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OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.

Introduction to classification of Salticidae
a chapter from
the Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2012

by Jerzy Prószyński

Excerpts from Simon's Classification 1901-1903
Salticid Groups of Simon's 1901-1903 as source of Euophryinae
as understood in 2015

Fragments of translation by H. D. Cameron and D. P. Wijesinghe
from PECKHAMIA: Volume 3 Number 1
Adapted to computer HTML, with minor changes by J. Proszynski, 1999.
by kind permission of Mr D. P. Wijesinghe and the Editor of Peckhamia Dr. G. B. Edwards.

 
AN EXAMPLE OF THE TRADITIONAL KEY OF SIMON 1901-1903 TO GROUPS OF GENERA, SUBSEQUENTLY SYNTHESIZED INTO SUBFAMILY EUOPHRYINAE (forgotten and not used until 1976 - see also EUOPHRYDEAE below). In 1960 the palps and epigyne of the genera of Salticidae were not used for identification of subfamilies, so I invented research program of revising these structures in the type genera of 20 Simon's groups. It become obvious that type genera do not characterize diversity within subfamilies and genera concerned, so it become necessary to be watchful of diversity among species. The first of my redescriptions of types of subfamilies 1966 appeared in 1966, 1968a, 1968b, 1968c, 1971c, , 1976 (including revision of subfamilies), 1984c and 1987, 2009b. These were parallel, to revisions of full genera I wrote in 1968d , 1968e, 1973a, 1980b, 1983c, 1983d, 1983. 1984a, 1984b, 1985a, 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2007b,,1973a, 1987. Also studying taxonomy of then unknown or poorly known, faunae [Far Eastern Russia , Bhutan, Mongolia, Israel, Saudi Arabia(1989, 1993), India , Pacific Islands (1992a, 1996, 1997,1998), Hawaii, Indonesia (2010, 2012), Borneo (2013)] I was looking for data contributing to definitions of genera.That work was also enlarged by compatible data of several researchers, who followed my methods of study. It was obvious that solitary work will not solve problems of classifications, so I insisted on creating a pool of diagnostic information, available free to ALL arachnologists - that has materialized in 1995-2014 database of Salticidae of the world, which provided survey of diagnostic characters scattered in the whole literature, worldwide. A synthetic chapter of that database invented in 2012, permitted to arrange almost 4600 species by similarities of palps and epigyne structures, a discovery of practical grouping of genera into some 30 proposed NEW groups of genera, which may contribute to better knowledge of taxonomy of Salticidae.
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. J. Prószyński

KEY TO GROUPS of Salticidae

A. Inferior margin of the chelicerae armed with a row of several isolated teeth. . . .SALTICIDAE PLURIDENTATI p.4
B. Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a single pointed tooth or none. .    . . ......SALTICIDAE UNIDENTATI p.7
C. Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a compressed tooth or carina divided by a notch, or rarely either truncate 
or serrate... .SALTICIDAE  FISSIDENTATI p.10   . . . . . . . . .

SALTICIDAE PLURIDENTATI (388-390)

1.Anterior lateral eyes located behind the medians (forming a second eye row). The patellae usually with a medio-apical spine or seta
-
- Anterior lateral eyes located near the medians on each side. Patellae without a medio-apical spine. ........................................2

2 (1).
Eyes of the second row large, hardly 1/3 smaller than the anterior laterals,
-- Eyes of the second row very minute (except Holcolaetis), sessile, not situated inside the anterior laterals (or only slightly inside)........ 6

3 (2). The upper margin of the four anterior eyes forms a recurved line. Eyes of the second row located very much inside 
the anterior laterals.  2. BOETHEAE 400 (cf  Spartaeus  [Boethus = Spartaeus, Portia ] 
- The upper margin of the four anterior eyes forms a procurved line.

6 (2). Sternum short or moderately long, the coxae of each side contiguous. The abdomen in front covering the pedicel and the margin of the cephalothorax . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................... . . 7 - Sternum long, coxae of the second pair of legs separated from the coxae of the third pair on each side. The pedicel, or at least the margin of the cephalothorax, not covered by the abdomen (ant-like salticids). . ... . . 20 7 (6). Cephalothorax high, posterior eyes usually prominent . . . . . . . . . ............... . . . . . . . . . . . 8
- Cephalothorax low and flat above, as in Marpissa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... . . . . . . . . 15
8 (7). Anterior metatarsi with two long spines beneath near the base . . . ..................... . . . . . . . . . 9
- Anterior metatarsi with at least 2-2 spines beneath. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... . . . . . . . . . 10
9 (8). Pars cephalica flat and with parallel sides. - Pars cephalica deeply excised on each side. Ocular quadrangle at least not wider than long and a little longer than the strongly sloping pars thoracica.......... . 9. TOMOCYRBEAE 440 (cf Tomocyrba [Tomocyrba]
10 (8). Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair, all legs with many spines. Anterior eyes in a recurved line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AMYCIEAE 413 (cf Amycus ) [ Amycus, Maenola, Acragas, Hypaeus, Noegus, Mago, Encolpius, Helpidius=Cobanus, Bindax, Amphidraus, Letoia]
- Fourth pair of legs much longer than the third pair . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................... . . . . . . . . . 11
11 (10). Anterior eye row procurved. - Anterior eye row recurved or rarely straight. Metatarsi (at least the anteriors) shorter than the tibiae or at least not longer.12 12 (11). Trochanter of the first pair of legs very long and cylindrical, the tibia more or less inflated. Pars thoracica lower than the pars cephalica and without a thoracic groove. 8. DIOLENIEAE 476 (cf Diolenius) [Diolenius, Discocnemius=Ligonipes, Lystrocteisa, Chalcolecta, Tarodes] - Trochanter of the first pair of legs short, normal, tibia not inflated . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13 (12). Pars thoracica impressed with a deep thoracic groove. . 8. ASTIEAE 429 (cf Astia) [Lagnus, Astia, Helpis, Arasia, Titananus, Anaurus, Agelista, Lapsias, Charippus] - Thoracic groove very minute or absent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...... . 14
14 (13). Small eyes of the second row located far in front of the midpoint (i.e. closer to the anterior laterals than the posterior laterals). Tibiae of the second pair of legs with a double row of spines beneath . 10. SCOPOCIREAE 442 (cf Scopocira ) [Scopocira, Gypogyna, Cyllodania]
-Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior and posterior laterals
15 (7). Anterior tarsi and metatarsi unarmed. Posterior tibiae and metatarsi with spines. . . 16
- Anterior tarsi and metatarsi strongly spined beneath in two rows. Posterior tarsi and especially the metatarsi very sparingly spined or unarmed . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ................................................................. . .17
16 (15). Pars cephalica long, more or less constricted on each side behind the lateral eyes. Eyes of the second row very minute, located much closer to the anterior laterals than to the posterior laterals .13. HISPONEAE 449 (cf Hispo ) [Hispo, Astaenorchetes=Hispo, Massagiris]-Pars cephalica short, with parallel sides not constricted behind the eyes. Eyes of the second row remarkably large . . .. 14. HOLCOLAETEAE 452 (cf Holcolaetis ) [Holcolaetis]
17 (15). Tibiae of the first pair of legs armed beneath with four, more rarely two, setae which are bulbous at the base- Tibiae lacking setae which are bulbous at the base . . . . 18
18 (17). Area of the dorsal eyes with parallel sides or slightly narrower behind than in front, and shorter than the pars thoracica with the exception of Baviola). Pars thoracica impressed with a longitudinal sulcus. Abdomen narrow and long, and rounded in front. . ........................................................................................................ . 19
- Area of the dorsal eyes wider behind than in front, and longer (or at least not shorter) than the pars thoracica. Cephalothorax above without tubercles or impressions. Abdomen in front broadly truncated and covering the pars thoracica ...................... . 19. BALLEAE 481 (cf Ballus ) [Ballus, Peplometus, Pachyballus, Cylistella, Porius] 19 (18). Labium much longer than wide. Spinnerets apical . . 16. BAVIEAE 460 (cf Bavia) [Bavia, Padillothorax=Stagetillus, Cynapes, Psecas, Epinga=Psecas, Baviola, Padilla, Goleta, Stagetillus, Stenodeza, Piranthus] - Labium not longer than wide. Spinnerets not apical, but situated beneath the abdomen and hidden by it from above. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. COPOCROSSEAE 473 (cf Copocrossa) [Copocrossa, Mantisatta, Ligdus]
20 (7). Tibiae of the first pair of legs strongly dilated and compressed .. . . . . . . . . . . 21 - Tibiae of the first pair of legs slender and cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . 22
21 (21). Anterior tibia and patella convex and rounded above, armed below, among the spines, with a long, thick fringe. Anterior eyes large, contiguous, but very much unequal to one another 20. LIGONIPEDEAE 487 (cf Ligonipes ) [Marengo,
Colaxes, Philates=Marengo, Haterius, Ligonipes
] - Anterior tibia and patella angular, flattened above and on both sides, not fringed below. Anterior eyes of moderate size, and distinctly separated from one another. 21 and [71] 69. PECKHAMIEAE 494, 868 (cf Peckhamia ) [Consingis, Peckhamia] 22 (20). Sternum strongly attenuated in front,
- Sternum hardly at all attenuated in front, but truncate, and the coxae of the first pair of legs separated from one another. Upper margin of the anterior eyes usually form a recurved line ................................................. 23
23 (22). Anterior metatarsi with 3-3 spines beneath. 25. SOBASINEAE 512 (cf Sobasina ) [Sobasina, Fluda, Keyserlingella=Fluda] - Anterior metatarsi with 2-2 spines beneath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . 24
 II. SALTICIDAE UNIDENTATI  (516-519)  
II/1. Posterior margin of the cephalothorax  and the pedicel visible from above. Coxae of the second pair of  legs separated  
from the coxae of the third pair of legs. The fourth pair of legs with the coxae  not shorter than the trochanter, or at least not
 much shorter. . . ................................................................................................. ...................  2
 - Posterior margin of the cephalothorax and the pedicel invisible from above,  covered by the abdomen. All coxae on both 
sides contiguous . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................ . . 5
 
 II/2(1). Trochanter and patella of the first pair of legs remarkably long, the tibia  curved and much shorter than the patella, 
the metatarsus very minute.. . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. AGORIEAE 534 (cf   Agorius ) [Agorius] 
- First pair of legs normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ . . . 3 
 
 II/3(2). Pars cephalica higher than the pars thoracica.  
 - Pars cephalica not higher than pars thoracica. Sternum attenuated in front and  the coxae of the first pair of legs close 
together. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................... . 4 
 
 II/4(3). Inferior margin of the chelicerae without any tooth. . 
...................27. LEPTORCHESTEAE 523 (cf Leptorchestes) [Leptorchestes, Araegeus, Kima, Leptorchestes, Quekettia]
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a single tooth. First pair of legs robust,  femur clavate and tibia ovate. . . . . . . . 
 . . 28. SYNAGELEAE 526 (cf  Synageles )  [Synageles, Semora, Semorina, Descanso, Chirothecia, Sebastira,  Bellota, Osericta,
 Damoetas, Mexcala] 
 
 II/5. Inferior margin of the chelicerae without a tooth or with only a very minute  and fine tooth ....6 
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a strong conical tooth. . . . . . . .  . . . . ................... . .... . . 9 
 
 II/6(1). Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair of legs . . . . . .  . . . . . . ......... . . . . . 7
 - Third pair of legs much shorter than the fourth pair of legs . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .................. . . . . . 8
 
 II/7(6). Pars cephalica strongly tuberculate near the eyes, depressed on each side  between the eyesţ Sternum wide, hardly at
 all attenuate in front, and broadly  truncate, the coxae of the first pair of legs widely separated. ...  45a ZENODOREAE 648
 (cf  Zenodorus ) [Pystira,  Zenodorus, Mollica=Mollika, Margaromma, Corythalia, Stoidis]
 - Pars cephalica flat, not impressed on the sides. 
 
 II/8(6). Pars thoracica impressed with a thoracic groove behind the eyes.
 - Pars thoracica without a thoracic groove. Legs weakly and sparingly spined. . 35. CHALCOSCIRTEAE 572
 (cf Chalcoscirtus) [Chalcoscirtus, Semiopyla, Jollas, Neon  ] 
 
 II/9 (5). Tibia and patella of the third pair of legs longer (or at least not shorter)  than the tibia and patella of the fourth pair of 
legs. . . . . . . . . . . ................................................................................................................ .  . 10 
 -Tibia and patella of the third pair of legs shorter than the tibia and patella of the fourth pair of legs17 
 
 II/10 (9). Ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . ....................... . . . 11 
 - Ocular quadrangle with parallel sides or often narrower behind than in front  . . ................. . . . 13
 
 II/11 (10). Ocular quadrangle trapezoidal and rather small, much narrower behind than  the cephalothorax. 
 - Ocular quadrangle large. Small eyes of the second row not much closer to the  anterior laterals. Posterior legs with numerous
 strong spines. . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................. 12
 
 II/12 (11). Ocular quadrangle narrower than the cephalothorax behind. Pars cephalica  tuberculate on each side and 
depressed between the eyes. Sternum strongly attenuate  in front.. 50. HYLLEAE (in part) 688 (cf  Hyllus ) [ Hypoblemum, ]
 - Ocular quadrangle not narrower than the cephalothorax behind. Pars cephalica  wide and neither tuberculate nor depressed. 
Sternum strongly attenuate in front..  46. BYTHOCROTEAE (in part) (cf   Bythocrotus ) [Bythocrotus] 671 
 
 II/13 (10). Labium not longer than its width at the base. Sternum short, not attenuated  in front, and broadly truncate. 
. 33. SAITEAE 558   Saitis ) [Saitis, Jotus=Lycidas, Salpesia, Ilargus, Maeota,  Pochyta, Luuharulla, Oningis, Hypoblemum] 
 - Labium distinctly longer than wide. Sternum more or less attenuated in front.  . . .................. . 14 
 II/14 (13). Ocular quadrangle much narrower behind than in front 
 - Ocular quadrangle not narrower behind than in front (or at least not very much  narrower). Small eyes of the second row 
midway between the anterior and posterior  laterals (or at least not appreciably closer to the anterior laterals). 15 
 
 II/15 (14). Pars cephalica neither tuberculate nor impressed. Sternum strongly anenuated  in front...46. BYTHOCROTEAE  
(in part) (cf   Bythocrotus ) 671 [Bythocrotus]
 - Pars cephalica more or less tuberculate, depressed on both sides between the  eyes. Sternum only moderately attenuated in 
front. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . ................................................................................. . . . . 16 
 
 II/16 (15). Ocular quadrangle with virtually parallel sides. 
 - Ocular quadrangle a little narrower behind than in front. Posterior eyes large, separated from the small eyes of the second
 row by less than the width of the  posterior eye (or at least not more). Small eyes midway between the anterior and  posterior
 laterals or perhaps slightly closer to the posteriors.. .51. PLEXIPPEAE 710   Plexippus) [Penionomus,  Sigytes, Plexippus,
 Palpelius, Artabrus, Pharacocerus, Pseudamycus, Malloneta,  Collytus, Dasycyptus, Phaulostylus, Colopsus=Evarcha, Pancorius, 
Theratoscirtus=Thiratoscirtus,  Alfenus, Anarrhotus, Freya, Pochyta, Eustiromastix, Capidava, Bathippus]  
 
 II/17(9). Small eyes of the second row much further from the posterior laterals than from the anterior ..18
- Small eyes of the second row midway (or nearly) between the anterior and posterior  laterals.... 24 
 II/18 (17). Ocular quadrangle much wider behind than in front
- Ocular quadrangle with virtually parallel sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . ........................ . . 21 
 
 II/21 (18). Cephalothorax cylindrical, abruptly sloping behind, with the upper  margin of the declivity carinate or prominent.
 That is, the cephalothorax is truncate  behind with the posterior face vertical and concave. Anterior eyes in a slightly 
procurved line. All legs with the femora wide and strongly compressed, and the  rest of the segments slender and cylindrical..
.....  44. COCCORCHESTEAE 647  Coccorchestes ) [Coccorchestes, Omoedus, Poecilorchestes]  
- Cephalothorax normal, gradually sloping behind. Anterior legs more robust than  the others ..... 22 
 
 II/22 (21). Sternum strongly attenuated in front, 
 - Sternum hardly at all attenuated in front and widely truncate between the anterior  coxae. Ocular quadrangle slightly narrower
 behind than in front . . . . . . .  . . . . . ................................................................................. . . . 23
 
 II/23 (22). Anterior eyes in a recurved line. Fourth pair of legs unarmed, long, with the trochanters hardly shorter than the 
coxae. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 30. ITATEAE 537  Itata)  [ Itata]
 - Anterior eyes in a straight or very slightly procurved line
 II/24 (17). Sternum strongly attenuated
- Sternum not attenuated in front and widely truncate between the anterior coxae  . . ................ . . 26 
 
 
 II/26 (24). Posterior legs with numerous strong spines. Thoracic groove very minute,  hardly discernible . .....................
..................34.EUOPHRYDEAE 568 ( Euophrys) [Akela, Euophrys, Rhyphelia] 
 - Posterior legs with a few minute spines. Thoracic groove rather long, situated  a little behind the eyes . 27
 
 II/27 (26). Cephalothorax high, 
 - Cephalothorax low, almost as in Marpissa. Inferior margin of the chelicerae  short, lobed near the base of the fang, with 
a strong conical tooth close to the  lobe.. 38. THIANIEAE 586 Thiania ) [Thiania,  Thianitara] 

III SALTICIDAE FISSIDENTATI (756-758)

III/1. Sternum strongly attenuated 
- Sternum very little attenuated in front, broadly truncate  and the coxae of the first pair of legs separated by a space at least as
 wide  as the labium . . ...................................................................................................... . . . . 4.

III/4 (1). Ocular quadrangle very large, longer than the pars thoracica or  at least not shorter . ... . 5 
- Ocular quadrangle wider than long, and shorter than the pars thoracica. . ...............  . . . . . . . . . 7 
III/5 (4). Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior    and posterior laterals 
 - Small eyes of the second row far closer to the anterior laterals than to the posteriors. Anterior legs not fringed .. 6 
III/6 (5). Cephalothorax short, ocular quadrangle very large, much longer than the short and sloping pars thoracica. 
- Cephalothorax long and ovate, pars thoracica roughly equal in length to the ocular quadrangle. Anterior legs with the femur
 clavate, the patella and tibia thick and slightly angled..  21 and [71)69. PECKHAMIEAE 494, 868 (cf. Peckhamia )
 [Consingis, Peckhamia]    
III/7 (4). Thoracic groove lacking . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . .................. . . 8 
   - Thoracic groove present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . , ........................... . . . 9 
III/8 (8). Cephalothorax short and high. Ocular quadrangle much    wider than long. Small eyes of the second row midway
 between the anterior and    posterior laterals. Posterior legs with minute but numerous spines . . 67. BELLIENEAE 856 
(cf. Belliena ) [Belliena, Nagaina] 
   - Cephalothorax long and with virtually parallel sides.
III/9 (7). Anterior eyes in a strongly recurved, semicircular line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . 10 
   - Anterior eyes in a straight or only slightly recurved line. . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . ................... .12 
III/10 (9). Cephalothorax high but flat above and abruptly sloping    behind, so that the posterior face is nearly vertical. 
 - Cephalothorax extremely high, strongly sloping both in front and behind, ocular quadrangle much narrower behind than 
in front. Posterior legs usually with strong numerous spines ....................................................... 11 
III/11 (10). Anterior lateral eyes situated behind the anterior  medians almost as in Lyssomanes. Labium wider than long. 
The four posterior legs similar to one another in length.. 53. ATHAMEAE 758 (cf. Athamas ) [Athamas]    
   - Anterior lateral eyes normal. Labium much longer than wide. Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair. . . . . 
. . . . . . 55. SPILARGEAE 762 (cf. Spilargis ) [Spilargis, Thorellia=Thorelliola, Eupalia=Eupalina] 
III/12 (9). Posterior legs with numerous strong spines . . .    . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
   - Posterior legs (at least the metatarsi of the fourth leg) sparsely and weakly spined, sometimes unarmed. 17
III/13 (12). Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a small carina with three or four serrations.  57. EMATHIDEAE 804
 Emathis ) [Gedea, Pristobaeus, Emathis, Lepidemathis, Lophostica, Pseudemathis] 
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with an emarginate or bifid carina . . .    . ................. . . . . . . . 14 
III/14 (13). Posterior eyes small. Eyes of the second row distinctly closer to the anterior than the posterior laterals, separated 
from the posterior eyes by much more than an eye width. Anterior eyes form a rather recurved line   59. SERVAEAE 804
 Servaea ) [ Servaea ]    
- Posterior eyes large. Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior and posterior laterals, separated from the 
posterior eyes by no more than an eye width . . . . .................................................................... 15 
III/15 (14). Labium wider than long, semicircular. Sternum broadly heart-shaped, no longer than wide. .............................
............... . 60. MICROHASARIEAE 820 (cf. Microhasarius )[Microhasarius] 
- Labium much longer than wide. Sternum ovate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . ..................... . . . . . . 16 
III/16 (15). Superior margin of the chelicerae bidentate . 56. HASARIEAE 768 Hasarius ) [Hasarius, Epidelaxia, Viroqua,
 Phausina, Semnolius, Encymachus, Nannenus, Uxuma, Curubis, Nebridia, Longarenus, Tarne, Mopiopia, Marma,
 Donoessus, Chalcotropis, Coryphasia, Ocnotelus, Commoris, Tariona, Tylogonus, Asaphobelis, Ptocasius, Tusitala, 
Ergane, Mantius, Panysinus, Sidusa, Chloridusa, Siloca, Chapoda] 
- Superior margin of the chelicerae with 3 or 4 teeth  . 58. CYTEAE 810 Cytaea ) [Cytaea, Ascyltus, Canama, Euryattus, 
Plotius] 
III/17 (12). Ocular quadrangle not much wider than long and a little wider behind than in front.
- Ocular quadrangle much wider than long and with parallel sides. Posterior legs (at least the metatarsi of the fourth pair)
 virtually unarmed. Anterior legs without fringe. ......................................................................... 18    
III/18 (17). Cephalothorax short, the pars thoracica not longer than the ocular quadrangle,
- Cephalothorax longer, the pars thoracica longer than the ocular quadrangle, the thoracic groove behind the eyes, but forward
 of the midpoint between the posterior eyes and the rear margin of the cephalothorax. Anterior legs normal  19 
III/19 (18). Small eyes of the second row about midway between the anterior and posterior lateral eyes .61. LAUFEIEAE 
...822 (cf. Laufeia ) [Pselcis, Laufeia] - Small eyes of the second row closer to the anterior laterals than the posterior laterals.