RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prˇszynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prˇszyński
32 - PSEUDICIINES GROUP OF GENERA
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations, also references, are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Type genus Pseudicius.
Interactive index of genera , Afraflacilla , Festucula , Miricius , Nepalicius , Okinawicius , Psenuc , Pseudicius , Rudakius , Spadera, Correction of Pseudicius synonyms. Genera removed to other groups of genera: Nandicius , Orienticius , Pseudicius siticulosus = Metaphidippus siticulosus..

Introduction

Type genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885
PSEUDICIINES group of genera differs from all remaining groups of Salticidae by:
1) unique form of stridulatory apparatus "femur I - carapace", consisting of a row of stridulatory bristles on tubercles, stretching below eyes lateral II-III, interacting with microspines on prolateral surface of femur I;
2) modification of tibia I, which is usually shortened, but distinctly thicker than metatarsus and tarsus, with deeply modified ventral spines: displaced, reduced in size and number (sometimes missing) but thicker and shortened, also with unusual long dorsal trichobothrium, apically bent;
3) - epigyne with distinct pockets, variably located. Copulatory ducts relatively thick walled, evolving from simple and short arch, with small protuberance of the scent exuding opening (as in Pseudicius palaestinensis) ľ to long and very complicated coils (as in Afraflacilla javanica or A. bipunctata) with the scent exuding pore changed into duct branching off, long and prominent. Spermathecae being terminal portion of duct, changing form simple oval to long and bent loop, slightly more broader than duct and with spines on interior surface;
4) male palp diverse, at first look unrelated, some cannot be easily classified, but examination of morphological series permits to find similarities. Bulbus is oval, or oval distorted with protuberances, embolus variable, from thick and relatively short to hair thin and long, in some species encircling bulbus, arising variably, latero-apically or latero-basally;
6) tibial apophysis (RTA) prominent, usually medium long, often split into 2-3 rami;
7) body flat, with robust, long legs I stretched anteriorly; dorsal color pattern characteristic.

RELATIONSHIPS. Row of stridulatory bristles on tubercles under eyes lateral, as well as body appearance gives PSEUDICIINES unique character, separating distinctly from other groups of genera, structures of epigyne and palps, although diversified, do form morphological lines correlating with presumed evolution.

REMARKS. PSEUDICIINES group of genera has been created by splitting large genus Pseudicius into several new genera, differing by details of palps and, especially, by internal structures of epigyne. The proposed new genera are Miricius gen. n., Nepalicius gen. n., Okinawicius gen. n., Psenuc gen. and Rudakius gen. n.. To the original genus Pseudicius are added genera Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941, Festucula Simon, 1901 and, tentatively, Spadera Peckham, Peckham, 1894. In difference to them, several species of former Pseudicius are placed in the proposed new genera and transfered into other groups of genera: Nandicius gen. n. (placed in CHRYSILLINES) and Oienticius gen. (placed in NOTICIINES). Pseudicius sitticulosus (Peckham, Peckham, 1909) belongs to DENDRYPHANTINES, probably to genus Metaphidippus.

DISTRIBUTION. The centers of distribution of PSEUDICIINES are apparently southern belt of Palaearctics and Africa, numerous species occur also on Pacific Islands, and a few in Australia. Indian Subcontinent, located between those centers, may harbor much richer fauna of PSEUDICIINES than heretofore known. They are absent on the Western Hemisphere (the only supposed N American representative Pseudicius sitticulosus Peckham & Peckham, 1909 is presumably Metaphidippus [according to personal letter from W.P. Maddison he knew the fact already for 20 years, but failed to inform readers about it] ).

Characters defining the PSEUDICIINES group of genera






Guide to identification of genera by male palps

Guide to identification of genera by epigyne - internal structures

Guide to identification of genera by epigyne - external view

Guide to identification of genera by abdominal pattern

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance and color pattern

Removed from PSEUDICIINES

Gen. Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941 (30 species)

Type species Afraflacilla bamakoi Berland, Millot, 1941
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines cores of words Africa and Flacilloides, the later being unused synonym, grammar gender assumed feminine.
DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: peculiar stridulatory apparatus "femur I-carapace" with striking lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Differs by very complicated internal structure of epigyne, consisting of a tight group of coils running antero-posteriorly, beginning from relatively anterior copulatory opening and initial loop of duct, next passing into several coils of different size and then passing indistinctly into final loop, longest and broadest, being apparently spermatheca, with spine covered internal wall. There is characteristic, chimney like tube, branching of from initial coil of ducts and ending with small opening atop, being presumably modified equivalent of scent opening's armature and duct in other genera. All these coils take posterior half of epigyne, prominent external pair of pockets is located anteriorly, in front of the above described group of coils. Some Australian species (A. grayorum, huntorum, yeni) have different looking coils and spermathecae, these deserve, presumably, separation into genus of their own. Male palps with elongate oval bulbus, embolus arising from a broad base in mid-length of bulbus, or its posterior end, running parallel to bulbus and gently inclined in front of it. In some species bulbus is broader and embolus is longer, encircling it. Tibial apophysis single and long, originates at the mid-length of tibia, broadly bent initially. Legs I with oversized, much broadened femur, patella and tibia. Female. Abdomen light with two darker streaks broken into 3 pairs of near-rectangular spots, there is a pair of lighter gray spots anteriorly, and a diamond-shaped, contrasting black spot at the posterior end of the abdomen. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
REMARKS. The genus contains majority of species originally classified to Pseudicius, to which is so similar by habitus that after original description of two species as Afraflacilla by Berland & Millot, 1941, it was re-synonymized by Clark [1974. P. 22] but revived again by Zabka [1993: 280], the decision sustained now, after prolonged discussion.
DISTRIBUTION. Documented all over Africa, South East Asia, some species occurring on Pacific Islands and in Australia. Three species entering Southern Europe.

b)+
Afraflacilla tamaricis +b) bamakoi : Proszynski. 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 154, f 614-622 +b) Zabka M. 1993. Invert. Tax. 7: 280, f 3A-C + Berland, Millot J. 1941. 12, 2: 329 f 31.
+
Afraflacilla altera : Wesolowska W. 1999a. Arnoldia Zimb. 10(15): 169, f 67-73 + Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Inv. 50(1): 74-75, 152-155. By courtesy .
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Afraflacilla arabica : Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. Br. arach. Soc. 13 (6): 227-228, f 34, 38-39 + Wesolowska, van Harten 1994. 86, f 6-10. By courtesy .
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Afraflacilla asorotica : Proszynski J. 1993. F. Saudi Ar. 13: 50-53, f 41-46 +Proszynski 2003a: Ann. zool.: 148-149, f 628-629.
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Afraflacilla bipunctata : Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 54 + Peckhams 1903. 14 (1): t 26, f 3-a. By courtesy .
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b)
Afraflacilla braunsi: Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 52 + Peckhams 1903. 14 (1): 211, t 26, f 1-a + Wesołowska, van Harten 2007. F. Arabia: 23: 248-253, f 169-177 +b) Proszynski 1989. F. Saudi Ar. 10: 53-54, f 53-55 (type of A. tripunctata). By courtesy .
b)c)
Afraflacilla datuntata +b) eximia +c) fayda: Logunov D.V., Zamanpoore M. 2005. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 13 (6): 228-229, f 35-36 +b) Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000. Tropical Zoology, 13 (1): 90-93, f 248-250
+c) Wesolowska, van Harten, 2010. UAEmir. 2010: 3: 50, f 61-63 . By courtesy .
+b)
Afraflacilla flavipes +b) histrionica: Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 371-372, f 43-45 + Logunov, Rakov 1998. Arthr. Sel. 7(2): 120-122, f 1-4 +b) Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 81. By courtesy .
b)c)
Afraflacilla javanica +b) kraussi +b1) samoaensis [syn.]: Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 57, f 165-172 +b) Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arachn. 26(2): 165-167, f 44-52, 57-58 +b1) Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 110-111, f 116-119 [samoaennsis is a synonym?]. By courtesy .
b)c)d)
Afraflacilla mikhailovi +b) mushrif +c) gracilis +d) refulgens : Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 53, 1: 150-151, f 612-613 +b)Wesolowska, van Harten, 2010. UA Emirates, 3: 50, f 64-66 +c) Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 112-113, f 143-144, 172-178 +d) Pseudicius refulgens Wesolowska, Cumming 2008. Ann. zool. 58: 210-212, f 143-152.. By courtesy .
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Afraflacilla punctata : Original 2 drawings by Prószyński + Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arach. 26(2): 168-170, f 53, 54, 60-61, . By courtesy .
b)c)
Afraflacilla philippinensis +b) reiskindi c) sp : Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 108-109, f 104-106, 111 +b) 109-110, f 112-116+c) © Photo R. R. Jackson By courtesy.
b)
Afraflacilla risbeci +b) similis : Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 55 +b)Atlas ...: 2. By courtesy .
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Afraflacilla spiniger: Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 372, f 46-48 + Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 13 (6): 217-232, f 37. By courtesy .
Afraflacilla grayorum: Zabka M. 1993. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 7: 283-285, t. 7A-D, 8A-C. By courtesy .
b)
Afraflacilla huntorum +b) yeni : Zabka M. 1993. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 7: 288-289, f 9A-D +b) 283-285, t. 10A-D. By courtesy .
+b)
Afraflacilla wadis +b) antineae: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 154-155, f 623-627 +b) Denis, 1954a: 319, f. 12-13.By courtesy.
b)c)
Afraflacilla elegans +b) roberti +c) gunbar [misplaced?] Wesolowska, Cumming 2008. Ann. zool. 58: 208-210, 135-143 +b) Wesolowska 2011b. J. Arachnol. 39: 486-488, f 27-31, 35 +c) Zabka M., M. R. Gray, 2002. Records Australian Mus., 54: 272 figs 3A-C, 5 . By courtesy .
b)
Afraflacilla karinae +b) imitator Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 114-115, f 145, 179-181+b) Wesołowska & Haddad 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1): 219-221, f 95, 133–138 .. By courtesy .
Afraflacilla venustula Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. African Invertebrates, 50(1): 76-78, 156-164. By courtesy .
Afraflacilla zuluensis Haddad & Wesołowska, 2013: 24(3-4): 496-499, f 88-93, 95. . By courtesy .
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Afraflacilla epiblemoides: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 156, f 635-637 +Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 89, 208, f 54a-i + ©Photo J. Lissner. By courtesy .

Gen. Festucula Simon, 1901 (9 species)

Type species Festucula vermiformis Simon, 1901.
ETYMOLOGY. Name derived from Latin, meaning "little straw", grammar gender feminine.
DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: peculiar stridulatory apparatus "femur I-carapace" with striking lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Differs by enormously elongated and narrow abdomen, 2.4 times longer than carapace, resembling narrow bodied spiders hiding on straw of grass, cryptically colored green or brownish yellow. Shape of epigyne and its internal structures are shown rather special, could be compared with some difficulty to Rudakius. Male palp with tibial apophysis biramous, widely diverging rami, also resembling Rudakius. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
REMARKS . Originally classified by Simon [1901-1903] in the group Marpisseae and Marpissinae by Petrunkevitch [1928], in list by Bonnet […: 5053] placed in the Salticinae subfamily.

b)
Festucula vermiformis +b) sp. : Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003a: 63, f. 241-243 +b) Festucula sp. - Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates 55(2): 353, f. 1-4 - characters. By courtesy .
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Festucula festuculaeformis : Wesolowska W. 1992. J. African Zool., 106 (1): 46-52, ff. 2-25 +b) 52, f. 1 + . Azarkina & Foord, 2014. African Invertebrates, 55(2): 359, f. 16, 25, 45-60. By courtesy.
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Festucula australis: Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates 55(2): 355, f. 14, 22, 27-44. By courtesy.
Festucula haddadi Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates 55(2): 362, f. 17, 24, 61-76. By courtesy.
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Festucula lineata: Wesolowska W. 1992. J. African Zool., 106 (1): 46-52, ff. 2-25 +b) 52, f. 12, f. 15 + Azarkina, Foord 2014. African Invertebrates, 55(2): 369, f. 104-112. By courtesy.
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Festucula lawrencei : Wesolowska 1992. J. African Zool. 106 (1): 50-52, ff. 26-27 + Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 70, f 40 +b) Berland L., Millot J. 1941. 12, 2: 345 f. 48 + Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates, 55(2): 365, f. 15, 77-87. By courtesy.
Festucula monticola : Berland L., Millot J. 1941. 12, 2: 345 f. 48.
Festucula leroyae Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates 55(2): 366, f. 8-9, 19, 88-103. By courtesy.
Festucula robustus Azarkina & Foord, 2014: African Invertebrates 55(2): 371, f. 113-128. By courtesy. .

Gen. Nepalicius Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (3 species)
[partial synonym for the genus
Pseudicius (in part)].

Icius nepalicus Andreeva, Heciak & Prˇszynski, 1984: 372, f. 49-51 (Dm).
Icius nepalicus Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987: 71; (Pseudicius nepalicus Prˇszynski in "NOTICE" distributed with Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987).
Pseudicius nepalicus Prˇszynski, 1992a: 106, f. 67, 69-72 (m).

Type species Nepalicius nepalicus (= syn. Icius nepalicus Andreeva, Heciak & Prószyński, 1984).
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Nepal and Icius, grammar gender assumed masculine.
DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: peculiar stridulatory apparatus "femur I-carapace" with striking lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Differs by bulbus rounded, encircled by embolus, entirely or partially, dorsal ramus of tibial apophysis reduced to semicircular protuberance. Epigyne with a pair of grooves and openings in the posterior part, pockets not discovered. Copulatory ducts bent like letter "S", arranged parallel to main axis of epigyne and run along its whole length, with prominent armature of the scent gland anteriorly. Spermatheca originates at that spot, running posteriorly and gently arching, its wall is as thick and sclerotized as in copulatory ducts, internal walls covered with prominent spines. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
REMARKS. Suguro and Yahata, 2014: 63(2): 87-97, f 25, 27, 28 match female purporting to be Nepalicius coreanus with male Tasa nipponica as a new combination Tasa coreanica. They argument that this is borne by gene sequencing, but provide no taxonomically relevant data on diversity and stability of characters they rely on. Their matching is not supported by cohabitation of these sexes, nor any other biological or ecological observations, the key characters of these genera are not mentioned in their description. For these reasons their merging of male and female of these species is considered unproven and nomenclatorical proposals rejected.
DISTRIBUTION. Nepal, India, Korea, Japan.
COMPOSITION. Nepalicius koreanus (Wesolowska, 1981), comb. n., N. nepalicus (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984) comb. n.,a., N. seychellensis (Wanless,1983) comb. n.,
REFERENCES. Andreeva, Heciak & Prˇszynski, 1984: 372, f. 49-51; Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987: 67-71, Figs 63-76;

NEPALICIUS nepalicus : Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 106-107, f 67, [68?], 69-72. By courtesy.
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+b)+
NEPALICIUS koreanus : Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool. 41, 2: 67-71, f 67-73 + Wesolowska 1981a. Ann. zool.: 60-61, f 52-55 + Peng, Xie, Xiao 1993: 192-194, f 671-679 [MISIDENTIFIED] + Ono, Ikeda, Kono. Salt. Japan 2009: 570, f 104-106 +b) MISMATCHED GENERA: female Nepalicius koreanus and male Tasa nipponica + male Nepalicius koreanus and female Okinawicius okinawensis: Suguro, Yahata, 2014: 63(2): 87-97, f 25, 27, 28. By courtesy.
+
NEPALICIUS seychellensis : Saaristo 2002. 26, f 76-78 + Wanless F.R. 1983. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr., ser. 8. 241: 76-77, f 25a-d.

Gen. Okinawicius Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (5 species)
[name proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius ].

Type species Pseudicius okinawaensis Prˇszynski, 1992.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Okinawa and Icius, grammar gender assumed masculine.
DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Differs by prominent pockets on surface of epigyne, which are unusually long and prominent. There is a pair of medial depressions on epigyne, with indistinct copulatory openings, visible only after clearing of epigyne. Striking difference is provided by a flat spiral of several concentric membranous coils of copulatory ducts, in a plane parallel to surface of epigyne, visible after staining in Chlorazol Black E. These join narrow and long, sclerotized spermathecae near the prominent armature of scent opening (which in O. modestus is long, chimney-like). Sclerotized parts of these structures is comparable to Nepalicius. Males (matching require confirmation). Embolus arise laterally from bulbus, either in its mid-lenght, or posteriorly. Tibial apophysis with stumpy rami, two or three.
Drawings below are integral part of the definition.

Remarks. Females of O. sheherezadae and males of Pseudicius sindbadi were collected in the same day - April 11th, 1980, in the same locality Thanomah in Saudi Arabia, at the same altitude 2140 m., and by the same collector W. Buettiker, since Salticidae in deserts are sparse and rarely collected, there is good chance that they may match, therefore belong to the same species. If so, morphologically similar male of Pseudicius shirinae from Wadi Harth may also belong to Okinawicius. Suguro, Yahata, 2014: 63(2): 87-97, f 25, 27, 28 proposed to synonymize four species of Pseudicius in Japan, these synonyms are not accepted - for details see chapter below.

Composition. The following species are transferred from genus the Pseudicius Simon, 1885: Okinawicius daitaricus (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., O. delesserti (Caporiacco, 1941), comb. n., O. modestus (Simon, 1885) comb. n., O. okinawaensis (Prˇszynski, 1992) comb. n., O. sheherezadae [+ sindbadi? - conspecific?] (Prˇszynski, 1989) comb. n., O. shirinae (Prˇszynski, 1989) comb. n., O. tokaraensis (Bohdanowicz, Prˇszynski, 1987) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1 992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105.

+
+b)
OKINAWICIUS okinawaensis Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 108, f 98-100 + Ono, Ikeda, Kono 200 : 570, f 111 +b) MISMATCHED GENERA: male Nepalicius koreanus and female Okinawicius okinawaensis : Suguro, Yahata, 2014: 63(2): 87-97, f 25, 27, 28. By courtesy.
b)
Okinawicius sheherezadae +b) sindbadi [conspecific?] : Proszynski J. 1989. F. Saudi Arabia. 10: 49-50, f 46-47 +b) 51-52, f 50-52+ Wesołowska, van Harten 2007. Fauna of Arabia, 23: 253, f 178-181. By courtesy.
b)
Okinawicius shirinae +b) delesserti: Proszynski 1989. F. Saudi Ar. 10: 50-51, f 48-49 + c) Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 50 Caporiacco, 1941: 150, f. 65. By courtesy.
Okinawicius[?] vankeeri : Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 2003a: 151-152, f 594, 605-609.[REMARK 1: Enigmatic placement: palp resembling O. deleserti and O. shirinae, epigynal ducts somewhat like Psenuc, habitus? REMARK 2: palp, epigyne and habitus (see above) were drawn by J. Prószyński on specimens from Israel and communicated privately to H. Metzner, who has has published drawing of palp and description of the supposedly the same species from Rhodes as Pseudicius vankeeri, however epigyne was mismatched, later Logunov, 2009: 909, f 28-29 has drawn similar looking (but rather not conspecific) epigyne of a specimen from Turkey]
OKINAWICIUS daitarica Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool.44, 9: 202, f 154. By courtesy.
OKINAWICIUS modestus : Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zool. 44, 9: 203, f 155-157 (also in: Proszynski 1984c and 1987 56).
OKINAWICIUS tokaraensis Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool.: 71-72, f 77-80. By courtesy.
b)
Okinawicius athleta +b) sengwaensis: Wesolowska 2011b. J. Arachnol. 39: 485, f 21-26, 32 +b) Wesolowska & Cumming , 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. 7: 93-96, f 70-74. © By courtesy.

Correction of mistaken synonyms
of Japanese Pseudicius

Suguro & Yahata (2014) purported to revise Japanese species of genus Tasa and part of Pseudicius by morphological investigation and molecular analysis using partial sequencing data of m-DNA COI gene. Their opinions relate directly to descriptions of genera presented in this paper.
1. Female of Psudicius koreanus Wesołowska, 1981 cannot by matched with male Tasa nipponica Bohdanowicz, Prószyński, 1987, because absence in the latter of the crucial somatic characters - lateral subocular row of bristles on tubercles, tibia not modified, different body shape and proportions, also palps are incomparable with any of 120 species of "PSEUDICINES".
2. Pseudicius tokaraensis and P. okinawaense differs between themselves distinctly by details of spermathecae and copulatory ducts, which cannot be dismissed as individual variation, evaluation of which require comparison of all ten species of the genus, delimited now as Okinawicius Prószyński, 2016 and distributed from Japan to Africa.
3. Pseudicius kimjoopili (Kim, 1995) was misplaced in the original description, its correct combination is now Plexippoides kimjoopili (Kim, 1995).
4. Pseudicius vulpes (Grube 1861) is transferred now to the genus Orienticius Prószyński, 2016, not related to any "PSEUDICINES".
5. After all these adjustments, the fauna of Japan contains now three species related to Pseudicius: Nepalicius koreanus (Wesołowska, 1981), Okinawicius okinawaensis (Prószyński, 1992), O. tokaraensis (Bohdanowicz, Prószyński, 1987).
Documentation of above is shown on drawings below.

+b)
Figures 136-140. Original illustrations from Suguro & Yahata: "Tasa koreana" = Nepalicius koreanus female and Tasa nipponica - male (136), "Psudicius tokaraensis" = Nepalicius koreanus male and females of both Okinawicius tokaraensis and O. okinawensis (137). Comparison of species documentation by Saguro & Yahata with original documentation: , "Tasa koreana" = Nepalicius koreanus (138), "Pseudicius tokaraensis" = Okinwicius okinawaensis and O. tokaraensis females (139), "Pseudicius kimjoopili" = Helicius kimjoopili (misidentified in the original description, possibly Plexippoides regius) = Plexippoides kimjoopili (Kim, 1995), comb. n. (140). 136-140 (part) - from Suguro and Yahata 2014. © Acta Arachnologica, Tokyo 63(2): 87-97. fig. 9. 138-139 (part) - from Bohdanowicz, Prószyński, 1987. ©Annales Zoologici, 41: 6 and Prószyński 1992, © Annales Zoologici, 44, 8: 108, f 98-100, 7, f. 72-73. 140 (part) - from Helicius kimjoopili Kim, 1995: 2, f. 1-5. By courtesy.

Gen. Psenuc Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (10 species)
[partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius].

Type species Psenuc vesporum (Proszynski 1992).
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Pseudicius and nuclearis, grammar gender masculine.

Diagnosis. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Internal structures of epigyne comparable with Pseudicius (intermediate form is Pseudicius vankeeri Metzner, 1999) set transversally, however, spermatheca is somewhat swollen distally, copulatory ducts light sclerotized, encircles proximal, level part of spermatheca by a single, or a few coils, armature of scent opening developed into long, prominent duct, chimney-like. Epigyne externally comparable with Psudicius, differs by large oval, shallow depression with a pair of median grooves containing medial copulatory openings. There is a pair of indistinct, postero-lateral pockets, translucent trough tegument. Male palp with elongate oval bulbus, with pronounced posterior part. Embolus parallel to bulbus, arising laterally from posterior part of bulbus. Tibial apophysis short and single, inclined ventrally, with vestigial dorsal ramus reduced to slight swelling on the dorsal edge.
Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
Composition. The following species are transferred from the genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885: Psenuc courti (Zabka, 1993), comb. n., P. dependens (Haddad, Wesolowska, 2011), comb. n., P. gyirongensis (Hu, 2001), comb. n., P. hongkong (Song D., Xie L., Zhu M., 1997), comb. n., P. manilaensis (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., P. milledgei (Zabka, Gray, 2002), comb. n., P. nuclearis (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., P. originalis (Zabka, 1985), comb. n., P. solitarius (Haddad, Wesolowska, 2011), comb. n., P. solomonensis (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., P. vesporum (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n.

Psenuc vesporum: Proszynski 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 112-113, f 88-97. By courtesy .
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Psenuc nuclearis : Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 107-108, f 85-87 + Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arachnol. 26(2): 168-170, f 55-56, 59, 62-66, By courtesy .
Psenuc vankeeri : Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 2003a: 151-152, f 594, 605-609.[REMARK: palp, epigyne and habitus (see above) were drawn by J. Prószyński on specimens from Israel and communicated privately to H. Metzner, who has has published drawing of palp and description of the supposedly the same species from Rhodes as Pseudicius vankeeri, however epigyne was mismatched, later Logunov, 2009: 909, f 28-29 has drawn similar looking (but rather not conspecific) epigyne of a specimen from Turkey].
b)
PSENUC manilaensis +b) solomonensis: Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 111-112, f 101-103. By courtesy .
PSENUC [AUS-265]: ©Photo R. Whyte.Australia: NQ Barron Gorge NP 02/03/2012. By courtesy.
b)
PSENUC courti +b) originalis : Zabka M. 1993. Invert. Tax. 7: 282, f 5A-C +b) Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 231-232, f 233-235.
PSENUC milledgei : Zabka, Gray, 2002. Rec. Australian Mus. 54: 272, f 4A-C, 5.. By courtesy .
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PSENUC dependens : Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 109-111, f 141-142, 166-170 [syn. Pseudicius d.].
+b)
PSENUC solitarius +b) hongkong : Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 117-118, f 184, 199-201 [syn. Pseudicius s.] +b) Song D., Zhu M., Chen J. 1999: 532, f 301F-G. By courtesy.
Psenuc gyirongensis Hu, 2001. Henan Sci. Techn. Publ. House: 387, f 244.1-3. By courtesy.

Gen. Pseudicius Simon, 1885 (9 species)

Type species Pseudicius encarpatus [= syn. Aranea encarpata Walckenaer, 1802] from Europe.
DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: peculiar stridulatory apparatus "femur I-carapace" with striking lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. Differs by epigyne with oval depression and usually indistinct pockets. Copulatory duct is sclerotized and resembles flattish bow, oriented horizontally, and joining elongate and narrow spermatheca, also bow like and oriented transversally. Male bulbus relatively short, more or less rounded, with short embolus arising from its antero-prolateral edge. Tibial apophysis short, either stumpy with minute side spine, or split into three short rami. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
REMARKS. The first discovered species was designated the type species, being little representative for the whole, originally delimited genus, as often happens. That was due to European fauna being studied first and the best known for the arachnologists of XIX century. Splitting original Pseudicius into smaller derivates, especially Afraflacilla, has reduced importance of these differences. Genus Pseudicius is distributed mainly in Europe, marginal area for PSEUDICIINES, as a whole.

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Pseudicius encarpatus : Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 102-103, f 104-105 + Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984.
Ann. zool. 3, 13: 350, f 12-14 + I. Rödel ©Arachnologische Gesellschaft e.V. +Flanczewska 1981. Ann. zool. 36: 221,
f 94-95 + Zabka 1997. F. Polski 19: 5-187, f 278-289.
By courtesy.
+
Pseudicius badius : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1 : 156, f 633-634 +Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 90, 209, f 55a-h . By courtesy .
Pseudicius amicus : Proszynski J. 2000. Arthr. Sel. 8(4): 257-258, f 99-101. By courtesy .
Pseudicius palaestinensis : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 152-154, f 598, 601-602, 610-611. By courtesy.
+
+
Pseudicius courtauldi : Bristowe 1935 (reprinted by Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 90-91, 210, f 56a-g) + Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 373, f 57-60 + Wesolowska 1996. Arthr. Sel. 5 (1/2): 38, f 28a-c + Logunov 1993b. Arthr. Sel. 2(1): 51-55, f 4a-j, Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 152-154, f 598, 601-602, 610-611. By courtesy.
++b)
Pseudicius picaceus +b) cultrifer : Flanczewska 1981. Ann. zool. 36: 221, f. 96 + Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 373-374, f 61-62 +b) Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 91, 210, f 56f-g, map 61 (from di Caporiacco 1948b). By courtesy .
+
Pseudicius kulczynskii : Andreeva , Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 373, f 52-56 + Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 149-150, f 595-596, 599-600 (left abdomen). By courtesy .
Pseudicius cf. kulczynskii from "Syria": Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 149-150, f 595-596, 599-600 (right abdomen) . . By courtesy .
+
Pseudicius pseudocourtauldi : Logunov 1998c. Arthr. Sel. 7(4): 303, f 5-8 + Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici, 53, 1: 176, f 738-741. By courtesy.
enigmatic Gen. sp. : Photo D. Knowles: Indonesia: Bali: Alas Kedaton. By courtesy. [Comment: classification uncertain, body shape resembling Pseudicius, tibia I swollen, color pattern does not resemble any known spider, palps and epigyne not seen, presence of stridulatory spines under eyes lateral cannot be checked].

Gen. Rudakius Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (9 species)
[ proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius ].

Type species Menemerus cinctus Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885.
Etymology. Named in honor of great Persian poet Rudaki (850-940 n.e.) who lived in the Samanid court in Buchara (present day Uzbekistan) - in the area of occurrence of this genus. Name combines words Rudaki and Pseudicius, grammar gender assumed masculine.

DIAGNOSIS. Share mutual diagnostic characters of PSEUDICIINES: lateral, subocular row of about 10 short bristles on protuberances, modified tibia of robust leg I, flattened body and characteristic color pattern. At first glance epigyne and palps appear entirely different from other genera of this group, however, in spite of different appearance, all parts of these structures appear homologous. Epigyne has two large grooves, separated by a septum, but without visible external pair of pockets. Copulatory openings are distinctly visible in the middle part of medium septum, sclerotized and followed by broad, sclerotized ducts running posteriorly, then making a full circle tight loop, near branching off point of the scent opening armature. From that spot follows obliquely sclerotized duct, unusually narrow, to postero-medially located spermathecae, small in comparison with size of the epigyne. In Rudakius afghanicus (Andreeva, Hęciak & Prˇszynski, 1984), comb. n. spermatheca is different, intermediary to state in Afraflacilla: elongate vessel, running medially, parallel to main body axis and much larger, about half the length of epigyne. Male palp is very special, with anterior edge of bulbus truncated transversally, with robust embolus arising antero-laterally and posterior part of bulbus expanded diagonally, postero-laterally. Tibial apophysis large, consisting of two long, pointed rami, widely spaced, in some species, however, dorsal ramus is distinctly shorter. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

Distribution. Rudakius is a central Central Asian genus, occuring also in China, Ethiopia, India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia .
Composition. The following species are transferred from the genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885: Rudakius afghanicus (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984), comb. n., R. cinctus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885), comb. n., R. delesserti (Caporiacco, 1941), comb. n., R. maureri (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., R. rudakii (Prˇszynski, 1992), comb. n., R. spasskyi (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984), comb. n., R. wenshanensis (He, Hu, 1999), comb. n.. Species Rudakius citri (Sadana, 1980), comb. n. was originally misidentified as Phlegra citri Sadana, 1980: 229, f. 1-5; Rudakius ludhianaensis (Tikader, 1974 - nec nec Sadana et Kaur, 1974), comb. n. was originally misidentified as Marpissa ludhianaensis Tikader, 1974: 205, f. 1-3.

+
RUDAKIUS cinctus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 351-352, f 20, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41
+ Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 49 [type of P. vittatus]. By courtesy.
+
RUDAKIUS afghanicus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 352, f. 21, 24, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40
+ Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 49 [type of P. vittatus]. By courtesy.
RUDAKIUS spasskyi : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 352, f 22, 25-25, 29, 32, 35, 38, 42. By courtesy.
RUDAKIUS maureri : Proszynski J. 1992a. Annales zoologici, 48, 8: 105-106, f 73-79. By courtesy.
+
RUDAKIUS rudakii +b) admirandus: Proszynski 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 110-111, f 80-82 +b) Logunov 2007: Acta arachnologica, 56(1): 21-23, f 1-5 [comparison: P. rudaki - grey, P. admirandus - white]. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
RUDAKIUS citri +b) ludhianaensis +c) wenshanensis : Sadana 1979 [1980] . Entomologist's month. magaz. 115: 229-230, f 1-5
+b)Tikader 1974b. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 79: 205, f 1-3 +c) He S., Hu J. 1999. A. Arach. Sinica, 8 (3): 32-33, f 1-3 +d) Denis 1958. Videns. Meddr dansk naturh. Foren.: 108, f 40.. By courtesy.

Gen. Spadera Peckham, Peckham, 1894 (1 species) [synonym reinstated]

Spadera unica Peckham & Peckham, 1894: 118, pl. 12, f. 1 (Dm).
Pseudicius unicus Simon, 1901a: 613, 623.
Pseudicius unicus Prˇszynski, 1987: 51 (m).
Type species Spadera unica Peckham, Peckham, 1894 from Madagascar.
DIAGNOSIS. Little known genus, somewhat resembling Rudakius by shape of embolus and bulbus, tibial apophysis could be derived: long thin, terminated by minute fork. Original description is not unequivocal, but mentions apearance of first leg fitting PSEUDICINES, which is lost on original drawing. Classification by Simon also support placing this genus in PSEUDICIINES. DESCRIPTION. [I repeat below the original description by Peckham & Peckham, 1894: 118.] "The falces are short but stout and project obliquely forward. The fang is rather long. The maxillae are rounded and are more than twice as long as the labium. The sternum is twice as long as wide. The femur, patella and tibia of the first leg are thickened, especially the femur. The color of the cephalothorax is dark brown; the eye region is blackish. The upper surface is thinly covered with mixed red and white hairs. A wide, white band encircles the lower sides and below this is a black line. The clypeus and palpus are covered with white hairs. The abdomen is light brown, with a dark region down the middle, which consists of two triangular figures on the anterior and middle part and some rounded spots behind. There is a transverse, curved, white band at the anterior end of the abdomen, and another across the middle; and the brown spots at the posterior end are surrounded by white. The femur, patella and tibia of the first leg are thickened, especially the femur. The legs are brown, the first pair being the darkest. The falces are dark brown. The under surface is dark brown, thinly covered with white hairs. Length, 4.8. Length of cephalothorax, 2; width of cephalothorax, 1.2. Legs [length order] is 1432; first pair plainly stoutest." Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.
REFERENCES. Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105.By courtesy.

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Spadera unica: Prˇszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 51; Peckham, Peckham, 1894 pl. XII, Figs 1a-e. By courtesy .,

Removed from PSEUDICIINES

Metaphidippus siticulosus (Peckham, Peckham, 1909) comb. n.
(transfer to group of genera DENDRYPHANTINES)

Pseudicius siticulosus Peckham & Peckham, 1909: 495, pl. 39, f. 11 (Df).
Pseudicius siticulosus: Maddison W.P. 1996. Bull. Mus. Com. Zool. 154 (4): 229, 241, 333, f 43, 119

[COMMENT: Removal from Pseudicius necessary for understanding evolution of that genus, which has never reached Western Hemisphere. Transfer to DENDRYPHANTINES is based on two diagnostic drawings by Dr. W.P. Maddison, publshed in in 1996 (see above), but unfortunately the crucial drawing of internal structures of epigyne was not yet published. Owing to kindness of Dr. Maddison I have seen that drawing in 1986, but I have no permission to display it..

Gen. Nandicius Prószyński, 2016 gen. n.
(transfer to group of genera CHRYSILLINES)

Including species:
Pseudicius cambridgei Prószynski, Zochowska, 1981= Nandicius cambridgei (Prˇszynski, Zochowska, 1981) comb. n.,
Pseudicius deletus = N. deletus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n.,
Pseudicius frigidus = N. frigidus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n.,
Pseudicius pseudicioides = N. pseudicioides (Caporiacco, 1935) comb. n.,
Pseudicius pseudicioides = N. szechuanensis Logunov, 1995) comb. n.

[COMMENT: new photographs by Miss Shazia Quasin demonstrate absence of typical PSEUDICINES characters in one of species of this poorly known spiders, the genitalic structures suggest classification into CHRYSILLINES].

Gen. Orienticius Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (2 species).
(transfer to group of genera NOTICIINES)

Including species: Pseudicius vulpes (Grube, 1861) = Orienticius vulpes (Grube, 1861 comb. n.,
Pseudicius chinensis = Orienticius chinensis (Logunov, 1995) comb. n.

[COMMENT: Placement in the genus Pseudicius cannot be sustained because of absence of stridulatory row on spines on protuberances below eyes lateral and tibia I not modified, structure of embolus excludes it from the genus Icius.