field, tarsi I-II with dense brush of setae - scopulae, retrolateral margin of 
chelicerae and tooth not developped, prolateral one with a thin sclerotized edge ending with a small tooth pointed  forward. 
MALE pedipalpal femur halfcrescent and broad, often with small ventral protuberance, embolus  always folowed by conductor.
FEMALE epigynum highly sclerotized with openings located anteriorly,  median part elevated, triangular posterior rim pushed
inside abdomenYllenus 

- Profile of cephalothorax  rounded, body coloration dull greyish with ill defined lighter spots, palpal organ and internal structure 
of epigynum characteristic Carrhotus 

- FEMALES and immature MALES black, with two long white spots on abdomen, sometimes two regular parallel white lines;
in MALES abdomen red with longitudinal black streak encircled by a thin white margin. FEMALE only external walls of copulatory
openings are sclerotized and form sharp triangle in the anterior part of epigynum, followed by broad ducts running  posteriorwards, 
remaining part of epigynum not sclerotized and covered by long dense setae. MALE Embolus very long, posterior half of bulbus 
makes long narrow protuberance, bent under angle Philaeus  (Very common in Mediteranean, in C Europe on isolated xerothermic 
spots).

- Abdomen ligt with median dark serrated streak, margins and sides dark. MALE - lateral protuberance on bulbus, embolus encircling part of bulbus, tibial apophysis long, set diagonally. FEMALE epigynum oval with bent slits, copulatory ducts membranous, broad, spermathecae small, sclerotized - Mogrus (females make characteristic white retreats and cocoons atop shrubs, several centimeters diameter, males dwelling on ground)

                               -  
  
17(12) Abdomen uniformly colored, with, or without white pattern  - 18  
- Abdomen with  irregular dark lines, or mosaic of dark, brown or grey spots and patches of  various sizes, with or without 
white pattern  19
- Abdomen with broad median light longitudinal streak, posteriorly with a pair of lateral spots and a few chevrons, extended 
anteriorly by light thoracal streak, in some forms reaching eyes I; bulbus expanded laterally with short bent embolus anteriorly;
epigynum sclerotized with posterior median groove; large or medium size spider Plexippus 

-  Striking bright coloration (particularly in MALE): cephalothorax and abdomen anteriorly pink, posteriorly black;
 palpal organ with anterior embolus running around anaterior and lateral edge of bulbus (typical for subfamily Spartaeinae) and long
 articulating tibial apophysis. FEMALE - epigynum characteristic shield with sclerotized edge, globular spermathecae and anterior
 arches of ducts translucent trough the body wall - Cyrba algerina 

18(17)  Abdomen often irridescent: uniformly black blue, violet or green, light reflecting due to colorless scales, in some species 
one or more pairs of small white marginal spots and a semicrescent anterior line, legs often yellow, medium-small spiders. 
MALE pedipalpal femur with large horn like protuberance (single, bifurcated or trifurcated).  FEMALE epigynum with either 
single or two separate sclerotized depression, round or transversally oval, sometimes partially, or entirely surrounded by 
an elevated  rim, copulatory openings usually located laterally or, more rarely posteromarginally, sometimes hidden under rim; ducts 
and spermathecae short and simple Heliophanus

- Color pattern like Heliophanus, but much smaller, abdomen with 3-4 pairs of white spots. MALE palpal organ resembling Icius, 
tibial apophyses (RTA) short,  femur and patella without protuberance. FEMALE epigynum resemblisng Icius - Heliophanillus 

 

- Abdomen dark with pairs of transversal or diagonal white stripes or their rudiments ("zebra spider") but no median line. 
MALE chelicerae overgrown, palpal organ with large and broad apophysis, bag shaped bulbus and short embolus. 
FEMALE  epigynal depression extended by posterior elongate part, sometimes anteriorly hidden under a roof like rim, 
ducts and spermathecae more  complicated than in HeliophanusSalticus   

- Abdomen black with contrasting white line, continuous or interrupted, in some species there are one or two pairs of 
diagonal white lines marginally and thick anterior line; in some species on cephalothorax white spots behind eyes III and 
median white line. MALE bulbus oval with embolus usually bifurcated (details visible only under higher power of a 
stereomicroscope), tibial apophysis supported on some kind of swelling of cymbium (in P. tripunctatus and P. seriatus 
three swellings, apophysis grown into wall of cymbium). FEMALE entire epigynum sclerotized, with median ridge separating 
two semicircular grooves, location of median pocket opening varies from anterior to posterior in various speciesPellenes 

19(17) Abdomen with pairs of dark diagonal lines, usually on darkish or even entirely black background, giving spiders dull 
blackish appearance, sometimes with white marginal  lines on abdomen and sides of cephalothorax. Relatively large spider 
(7 mm) with characteristic genital organs. MALE bulbus large - round, oval or narrowing  posteriorly, embolus relatively broad,
protruding from under anterior prolateral angle of bulbus, apophysis of medium length or longer. FEMALE anterior half of 
epigynum white membranous "window", the posterior half being strongly sclerotized (in some species with postero-lateral 
sclerotized pockets) in E. laetebunda reduced to narrow posterior rim - Evarcha  

-  Resembling Evarcha, large spider. differs by details of genitalia - Hyllus 
-

                                                        
- Abdomen with  mosaic dark, brown or grey spots, chevrons and/or  patches of various sizes, usually with a pair of median
 white spots slightly behind mid-length of abdomen  20  
 - White abdominal spots different than those in Sitticus (see below), genital organs different, cheliceral dentition different - 21
20(19) Very characteristic cheliceral dentition: retrolateral margin of chelicerae not developed, a tooth with several conical 
cusps on prolateral margin. Genital organs of several related types. Abdominal pattern: in a few species no white spots, 
males of some high mountain species have abdomen black, bissected by white longitudinal line [in Europe only alpine Sitticus longipes]

A  FEMALE epigynum with a central pit, copulatory openings are hiden under sclerotized rims, ducts running 
outwards from the pit. MALE bulbus round, ventrally flattened, with embolus arising laterally or basally and making 
either half circle arround bulbus, or encircling it, with characteristic loop of seminal receptacle duct, tibial apophysis
small or largeSitticus floricola(and related species, S. floricola builds white retreats atop water shore vegetation, S. caricis among 
roots of tussocs of grass, S. rupicola under stones on rock)  

B - MALE  bulbus elongate oval or bag shaped, embolus slightly longer than bulbus, arising usually at its latero basal angle, 
small tibial apophysis. FEMALE epigynum  with copulatory openings in a form of spaced diagonal slits in the mid length of 
surface of epigynum, spermathecae form single bend ("C"-like) in the posterior half of epigynum.  - Sitticus - (species related to S. 
  distinguendus)

CMALE tibial apophysis large, bulbus round, embolus long and thin, bending around bulbus. FEMALE copulatory ducts initially broad, semiarching around cental complicated knot (simplified on drawings) of coiled thin posterior parts of ducts – Sitticus terebratus

D - MALE tibial apophysis large, bulbus round, embolus short and thick arising laterally. FEMALE epigynum  in a form of simple
depression, followed posteriorly by two less sclerotized  lobes, spermathecae centrally located, in a form of sclerotized simple 
chambers with reduced ducts - Sitticus pubescens

21. MALE abdomen with a pair of posterior, small white spots, separated by median light streak, anterior rim white; single bicusps retrolateral cheliceral tooth (fissidentate). Pedipalpal tibia long, with long mane of white setae, bulbus split longitudinally, embolus anterior, short. FEMALE abdomen with lighter median streak of fused spots; epigynum in a form of simple depressed plate with indistinct semilunar rims of openings, spermathecae consist of a few sclerotized chambers, arranged in a line perpendicular to plate - often distorted during mounting in a slide - Hasarius adansoni (cosmopolitan species)

 

 

=-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADDITIONS

- MALE - Basis of embolus as broad as bulbus, characteristically bent, embolus short, arising in the midddle of cymbium. FEMALE - epigynum with twosemicircular grooves anteriorly, posterior part of epigynum trianular with characteristic round internal structure -Habrocestoides  (syn. Chinattus)

 
  

- MALE posterior retrolateral angle of cymbium drawn into needle shaped process, touching similarly shaped tibial apophysis (RTA), ventral depression of cymbium broader than bulbus, leaving broad margin retrolaterally. FEMALE epigynal groove median, delimited by lateral sclerotized edges, posteriorly with a pair of small, lateral pockets; spermathecae in a form of sclerotized compact bodies with internal convoluted chambers (in other species there could be coiled sclerotized ducts channels) - Plexippoides (P. gestroi & P. flavescens)

==================================================================

COMMENT. The species pages enclosed in this work contain almost all diagnostic drawings published
 in the literature to date, reflect different attitudes and opinions. Nothing is final and studied to the end. 
The reader can form his own opinion on particular species and their classification. It is obvious that there is a 
lot to discover: new occurrence, new ecological properties, new behavior, new definitions and new species. The
 reader is encouraged to add his contributions to this branch of science.

Copyrights  © by J. Proszynski. 2008