RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD
- 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prˇszynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prˇszyński
31 - PELLENINES GROUP OF GENERA
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations, also references, are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Type genus Pellenes.
Interactive index of genera: Dexippus, Pellenes , Pellenes (Pellenes ) , Pellenes (Pellap) , Pellenes (Pelmirus) , Pellenes ( Pelmultus) , Pellenes (Pelpaucus) .
(70 species)

Introduction

PELLENINES are characterized by large pocket in epigyne, localized centrally and followed on both sides by shallow, sclerotized grooves instead of membranous "windows" (or single "window" known in HARMOCHIRINES) as in some other groups of genera. Spermathecae and ducts in a form of complicated loops of unclear course. Males with embolus inside thick, fleshy sheath structure (see scan of Pellenes lapponicus), in some species with complicated apical structures (as in Pellenes nigrociliatus).
PELLENINES in a version proposed here, are separated from HABRONATTINES by palps structure, by of embolus hidden inside sheath, by epigyne and it's internal structures. In practice they can be recognized by external appearance, especially by body shape and pattern of white spots and lines. Their diversity, however, require memorizing.
Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

Guide to identification of genera by male palps

Guide to identification of genera by internal structure of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by appearance of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by color pattern

Difference in color pattern beween Habronattus (HABRONATTINES) above and Pellenes (below.

Gen. Dexippus Thorell, 1891 (3 species)

Type species Dexippus kleini.
DIAGNOSIS. Resembles PELLENINES by bell shaped, broad pocket centrally on epigyne, possibly also by broad embolus of unknown structure. Embolus arises anterolaterally or laterally, runs transversally, parallel to anterior edge of bulbus, its tip is characteristically bent anteriorwards. Epigyne, know in one species only, has bell shaped, broad pocket centrally, with posterior small opening posteromedially. Ducts are short, run obliquely to broad, swollen chamber of unknown function, with small outgrowths being spermathecae, or their terminal parts, anteriorly. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

+
Dexippus kleini + taiwanensis : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ..: 33 + Peng X, Li S. 2002c. Zool. Studies 41 (3): 339-340, figs 5-8. By courtesy.
Dexippus topali : Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 170-171, f 12-19. By courtesy.

Gen. Pellenes Simon, 1876 ( 67 species)

Type species Pellenes (Pellenes) tripunctatus
DIAGNOSIS - see diagnoses of subgenera, below.
REMARKS. Large genus, containing at present 67 species, divided into 6 subgenera, distributed over Palaearctics, Nearctics, Africa, Asia and Australia. Possibly originated in different continental distribution centers and deserves splitting into a few separate genera.

TEMPORARY KEY TO SUBGENERA OF Pellenes

1 -
1 - Pellenes (Pellenes) tripunctatus
2 -
2-Pellenes (Pelmirus) dilutus + sytchevskayae
3
3 - Pellenes (Pelmultus) nigrociliatus
4 5 -
4 - Pellenes (Pelpaucus) ostrinus, 5 - Pellenes (Pellevii) levii subgen. n.
6 - Pellenes (Pellap) lapponicus subgen. n.

Pellenes (Pellenes) Simon, 1876 (4 species)

Type species of the genus and of this subgenus: Pellenes (Pellenes ) tripunctatus.
DIAGNOSIS. Embolus hidden inside stumpy, fleshy sheath set transversally in front of bulbus, emerges anteriorly over flattened but partially folded anterior plate of the sheath. Tibial apophysis tightly pressed to depression in the wall of cymbium, limited posteriorly by either huge swelling of wall, or small protuberances. Epigyne with pocket narrowed to a thin edge, located well ahead, followed by prominent ridge bisecting epigyne and separating grooves and sclerotized lips of copulatory openings at their bottom. Color pattern: dark abdomen bisected by thin white line, continuous or broken into small dots, sometimes crossed posteriorly by dotted line. Color pattern of face has diagnostic significance. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

Pellenes(Pellenes) tripunctatus : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 103 + ©Photo J. Lissner. By courtesy.
>
Pellenes seriatus [compared with tripunctatus] :Logunov, Marusik 1994. Arthr. Sel., 5 (1/2): 106, f. 4A-E + ©Photo A. Noordam. + A. Senglet. By courtesy.
Pellenes sibiricus : Logunov, Marusik 1994. Arthr. Sel., 5 (1/2): 108, f. 6A-C, 7A-B, 8A-D. By courtesy.
+b)
+++
Pellenes [laggani - syn?] +b) ignifrons : Peckhams 1909: 532, 560 + Levi, Levi 1951. Zoologica 36(4): 232, f 47, 49 +b) Proszynski 1971d. Annales zoologici: 214-218, ff. 20-27 +1979: 314, f 228 + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999: 105, f 18, 19, 23.. By courtesy.
Pellenes lagrecai :Cantarella, Alicata, 2002. Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania, 35, 361: 577-579, figs 8-11. By courtesy.

Pellenes (Pelmirus) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999 (5 species)

Representative species: Pellenes (Pelmirus) hedjazensis
DIAGNOSIS. Characterized by stumpy embolus split apically into two processes, of which lateral one is shorter and spine like, seems to be sclerotized, the other is longer and waving, runs transversally . Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

+b)
Pellenes hedjazensis +b) negevensis: Proszynski1993. F. Saudi Ar. 13: 44-46, ff. 32-36 + Wesolowska, van Harten. UAE, 2010: 3: 47, pl 17, f 52-56 +b) Proszynski J. 2000. Arthr. Sel., 8(4): 257, figs 96-98. By courtesy.
+ +
Pellenes (Pelmirus) dilutus + sytchevskayae : Logunov 1995a: 238-240, figs 8-11 + 237-238, f 1-4 + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999 33: 110-112,+ figs 25, 53-59 + Proszynski 2003b: 176, f. 734-735. By courtesy
Pellenes (Pelmirus) pulcher : Logunov 1995a: 238-240, figs 5-7. By courtesy

Pellenes (Pelmultus) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999 (34 species)

Representative species: Pellenes ( Pelmultus) nigrociliatus.
DIAGNOSIS. Embolus hidden inside stumpy sheath, its tip, of diagnostic importance, is forked with thin, twisted plate emerging between terminal rami; these details are visible only under strong microscopic magnification (x 200). Bulbus almost round, tibial apophysis moderately thin, reaches half length of bulbus level, articulates with depression in the lateral wall of cymbium, the latter often with indistinct posterior swelling. In females prominent medial pocket is usually located in anterior half of epigyne, well ahead of a pair of prominent sclerotized groves, it is followed by a prominent medial groove, running towards posterior end of epigyne. Copulatory openings, often with prominent, sclerotized lips at the bottom of sclerotized grooves, are followed by a tight and compact knot of strongly sclerotized ducts and spermathecae, whose course is difficult to trace. Color pattern is characteristic: thin medial line running along posterior half of dark abdomen, followed laterally by two pairs of oblique white lines, dark carapace has often a pair of large spots of white setae, sometimes fused into single transverse area. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

+
Pellenes (Pelmultus) nigrociliatus : Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003a, 53 (1): 116-117, figs 460, 471-472, 729-733 + ©Photo J. Lissner + characteristic behavior ©Photo H. Bellman. By courtesy.
Pellenes sp [Australia-294]= P. nigrociliatus !! +b) sp [Hort] : ©Photo R. Whyte +F. & J. Hort [W Australia]. By courtesy.
+b)
Pellenes epularis +b) siculus : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool.: 112, f 484-486, 489-491+b) Alicata P., Cantarella T. 2000. Mem. Soc. entomol. ital. 78 (2): 492-496, f 7-12 . By courtesy
Pellenes geniculatus : Proszynski J. 2003a. Ann. zool.: 119-120, f 463-488, 492-494, 498-500. By courtesy
+
Pellenes geniculatus : Wesolowska, van Harten. UAE, 2010: 3: 43, pl 13-16, f 44-51+ Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 95-97, f 108-109. By courtesy.
+
Pellenes bitaeniata : Keyserling 1882: 1405, t 119, f 2 + Zabka 2006 Annales zoologici, 56(3): 567-573, f 1-14 (photos in pairs male + female). By courtesy.
Pellenes [comparison of palps of 3 males: epularis+geniculatus+nigrociliatus, and epigyne of 4 females: epularis+geniculatus+maderianus+nigrociliatus] : Proszynski 2008. Online. By courtesy
Pellenes hadaensis : : Proszynski J. 1993. F. Saudi Ar. Basel, 13: 43-44, ff. 28-31 +44-46, ff. 32-36 [embolar region atypical, placement uncertain].
+
Pellenes arciger :Proszynski 2003b. Annales zoologici 53, 1: 120, figs 495-497 + ©photo H. Metzner. By courtesy.
Pellenes allegrii : Proszynski 1984c: 100 [Urdukas (Karakorum) m 4000; VI. 1929. Coll. Caporiacco. Mus.Florence.
Pellenes allegrii : Logunov, Marusik,Rakov 1999, 33: 113-117, figs 60-70, 80-82, 89, 90,92 - from Kazakhstan and Kyrghyzstan, suposed to by conspecific.
+
Pellenes gobiensis : Wesolowska 1981b. Ann. zool., 36: 152-153, ff. 70-71+ Logunov 1992b. Arthr. Sel., 1 (2): 60-61, f 5a-h.
+++
Pellenes amazonka + badkhyzicus + borisi + pamiricus : Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999, 33: 118-119, figs 93-97, 159 + 119-120, figs 91, 98-103 + 120-121, figs 24, 104-106 + 136-138, figs 91, 180-188 . By courtesy.
Pellenes[?] stepposus : Logunov D.V. 1991a. Zoologicheskiy zhurnal, 70 (2): 51-54, f 2: 1-7. By courtesy.
++
++
Pellenes brevis : Proszynski J. 1979. Ann. zool., 34: 299-369, figs. 236-238 + Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 124-126, 244, t 90a-k + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999. 33: 143-144, figs 77-79, 87, 88, 160-162, 192, 206, 207, 209 + ©Photo J. Lissner + A. Senglet. By courtesy.
Pellenes pseudobrevis : Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 199933: 138-141, figs 159, 163-165, 189-191, 208, 210-213. By courtesy
Pellenes tocharistanus : Andreeva. 1976: 86-87, ff. 106-109 + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999. 33: 141-143,
figs 71-73, 83, 84, 159, 166-171, 197-205. By courtesy.
++
Pellenes maderianus : Proszynski, Internet F&M - from Madeira, Mus. Basel. +Proszynski 2003a: 53,1: 112-114, figs 459 + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999b: 33: 122, figs 91, 111-130 (Holotype). By courtesy.
+
Pellenes moreana: Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 129-130, 249, table 95a-g + ©Photo A. Senglet. By courtesy.
+++
Pellenes iforhasorum +marionis + minimus: Berland, Millot 1941: 12, 2: 309 f 11 +Logunov. 2004d. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 13 (3), 89, f. 7 + Logunov 2000 9 (4): 282-283, figs 371-373 + Proszynski J. 1987: 75. By courtesy.
b)+
Pellenes purcelli + dahli : Proszynski 1984: 103-104 (Type) + Lessert R. 1915a. Rev. suisse zool., 23: tab. 3, figs 81-83.
b) c)d)
Pellenes levaillanti +b) ravoisiei +c) insignis +d) karakumensi: Lucas, 1846 : 177, t 8, f 3 +b) 157, t 8, f 4 +c) . Butt A., Beg M. A. 2000. Pakist. J. Zool. 32 (1):77, f 3A-C + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999, 33: 131-133, f 91, 154-158. By courtesy.
Pellenes placidus Peckham, Peckham, 1901: 200, 206, 223, illustrations t 1, f 18 = Habronattus p.
++b)
Pellenes (Pelmultus) modicus +b) univittatus: Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000. Trop. Zool., 13 (1): 81-82 , figs 215-216 + Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 97-99, f 110-111, 128-132 +b) Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ...: 44. By courtesy.
Pellenes (Pelmultus) striolatus : Wesolowska, van Harten A. 2002. Fauna of Arabia 19: 380-383, figs 38-45.
++
Pellenes (Pelmultus) tharinae : Wesolowska 1999a. Arn. Zimb., 10(15): 165, figs 57-59. + Wesolowska 2006b. Afr. Ent., 14 (2): 246-250, f 93-101 + Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 99-101, f 112-113. By courtesy.
+ +
Pellenes (Pelmultus) vanharteni + Unmatched female +cingulatus : Wesolowska 1998. Bol. Mus. Mun. Funchal, 50 (291): 129, figs 22-29 . Wesolowska , Russel-Smith. 2000. Tropical Zoology, 13 (1): 77-79, figs 205-209. By courtesy.
b)
Pellenes denisi +b) albomaculatus: Wesolowska 1981b. Ann. zool., 36: 151, figs 68-69 + Song D., Zhu M., Chen J. 1999: 537, figs 306F-G, 327Q. By courtesy.
b)c) c)
Pellenes (Pelmultus) [?] sp [Hawaii] +b) lucidus +c) canosus +d) beani : Proszynski 2002. Arthr. Sel. 10 (3): 237-239, f 75-76 +b) Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005.Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 13 (6): 224-225, f 18-21 +c) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999: 33: 144-145, figs 107-110 +d) Peckhams 1903. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts. Lett., 14 (1): 236, t 27, f 2. By courtesy.
Pellenes (Pellevii) levii +b) logunovi :: Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 25, f. 17-18, 29 + 24, f. 21-22 + 27, f. 30, 32 +b)Marusik, Hippa,Kopponen 1996. Acta zool. fenn., 201: 28-30, 37, figs 75-80. By courtesy. .

Pellenes (Pelpaucus) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999 (12 species)

Representative species: Pellenes (Pelpaucus) ostrinus
DIAGNOSIS. Epigyne with broad oval depression and rudimentary pocket anteriorly and ducts in a form of compact, integrated body, with internal convoluted chambers. Embolus hidden inside sheath stretching in front of bulbus, straight or diagonal. Posterior retrolateral edge of cymbium drawn into characteristic tail. Drawings below constitute integral part of the genus definition.

+
Pellenes (Pelpaucus) limbatus : Andreeva 1976: 84-85, figs 99-100. Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999: 33: 105, f. 10, 15, 17 + Prószyński 1982 Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 74: 285-287, ff. 37-40. By courtesy.
++
Pellenes ostrinus + (=?) diagonalis: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53 (1): 117-119, f 461-462, 476-482 + fig 483. + Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 126-127, 245, table 91a-i. By courtesy.
+
Pellenes ostrinus (?) : Israel: Judean foothils. ©Photo Amir Weinstain + Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool., 53 (1): 113, f 462. By courtesy.
Pellenes turkmenicus : Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999, :33: 106-107, figs 25, 40-49 .
++
Pellenes albopilosus + bonus: Proszynski 1979: 307, f.87-88 + Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999, 33: 102, f 24, 26-35 +103-105, figs 25, 36-39 . By courtesy.

Pellenes (Pellap) Prószyński, 3016 subgen. n. (1 species)

Representative species: Pellenes (Pellap) lapponicus .

Diagnosis of the subgenus Pellenes (Pellap) (new) (Figures 121-126). Epigyne elongate with prominent, broad medial groove, running from rudimentary anterior pocket, somewhat like in Habronattus. Spermathecae and ducts form elongate compact bodies, consisting of spiral structures, stretching along the whole length of epigyne. Sheath encircles embolus ventrally and laterally, opened dorsally - as demonstrated on excellent SEM scan of dorsal side of bulbus, separated from cymbium, provided by Logunov & Marusik (see figure 126, below). Tibial apophysis large and unusually expanded apically, trapezium like, articulates with prominent swelling of dorsal wall of the cymbium. Drawings below constitute integral part of the subgenus definition.

Remarks. Splitting the genus Pellenes Simon, 1876 into four subgenera: nominal Pellenes, Pelmirus, Pelmultus and Pelpaucus, differing by such characters as shape of palpal organ, especially by embolus structure, and by epigyne, was done by Logunov and Marusik 2000, which left outside holarctic species Pellenes lapponicus (Sundevall, 1833). Since that species has some strikingly outstanding structures, it seems useful that to create a separate subgenus - Pellap for it, to keep records straight. Among peculiar structures of that subgenus, special attention deserves robust and thick embolus, being in fact composite structure, consisting of external sheath and internal sclerotized, hair like (but apparently strong and presumably elastic) embolus proper, discovered by Logunov, Marusik 1999 (Figure 126). That structure coincides well with emboli in other subgenera of Pellenes, but may have much broader significance - in many salticidae "embolus" appears thick, semitransparent, with indistinct thin dark streak, sometimes protruding from the tip of "embolus". Therefore I assume, provisionally, that such "emboli" have composite structure of external sheath and split from it internal, hair like, embolus proper.
The placement of this species is rather special and deserves, perhaps, separate genus status. Palpus is not similar to remaining Pellenes, epigyne could be compared with such species as Pellnes ostrinus (Simon, 1868), P. diagnonalis (Simon, 1868) and P. turkmenicus Logunov, Marusik & Rakov, 1999, and with the genus Habronattus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901, which unfortunately is insufficiently known.

++
Pellenes lapponicus: Proszynski 1991: 512-514 ff. 1369.1-4 + Paquin, Duperre 2006. Zootaxa 1133: 21-23, f 41-46. Logunov, Marusik 1999c. Arthr. Sel. 8(4): 269, f 22-23. By courtesy.

Pellenes (pending classification) (13 species)

+
Pellenes inexcultus + luculentus : Clark, Benoit, 1977. Annls Mus. royal. afriq. centr. (Zool.-Ser. 8), 220: 98, ff. 41a-d + Wesolowska, van Harten. 2007 23: 240-242, f 145-148.. By courtesy.
+
Pellenes bulawayoensis :Wesolowska W. 1999a. Arnoldia Zim., 10(15): 163, figs 52-56 + Haddad, Wesołowska 2011 © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 93-95, f 106-107, 116-122 + 2009: 50: 68, photo 221-222. By courtesy.
+
Pellenes rufoclypeatus +b) corticolens: : Peckhams 1903.14 (1): 235, T. 27, F. 1 +b) .Chamberlin 1924a. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 12: 692, fig. 138. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Pellenes (Pellevii) limatus +b) shoshonensis +c) apacheus +d) crandalli : Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 25, f. 17-18, 29 + 23, f 23-24. + Gertsch 1934: 20, figs 15-16. By courtesy. Pellenes peninsularis Emerton, 1925 - no diagnostic drawings
b)c)d)
Pellenes (Pellevii) washonus +b) wrighti +c) perexcultus+d) longimanus: Peckhams 1903.14 (1): 235, T. 27, F. 1 + Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 28, f.13-14 +28, f. 13-14 +c) Clark, Benoit, 1977: 220: 100, f. 42-43 +d) Kaston B. J. 1948: 70: 462, t 91, f 1695-97. By courtesy.