RETURN TO DATABASE - CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORLD - KEY TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to groups of genera! - INDEX of Genera
KEYS TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT -KEY to groups of genera of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae
a subchapter

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
group of genera
PSEUDICIINAE

trial version

by Jerzy Prószyński & John T.D. Caleb
Version June 5th, 2015

Disclaimer. This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed new taxonomic names, included here are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images. This introduction to a classification includes only species defined by diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature and Internet, arranged by similarities of embolus and spermophor. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of supposedly closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, where are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.

Abstract

Type genus Pseudicius.
Interactive index of genera Afraflacilla , Festucula , MIRICIUS , NEPALICIUS , OKINAWICIUS , PSENUC , Pseudicius , RUDAKIUS , SPADERA .
[Names written in CAPITAL LETTERS - provisional, invalid until formally published].

Introduction

Type genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885
PSEUDICIINAE group of genera differs from all remaining groups of Salticidae by:
1) unique stridulatory apparatus "femur I - carapace", consisting of a row of stridulatory bristles on tubercles, stretching below eyes lateral II-III, interacting with microspines on prolateral surface of femur I;
2) modification of tibia I, which is usually shortened, but distinctly thicker than metatarsus and tarsus, with deeply modified ventral spines: displaced, reduced in size and number (sometimes missing) but thicker and shortened, also with unusual long dorsal trichobothrium, apically bent.
3) - epigyne with distinct pockets, variably located. Copulatory ducts relatively thick walled, evolving from simple and short arch, with small protuberance of the scent exuding opening (as in Pseudicius palaestinensis) ľ to long and very complicated coils (as in Afraflacilla javanica or A. bipunctata) with the scent exuding pore changed into duct branching off, long and prominent. Spermathecae being terminal portion of duct, changing form simple oval to long and bent loop, slightly more broader than duct and with spines on interior surface;
4) male palp diverse, at first look unrelated, some cannot be easily classified, but examination of morphological series permits to find similarities. Bulbus is oval, or oval distorted with protuberances, embolus variable, from thick and relatively short to hair thin and long, in some species encircling bulbus, arising variably, latero-apically or latero-basally;
6) tibial apophysis (RTA) prominent, usually medium long, often split into 2-3 rami;
7) body flat, with robust, long legs I stretched anteriorly; dorsal color pattern characteristic.


REMARKS. PSEUDICIINAE group of genera has been split from a single, large genus Pseudicius into several new genera, differing by details of palps and, especially, by internal structures of epigyne. The proposed new genera are MIRICIUS gen. n., NEPALICIUS gen. n., OKINAWICIUS gen. n., PSENUC gen. and RUDAKIUS gen. n., these names will become nomenclatorically valid after publication in recognized scientific periodical. To the original genus Pseudicius are added genera Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941, Festucula Simon, 1901 and, tentatively, Spadera Peckham, Peckham, 1894. In difference to them, several species of former Pseudicius are separated into proposed new genera: NANDICIUS gen. n. (placed in CHRYSILLINAE) and ORIENTICIUS gen. (placed in NOTICIINAE). Pseudicius sitticulosus (Peckham, Peckham, 1909) is in fact Metaphidippus sitticulosus (Peckham, Peckham, 1909) comb. n.

RELATIONSHIPS. Row of stridulatory bristles on tubercles under eyes lateral, as well as body appearance gives PSEUDICIINAE unique character, separating distinctly from other subfamilies, structures of epigyne and palps, although diversified, do form morphological lines correlating with presumed evolution. Of the other hand transparent arrangement of diverse species require splitting former genus Pseudicius into several new genera, proposed here as new. These should be described and published in regular periodical, until that are written in capital letters, to show their provisional character.

DISTRIBUTION. The genus occurs on continents of the Old World, as well as Australia and Pacific Islands, is absent on the Western Hemisphere (the only supposed N American representative Pseudicius sitticulosus Peckham & Peckham, 1909 is in fact Metaphidippus). The centers of distribution is apparently southern belt of Palaearctics and Africa, also numerous species occur on Pacific Islands, and a few in Australia. Indian Subcontinent, located between those centers, may harbor much richer fauna of PSEUDICIINAE than heretofore known.
COMPOSITION. Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941, Festucula Simon, 1901, MIRICIUS gen. n., NEPALICUS gen. n., OKINAVICUS gen. n., PSENUC gen. n., Pseudicius Simon, 1885, RUDAKIUS gen. n., Spadera Peckham, Peckham, 1894.

Introduction

Examples of characters defining PSEUDICIINAE


Afraflacilla ................................ Pseudicius ........................ NEPALICIUS .......................... RUDAKIUS

Guide to identification of genera by male palps
written in capital letters - NEW UNPUBLISHED names

Guide to identification of genera by epigyne - internal structures

Guide to identification of genera by epigyne - external view

Guide to identification of genera by abdominal pattern

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance and color pattern

Removed from genus Pseudicius to other groups of genera

Gen. Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Afraflacilla bamakoi Berland, Millot, 1941
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Africa and Flacilloides, the later being unused synonym, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Habitus resembling Pseudicius, from which differes by very complicated internal structure of epigyne. Male palps with single, long tibial apophysis, embolus parallel to bulbus or encircling it.
DESCRIPTIONS. Male. Body appearance shown on illustrations above. Subocular row of stridulatory bristles is distinct. Legs I with oversized, much broadened femur, patella and tibia. Male palpus with elongate oval bulbus, embolus arising from a broad base, in mid-length of bulbus, parallel to bulbus and gently bent, but in some species encircling it. Tibial apophysis originates at the mid-length of tibia, and is broadly bent initially. Female. Abdomen light with two darker streaks broken into 3 pairs of near-rectangular spots, there is a pair of lighter grey spots anteriorly, and a diamond-shaped, contrasting black spot at the posterior end of the abdomen. Epigyne broad, with pockets at the mid-length, widely spaced, translucent coils of copulatory ducts clearly half the length of the spermathecae.
REMARKS . The genus contains majority of species of PSEUDICIINAE, originally classified to Pseudicius to which is so similar by habitus that after original description of two species as Afraflacilla by Berland & Millot, 1941, it was re-synonymized by Clark [1974. P. 22] but revived again by Zabka [1993: 280], after prolonged discussion is now sustained
DISTRIBUTION. Documented all over Africa, South East Asia, some species occurring on Pacific Islands and in Australia, not yet reported from India. Three species entering Southern Europe.

+
Afraflacilla bamakoi : Zabka M. 1993. Invert. Tax. 7: 280, f 3A-C + Berland, Millot J. 1941. 12, 2: 329 f 31.
+
Afraflacilla asorotica : Proszynski J. 1993. F. Saudi Ar. 13: 50-53, f 41-46 +Proszynski 2003a: Ann. zool.: 148-149, f 628-629.
+
Afraflacilla bipunctata : Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 54 + Peckhams 1903. 14 (1): t 26, f 3-a. By courtesy .
++
Afraflacilla braunsi: Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 52 + Peckhams 1903. 14 (1): 211, t 26, f 1-a + Wesołowska,
van Harten 2007. F. Arabia: 23: 248-253, f 169-177. By courtesy .
b)c)
Afraflacilla javanica +b) kraussi +b1) samoaensis [syn.]: Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 57,
f 165-172 +b) Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arachn. 26(2): 165-167, f 44-52, 57-58 +b1) Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool.
44, 8: 110-111, f 116-119 [samoaennsis is a synonym?]. By courtesy .
+
Afraflacilla punctata : Original 2 drawings by Prószyński + Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arach. 26(2):
168-170, f 53, 54, 60-61, . By courtesy .
b)c)
Afraflacilla philippinensis +b) reiskindi c) sp : Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 108-109,
f 104-106, 111 +b) 109-110, f 112-116+c) © Photo R. R. Jackson By courtesy.
+
Afraflacilla spiniger: Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 372, f 46-48 + Logunov,
Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 13 (6): 217-232, f 37. By courtesy .
b)
Afraflacilla tamaricis +b) tripunctata : Proszynski. 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 154, f 614-622 +b) Proszynski 1989. F.
Saudi Ar. 10: 53-54, f 53-55. By courtesy .
Afraflacilla wadis : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 154-155, f 623-627 By courtesy.
+
Afraflacilla epiblemoides: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 156, f 635-637 + Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 89, 208, f 54a-i
+ ©Photo J. Lissner. By courtesy .

Gen. Festucula Simon, 1901
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Festucula vermiformis Simon, 1901.
ETYMOLOGY. Name derived from Latin meaning little straw, grammar gender female.
DIAGNOSIS. Pseudiciinae genus characterized by very long and narrow abdomen, resemblig narrow bodied Salticidae and other spiders hidding on straw of grass, criptically colored green or brownish yellow.
DESCRIPTIONS. Abdomen narrow, 2.4 times longer than carapace, shape of epigyne and its internal structures are shown on illustrations below. Male palp are comparable with Pseudicius pseudocourtaldi Logunov, 1998, but tibial apophysis biramous with widely diverging rami, resembling genus Rudakius.
REMARKS . Originally classified by Simon [1901-1903] in the group Marpisseae and Marpissinae by Petrunkevitch [1928], in list by Bonnet […: 5053] placed in the Salticinae subfamily.
REFERENCES.
COMPOSITION.Festucula festuculaeformis +b) lawrencei (Lessert, 1925), F. lawrencei Lessert, 1933, F. vermiformis Simon, 1901. Uncertain species: F. lineata Simon, 1901, F. monticola Berland, Millot, 1941.

b)+b
Festucula vermiformis +b) lawrencei: Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003a: 63, f. 241-243 +b) Wesolowska 1992. J. African
Zool. 106 (1):50-52, ff. 26-27 + Wesolowska, Haddad, 2011. Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 70, f 40. By courtesy .

Gen. MIRICIUS gen. n.,
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius (in part)].

Type species Pseudicius vankerii Metzner, 1999 = MIRICIUS vankerii (Metzner, 1999).
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Pseudicius and Miri (named for the first collector of the type species Mrs Miri Halevy); grammar gender assumed male.
DIAGNOSIS. Spider with typical Pseudiciinae habitus, tibial apophysis stumpy with two or three short rami, intermediate between Rudiakius and some Pseudicius ; embolus arising laterally, bent in front of bulbus or half encirclig it. Epigyne resembling that in Pseudicius but with copulatory duct sclerotized and half encircling spermatheca.
DESCRIPTIONS. REMARKS REFERENCES.

MIRICIUS vankeeri : Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 2003a: 151-152, f 594, 605-609.
b)c)
MIRICIUS shirinae +b) sindbadi +c) delesserti: Proszynski 1989. F. Saudi Ar. 10: 50-51, f 48-49 + 51-52, f 50
+b) 51-52, f 50-52 +c) Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 50. By courtesy.
MIRICIUS sheherezadae : Proszynski J. 1989. F. Saudi Arabia. 10: 49-50, f 46-47 + Wesołowska, van Harten 2007.
Fauna of Arabia, 23: 253, f 178-181.
By courtesy.

Gen. NEPALICIUS gen. n.
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius (in part)].

Type species Icius nepalicus Andreeva, Heciak & Prószyński, 1984 = NEPALICIUS nepalicus
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words , grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Subfamilial classification based on presence on presence of subocular row of stridulatory spines on protuberances and typical modification of tibia I, also a row of stridulatory microsetae on femur (Fig. X). Differs from other genera of the subfamily by bulbus round, encircled by embolus, entirely or partially, dorsal ramus of tibial apophysis reduced to semicircular protuberance. Epigyne with a pair of grooves in the posterior part, pockets not discovered, copulatory duct sclerotized, shaped, spermatheca bent vessel, both developed parallel to main body axis.
COMPOSITION. Nepalicius koreanus (Wesolowska, 1981), comb. n., N. nepalicus (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984) comb. n.,a., N. seychellensis (Wanless,1983) comb. n.,
REFERENCES. Andreeva, Heciak & Prˇszynski, 1984: 372, f. 49-51; Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987: 67-71, Figs 63-76; DISTRIBUTION. Nepal, India, Korea, Japan.
Synonyms of the type species: Icius nepalicus Andreeva, Heciak & Prˇszynski, 1984: 372, f. 49-51. Icius nepalicus Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987: 71; (Pseudicius nepalicus Prˇszynski in "NOTICE" distributed with Bohdanowicz & Prˇszynski, 1987). Pseudicius nepalicus Prˇszynski, 1992a: 106, f. 67, 69-72.

NEPALICIUS nepalicus : Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 106-107, f 67-72. By courtesy.
+
NEPALICIUS koreanus : Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool. 41, 2: 67-71, f 67-73 + Wesolowska 1981a. Ann. zool.:
60-61, f 52-55. By courtesy.

Gen. OKINAWICIUS gen. n.
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius (in part)].

Type species Pseudicius okinawaensis Prˇszynski, 1992 = OKINAWICIUS okinawaensis (Prˇszynski, 1992) from Japan: Okinawa.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words , grammar gender assumed female.
REFERENCES.Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1 992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105.By courtesy.
COMPOSITION. Okinawicius daitarica (Prˇszynski, 1992) comb. n., O. modestus (Simon, 1885) comb. n., O. okinawaensis (Prˇszynski, 1992) comb. n., O. tokaraensis (Bohdanowicz, Prˇszynski, 1987) comb. n.

+
OKINAWICIUS okinawaensis Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 108, f 98-100. By courtesy .
OKINAWICIUS modestus +b) daitarica : Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 203, f 155-157 +b) 202, f 154 .[ India].

Gen. PSENUC gen. n.
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius (in part)].

Type species Pseudicius nuclearis Proszynski, 1992 = PSENUC nuclearis (Proszynski 1992).
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Pseudicius and nuclearis, grammar gender assumed female. .
REFERENCES.Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 107-108, f 85-87.
Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998. J. Arachnol. 26(2): 168-170, f 55-56, 59, 62-66, map 3. By courtesy.

+
PSENUC nuclearis : Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 107-108, f 85-87 + Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1998.
J. Arachnol. 26(2): 168-170, f 55-56, 59, 62-66, By courtesy .
b)
PSENUC manilaensis +b) solomonensis: Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 111-112, f 101-103. By courtesy .
PSENUC vesporum: Proszynski 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 112-113, f 88-97. By courtesy .
PSENUC [AUS-265]: ©Photo R. Whyte.Australia: NQ Barron Gorge NP 02/03/2012. By courtesy .
+
PSENUC dependens : Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 109-111, f 141-142, 166-170 [syn. Pseudicius d.].

Gen. Pseudicius Simon, 1885 sensu str.
in this narrow interpretation expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Aranea encarpata Walckenaer, 1802 = Pseudicius encarpatus, from Europe.
DIAGNOSIS.
DESCRIPTIONS. .
REMARKS . As often happens, for a type species was selected the first discovered species, rather little resembling other species included originally into genus Pseudicius and now reclassified mainly into Afraflacilla. While majority of PSEUDICIINAE are distributed in Africa and Asia, Europe is marginal area of occurrence, but European fauna was studied first.
REFERENCES.Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105.By courtesy. .
COMPOSITION. Pseudicius badius (Simon, 1868), Pseudicius encarpatus (Walckenaer, 1802).COMPOSITION. Palaesticius amicus (Prˇszynski, 1999), Palaesticius kulczynskii (Nosek, 1905) comb. n., Palaesticius palaestinensis (Strand, 1915) comb. n., Palaesticius picaceus (Simon, 1868) comb. n., Palaesticius pseudocourtauldi (Logunov, 1998) comb. n., Palaesticius vankeeri (Metzner, 1999) comb. n.

+++
Pseudicius encarpatus : Proszynski 1992a. Ann. zool. 44, 8: 102-103, f 104-105 + Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984.
Ann. zool. 3, 13: 350, f 12-14 + I. Rödel ©Arachnologische Gesellschaft e.V. +Flanczewska 1981. Ann. zool. 36: 221,
f 94-95 + Zabka 1997. F. Polski 19: 5-187, f 278-289.
By courtesy.
Pseudicius palaestinensis : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 152-154, f 598, 601-602, 610-611. By courtesy.
++
Pseudicius courtauldi : Bristowe 1935 (reprinted by Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 90-91, 210, f 56a-g) + Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 373, f 57-60 + Wesolowska 1996. Arthr. Sel. 5 (1/2): 38, f 28a-c. By courtesy.
+
Pseudicius pseudocourtauldi : Logunov 1998c. Arthr. Sel. 7(4): 303, f 5-8 + Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool., 53, 1: 176,
f 738-741. By courtesy.
enigmatic Gen. sp. : Photo D. Knowles: Indonesia: Bali: Alas Kedaton. By courtesy. [Comment: classification uncertain,
body shape resembling Pseudicius, tibia I swollen, color pattern does not resemble any known spider, palps and epigyne not seen, presence of stridulatory bristles
under eyes lateral cannot be checked
]
.

Gen. RUDAKIUS gen. n.
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Pseudicius (in part)].

Type species Menemerus cinctus Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885 = Pseudicius cinctus Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885 = RUDAKIUS cinctus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) from Central Asia.
ETYMOLOGY. Named to honor great Persian poet (850-940 n.e.) who lived in the area of occurence of this genus, in the Samanid court in Buchara (present day Uzbekistan). Name combines words Rudaki and Pseudicius, grammar gender assumed male
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from remaining genera of PSEUDICIINAE by shape of bulbus and embolus, as well as by large tibial apophysis, split into two long rami . Epigyne and its internal structures very special and characteristic, but with visible similarities to remaining genera .
DESCRIPTIONS. Main characters of the subfamily present: body shape, a row of stridulatory stouter bristles on tubercles, under eyes lateral, corresponding with microsetae on prolateral surfacee of femur I, leg I stout and long with modified tibia (see R. maureri). Differs from remaining genera of PSEUDICIINAE by shape of bulbus and embolus, as well as by large tibial apophysis, split into two long rami, broadly diverging. Epigyne with a pair of large grooves, but without disctinct pockets. Copulatory openings broad in the middle of epigyne, copulatory ducts sclerotized, running back, then making a full circle loop, with prominent armature of a scent gland in the middle, finally joining elongate oval spermathecae located parallel to the main axis of the body.
REMARKS. Placement of R. shirinae and R. sindbadi remain uncertain, untill their respective females will be described.
COMPOSITION. Rudakius afghanicus (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984), Rudakius cinctus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885), Rudakius citri (Sadana, 1979), Rudakius delesserti (Caporiacco, 1941), Rudakius ludhianaensis (Tikader, 1974), Rudakius maureri (Prˇszynski, 1992),Rudakius rudakii (Prˇszynski, 1992), Rudakius shirinae (Prˇszynski, 1989),Rudakius sindbadi (Prˇszynski, 1989), Rudakius spasskyi (Andreeva, Heciak, Prˇszynski, 1984), Rudakius wenshanensis (He, Hu, 1999).
DISTRIBUTION. Central Asian genus, occuring also in China, Ethiopia, India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia .

+
RUDAKIUS cinctus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 351-352, f 20, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41
+ Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 49 [type of P. vittatus]. By courtesy.
+
RUDAKIUS afghanicus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 352, f. 21, 24, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40
+ Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 49 [type of P. vittatus]. By courtesy.
RUDAKIUS spasskyi : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool. 3, 13: 352, f 22, 25-25, 29, 32, 35, 38, 42. By courtesy.
RUDAKIUS maureri : Proszynski J. 1992a. Annales zoologici, 48, 8: 105-106, f 73-79. By courtesy.
+
RUDAKIUS rudakii +b) admirandus: Proszynski 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 110-111, f 80-82
+b) Logunov 2007: Acta arachnologica, 56(1): 21-23, f 1-5 [comparison: P. rudaki - grey, P. admirandus - white].
b)c)
RUDAKIUS citri +b) ludhianaensis +c) wenshanensis : Sadana 1979 [1980] . Entom. month. magaz. 115: 229-230,
f 1-5 +b) Tikader 1974b. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 79: 205, f 1-3 +c) He S., Hu J. 1999. A. Arachn. Sin. 8 (3): 32-33, f 1-3.

Gen. Spadera Peckham, Peckham, 1894 [synonym reinstated]
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Spadera unica Peckham, Peckham, 1894 from Madagascar
DESCRIPTION. (repeated after ?) "...Length, 4.8. Length of cephalothorax, 2; width of cephalothorax, 1.2.Legs, 1432;first pair plainly stoutest. The femur, patellaPeckham, Peckham, 1894 and tibia of the first leg are thickened, especially the femur.The color of the cephalothorax is dark brown; the eye region is blackish. The upper surface is thinly covered with mixed red and white hairs. A wide, white band encircles the lower sides and below this is a black line. The clypeus and palpus are covered with white hairs. The abdomen is light brown, with a dark region down the middle, which consists of two triangular figures on the anterior and middle part and some rounded spots behind. There is a transverse, curved, white band at the anterior end of the abdomen, and another across the middle; and the brown spots at the posterior end are surrounded by white. The legs are brown, the first pair being the darkest. The falces are dark brown. The under surface is dark brown, thinly covered with white hairs...."
REFERENCES.Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105. By courtesy. .

+
Spadera unica: Prˇszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 51; Peckham, Peckham, 1894 pl. XII, Figs 1a-e. By courtesy [Madagascar].