RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prószynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prószyński
29 - MYRMARACHNINES GROUP OF GENERA
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations, also references, are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Type genus Myrmarachne .
Interactive index of genera Bocus , Emertonius , Gen[Baliga] , MYRMAGE , MYRMAGUA , MYRMANU , MYRMAPANA , MYRMAPENI , MYRMAPLATA , Myrmarachne , MYRMATHECA , MYRMAVOLA , MYRMELE , Panachraesta , Toxeus , UNCERTAIN (157 species)
Following genera are transfered to group of genera LIGONIPEINAE: Damoetas , Judalana , Ligonipes , Rhombonotus , genus Belippo to group BELIPPINAE
. [ATTENTION: Names written in CAPITAL LETTERS - new proposals, formally published in Prószyński 2016c]

Introduction

Group of genera MYRMARACHNINES was created as Myrmarachneae by Simon [1901: 390, 496-505], its type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 was described as early as 1839 [MacLeay 1839: 10], the popularly recognized European species Myrmarachne formicaria (De Geer, 1778) was described even earlier - in 1778, but was mentioned by naturalists as early as in 1671 [Lister 1671: 2175], the first Central American species is known since 1794 - Myrmarachne parallela (Fabricius, 1794). The recognition was due to peculiar body shape resembling ants and to their interesting behavior of hiding from predators among ants. Due to big number of species occurring worldwide and their diversity, there are 19 synonymic names of Myrmarachne listed by Bonnet [1955-1958: 2997], reprinted recently by Edwards [2013a], but no new synonym of a genus name was created after Simon 1901 [op. cit.]. Name of this group of genera was changed to nomenclatorically correct subfamily Myrmarachninae by Petrunkevitch [1928: 57], who has, however, included into it several unrelated genera (proup Ligonipedeae).
Myrmarachne, as well as other MYRMARACHNINES, have been frequently mentioned and described in a number of scientific and popular publications, there is also a large number of photographs displayed in the Internet. There were numerous descriptions of Myrmarachne during XIX and first half of the XX centuries, especially valuable were those by Mr. & Mrs Peckham, documented in a modern way. Special importance in the modern time have papers by Galiano 1969b (on South American Myrmarachne, on the background of other ant-like genera). Subdivision of Myrmarachne of the Ethiopian Region into smaller groups of species was proposed by Wanless [1978a: 19-20]. His analysis of characters and their diversity is very sound, and is largely followed here. Wanless considered analysis of African Myrmarachninae incomplete without similar study of Oriental MYRMARACHNINES. 35 years later the knowledge of the Oriental MYRMARACHNINES has advanced to a degree permitting preliminary generalizations on the global fauna, still imperfect and requiring further study of multitude of species. Speaking on Oriental fauna I wish to remember particularly the initiative of M. Edmunds to study Malayan species, both of old type specimens of Badcock and his own collections and field observation, in which I had occasion to participate by making diagnostic drawings [Edmunds & Prószyński 2003]. Numerous new Oriental species were described, or revised, by several authors, including Żabka [1985], Prószyński [2001], Huang [2004], Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010], Benjamin 2015), Edwards and Benjamin [2009], Edwards [2013] and other. Special importance have extensive studies by Yamasaki [2010, 2012a, 2012b (also with coauthors Yamasaki & Huang [2012], Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], Yamasaki & Edwards [2013]), who connected field studies and descriptions of new species with redescriptions of old type specimens and with collection of new specimens from original collecting localities of these species.
Studies of behavior of Salticidae, including Myrmarachne were developed and much advanced by R. R. Jackson and his collaborators (numerous publications), with important results. Research are now very effectively assisted by almost complete collection of diagnostic documentation in the Internet "Monograph of Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014" http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/. It should be mentioned that the progress of the research on MYRMARACHNINES was influenced by methods of precise documentation of internal structures of epigyne in Salticidae (staining of cleared epigyne, published as large drawings) introduced parallely by Galiano and by Prószyński [all taxonomic publications since 1962]. 35 years after Wanless, the study of Oriental MYRMARACHNINES are advanced to a degree permitting separation of genera and distinguishing species.

Taxonomy of MYRMARACHNINES is difficult because of irregular diversity in their external appearance mimicking local species of ants, developed as protective camouflage. The popular understanding of "ant-likeness" is rather subjective and imprecise, the external appearance is in fact diverse and cannot be easily defined for all genera and species. Some natural grouping of species become apparent if one looks deeper into structure of epigyne and palp, which seem to be more independent from adaptative pressures and reflecting hereditary traits. The diagnostic value of internal structure of epigyne is well demonstrated by the series of 103 species of Myrmarachne with spermathecae of the same type, but sufficiently diverse to distinguish species, their similarities demonstrating at the same time their relationships. The structure of epigyne is easily noticeable after correct procedure of clearing and staining, their diversity can be grouped into some 9 types, which may well be used as guiding characters to separate genera. Comparison of palps does not demonstrate specific differences so clearly. Subfamily MYRMARACHNINAE sensu lato (as used in the current literature) contains at present 284 nominal species, of which only 157 have diagnostic genital drawings documentation and are therefore identifiable. I propose to consider now these identifiable species as the informal group of genera MYRMARACHNINES sensu stricto. That means that remaining 127 species cannot be considered until sufficient diagnostic drawings would be provided. The relationships between these 157 species and their rearrangement into genera is discussed below.

Relationship of MYRMARACHNINES to other groups is uncertain, the newest discovery of undescribed yet new genera of LIGONIPEINES in Australia by R. Whyte (in preparation for


Ligonipein-cf sp [P1110782]: Whyte, ©Photo I.R. Macaulay + R. Whyte. By courtesy.
print) suggests relationships to EUOPHRYINES, as a specialized group of genera, a view which is followed in this Introduction to Alternative Classification (See Introduction). They are not related to other ant-mimicking groups of species, from which they differ clearly by genital organs and other body characters. Different opinion was expressed by Maddison et al. [2008: 49, 54-55], according to whom molecular characters suggest relationship of Myrmarachne and Ligonipes with higher taxon Astioidea, however, molecular characters of the latter are not calibrated, there is no clear taxonomic definition of that group, morphological basis confirming that relationships is not indicated.

Taxonomy of MYRMARACHNINES Simon, 1901

Type genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 from India,
Type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 from India, redesignated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 2309: 5]
.

REMARKS. Identification of genera of MYRMARACHNINES creates special problems due to their polymorphic properties. Habitus of particular species, sometimes even local populations, is drastically influenced by appearance of ants they mimic (sometimes also other insects, including termites), shape of body is variable and cannot be used to formulate genus definition. Color patterns importance, was usually described on faded, long time preserved specimens, it become really useful only with onset of modern color macrophotography (developed by Koomen, Whyte and other photographers displaying photos in the Internet, notably good macrophotographs for taxonomic purposes appeared in Benjamin 2015). Male chelicerae in some MYRMARACHNINES are disproportionately enlarged as demonstration device in male nuptial encounters, but their length is individually variable. Male palps separate MYRMARACHNINES from other ant-mimicking groups of genera, but they are insufficient for separation of genera. also external appearance of epigyne is not sufficiently characteristic to serve that purpose.

DIAGNOSIS. MYRMARACHNINES differs from several other ant-mimicking groups of Salticidae by exceptional "pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne, copulatory ducts invisible without staining, make large membranous coils, running from almost indiscernible slit-like copulatory openings, pressed to median septum of epigyne, towards posterior end of spermathecae, near posterior rim of epigyne. Males have oval, or almost circular bulbus, encircled with coils of embolus inside semitranslucent sheath. Spermophor broad, runs along margin of bulbus, making additional loop, small and thin, before entering embolus. Tibial apophysis (RTA) short, usually twisted corkscrew-like, or straight. Male chelicerae usually disproportionately long, with row of tiny individual teeth along internal posterior edge, fang is very long. For details see drawings (below).
DESCRIPTION. Body resembling diverse local ants by shape and coloration.
Females. Epigyne externally whitish, has tegument medium sclerotized with a pair of membranous "windows", oval or round, with posterior "pocket" single or split into two, but not very striking. "Windows" occur also in some other subfamilies, but internal structure of epigyne is unique. Spermathecae can be described as a pair of sclerotized "pipes", running from near the posterior end of epigyne anterior wards, along longitudinal diameter, parallel and almost straight. Majority of genera have developed terminal sperm containers in the anterior part of spermathecae, in a form of either simple dilatation, or broadened single loop, or several loops, making knot, or even a double spiral. The container may be also developed as discreet compartment, round or oval. Internal walls of sperm storage compartment are usually covered with small spines (in Myrma gedongensis covering the whole length of "pipes"). There is indistinct, sieve like porous opening of the "nutritive [?] gland" at the terminal end of spermathecae, near cone-like "fertilization duct". The spermathecae are usually translucent through tegument, and so characteristic that they are usually marked on drawings, however often imprecisely. The copulatory ducts are irregular tubes of soft transparent membrane, with shrunken walls, making broad coils dorsally to white membrane of "windows" and are intertwined between soft tissues. The copulatory ducts are visible only after clearing of soft tissues and staining, so are often overlooked and known as yet in a small number of species. Their diagnostic significance were discovered only in 1990ties and 2000ties in Myrmarachne, their course in Belippo was traced only in 2013. The copulatory openings are narrow slits, difficult to notice, located closely to medium septum of epigyne. Ducts join posterior tips of "pipes", just past the inconspicuous swelling being apparently armature of the spermathecal "scent gland [?]". That junction proves that "pipes" are really parts of spermathecae, and not copulatory ducts, as they were sometimes interpreted.
Males. Common feature of palps in majority of MYRMARACHNINES is round bulbus, encircled internally, along margins, by thick and well visible, translucent spermophor, usually incomplete, in Myrmarachne with characteristic additional thin loop, less developed in remaining genera. Embolus encircles bulbus twice, it consists of a thin black thread, hard but elastic, hidden in a protective sheath (until discovery of that structure by Logunov [1999, P.1999. Figs 22-23] considered the embolus itself), clearly visible along the sheath, it's tip is protruding from the end of sheath. Tibial apophysis is short and fleshy, often with sclerotized tip, slightly waving or bending, in Myrmarachne twisted screw like and with developed flange - a flap of tegument, extending towards the mid length of tibia. Chelicerae in females are always short, in males of majority of MYRMARACHNINES enormously enlarged, presumably used as visual deterrent during mating duels, but of little use in catching prey. There are two long rows of minute teeth (pluridentati) along posterior (inner) edges of chelicerae. Chelicerae are remarkably shorter in Myrmavola and in genera Damoetas Ligonipes and Rhombonotus [the three latter transfered to group of genera LIGONIPEINES], their inner posterior teeth form compact group on ventral lobe of chelicera. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.

Guide to identification of genera by spermathecae and ducts

Guide to identification of genera by palps and chelicerae

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance and color pattern

.......................Bocus (1) ............................................................................ Emertonius (2-3)

............................................Myrmaplata (4-5)..............................................................................................................................................,Myrmarachne (7-8)
 
............................Myrmarachne formicaria (9 + 10 unusually colored female]
Diversity of habitus in MYRMARACHNINES. Bocus (1), Emertonius (2-3), Myrmaplata (4-5), Myrmarachne (7-10 [10 unusually colored female of M. formicaria]). 1 -from Brunei, 2-3 -from Indonesia: Ceram, 4-5 -from Sri Lanka, 7-8 Sri Lanka, 9 -Czech Republic,10 -Sweden, Toxeus maxillosus.from Singapore. 1 -©photo by J. Koh, 3-4 - ©photo by D. Knowles, 4-5 - ©photo by M. Freudenschus, 7-8 - ©photo by S. Benjamin, 9-10 - ©photo by J. Lissner, ©photo by H.K. Tang. By courtesy

Gen. Belippo Simon, 1909 - see BELIPPINES

Gen. Bocus Peckham & Peckham, 1892 (3 species)

Type species Bocus excelsus Peckham & Peckham, 1892 from Philippines.
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal "pipes" very thin spermathecal with relatively large, spherical anterior compartment, loops of copulatory ducts are relatively short. Body with broad and deep carapace constriction, anterior sternum with expanded intercostal plate between coxa I and II. In males pedipalpal tibia is narrower than cymbium, tibial apophysis is gently bent , spermophor follows margin of bulbus, without making additional small coil.
DESCRIPTION. Males resembles large and robust Myrmarachne, said to reach even 1.5 cm long, differs strikingly by carapace long, with both cephalic and thoracal parts relatively high, separated by deep and broad constriction. Striking difference is broad intercostal plate in anterior sternum, between coxae I and II, remaining sternum narrow, ends between coxa II and stretches by narrow extension to coxae IV. Pedicel moderately long. Abdomen oval with constriction, the latter limited anteriorly by almost vertical anterior sclerite. Palps with tibia narrower than cymbium, tibial apophysis gently bent, but not twisted into hook, spermophor around margin of bulbus, without making additional small coil. Data on internal structure of epigyne confusing and uncertain. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
REMARKS. Genus revised by Wanless [1978b] but still poorly known, with insufficient documentation of epigyne and palps. Male Bocus angusticollis Deeleman-Reinhold, Floren, 2003 may well be classified as a Bocus, but epigyne of female demonstrate typical Myrmarachne spermathecae.
REFERENCES. Wanless F.R. 1978b. Vol. 33. N. 4. P. 239-244. Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 505
.

Diagnostic characters of Bocus sp. 89-90 epigyne and its internal structure; 91-93 palps, 94 - alive specimen; 95 - habitus, dorsal view, 96 sternum and chelicera - ventral view; 89-93, 95-96 - from Philippines; 94 - from Brunei. 89 - drawing by J. Prószyński after photo by M. Freudenschuss; 90-93, 95-96 - photo by M. Freudenschus; 94 - ©photo by J. Koh. By courtesy.
b)
Bocus angusticollis +b) excelsus. Deeleman-Reinhold, A. Floren. 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc., 12 (7): 338-340, figs 8-17 +b) Wanless 1978b, Bull. Br. Mus.nat. Hist. Zool.,6). 33(4): 240-241, ff.1A-H; 3A-B, D. By courtesy.
Bocus philippinensis. Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 242, ff. 2A-D; 3C, E, F. By courtesy.

Gen. Emertonius Peckham & Peckham, 1892 (7 species)

Type species Emertonius exasperans Peckham & Peckham,1892.
DIAGNOSIS. Correspond with general characteristics of MYRMARACHNINES, which includes differences from several other ant-mimicking groups of Salticidae by exceptional "pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne.
More detailed features include broader and relatively shorter "pipes" of spermathecae, bow-like bent, terminating anteriorly by globular swelling, comparable to that in Myrmapana gen. n. Palps resembling Toxeus by spermophor having no additional loop and by straight tibial apophysis, inclined but not twisted. Type species differs from remaining genera of MYRMARACHNINES by shape of thorax and by striking color pattern of abdomen and carapace, but coloration of other species is unknown.
DESCRIPTION. The cephalic part and anterior thorax in both sexes of the type species are flat, or almost flat, the posterior slope is high and step. Abdomen is oval, not constricted. Chelicerae in male are enlarged, dorsally flattened, stretches horizontally. Tibial apophysis slightly bent but not twisted. Windows in epigyne round, relatively small. Pipes of spermathecae as long as diameter of windows, bow-like bent, pass into almost round terminal swellingst. ATTENTION: spermathecae of some Toxeus are almost identical with some Emertonius, while their external appearance is strikingly different! Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
REMARKS. Clear original description and delimitation of the genus by Peckham & Peckham [ 1892: 54, pl. 4, fig. 8] was blurred by Wanless [1978c] who has overlooked taxonomic significance of internal structure of epigyne, of body shape and color pattern and reclassified it to the genus Myrmarachne. Opinion of Wanless was repeated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 22] and Edwards 2013: 4-5] without adding new evidences. The excellent photographs by D. Knowles of Emertonius, supported additionally by photographs of damaged specimen from Bali, confirm characters presented by Peckham & Peckham. Detailed analysis of properties of Emertonius was given by Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010: 162-164, Figs 164-171].

REFERENCES. Prószynski J., Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. 2010. Vol. 19. N. 3: P. 162-164. Figs 164-167, 169-171.
Wanless F.R. 1978c. Vol. 33. N. 4. P. 235-238. Figs 1-2. 1a-f, 2a-e. Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 505.

b)c)
Emertonius exasperans +b) sp [Palawan] +c) sp [Sabah]. Comparison of drawing of the type by Peckhams 1892, photo from Bali and epigyne of lectotype. Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010], ©Photo D. Knowles +b) Wanless 1978b: 33(4): 235-238, f 1a-f, 2a-e [captioned as Myrmarachne exasperans] +c) ©Photo P. Koomen [Borneo: Sabah]. By courtesy.
Emertonius malayanus (comb. n. Myrmarachne m.) . Edmunds & Prószyński [2003]. By courtesy.
+b)+
Emertonius kilifi +b) globosa (both comb. n. Myrmarachne k.+ g.). Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000.
Tr. Zool., 13 (1): 72-73, figs 188-191 + Wanless 1978b, 33(4): 102-103, figs 63 c-d, f, j, k, 64a, d, 65 d +b) Wanless 1978a.
: 33, (1): 99, figs 61b-c, g, 62d-e + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 246, ff. 328-331. By courtesy.
+b)
Emertonius laurentinus +b) shelfordi ( both comb. n. Myrmarachne l.+ s.). Wesołowska, Haddad 2009.
Afr. Invert., 50(1): 61, f 111-114 + Wanless 1978b. 33(4): 99-102, figs 63 a-b, e, g, i, 64 b-c, g-h +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013.
Zootaxa 3710 (6): 549-551, f 39A–G, 40A–E. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Gen [Baliga] Vipin Baliga, 0 (1 species)

Type species Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim].
DIAGNOSIS. Unusual termite mimicking, termites hunting spider, living on bark of trees in S India. DESCRIPTIONS. See enclosed photographs. REFERENCES. First photographs shot by Mr. Vipin Baliga. Pending description. COMPOSITION. Until now only one species was spotted.

Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim] : Undescribed termite mimic. India: S-Kodagu District, Karnataka. ©Photo Vipin Baliga. By courtesy.

Gen. Gen [Gabon] Maddison, 2016 - 0 (1 species)

Type species Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim].
DIAGNOSIS. Unusual body shape, especially deep and narrow thoracal constriction, suggest new genus. Pending further study.

Gen [Gabon] sp n. : Undescribed - "78, Myrmarachne sp., female, Gabon: Ngounié: Waka Nat. Park" - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 78. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmage Prószyński, 2016 gen. n.(3 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Myrmarachne leserti group of species by Wanless [1978a: 106-9].
Type species Myrmarachne gedongensis Badcock, 1918 comb. n.

ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and gedongensis, grammar gender assumed feminine.
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal pipes are straight tubes of equal diameter along the whole their length, without loops or dilatations, their entire internal surface is covered by minute spines. Pocket very short, located behind proximal ends of "pipes". Palps with cymbium broad, distinct spermophor along margin of bulbus, without additional thin loop. Tibia with flange, apophysis double bent. Body of both sexes narrow, carapace with dorsal constriction, thorax sloping. Abdomen pear shaped, anteriorly narrowing, broadest in posterior half, with constriction in 1/3rd of length, there are two dorsal sclerites, the anterior is narrow, the posterior round. Color pattern of alive uniformly black, preserved in alcohol fade to brown, locally light brow, pink or even yellow. Chelicerae of males long and high, of females short and broad.
Description of type species (by M. Edmunds). Male. Body dark, 5.3-7 mm long, cephalic part higher than thoracal one, separated by shallow depression. Length of chelicerae variable 1.5 to 3.2 mm, outer side convex, inner side slightly convex to straight, with 5–7 prolateral teeth, proximal ones shorter, separated by a gap from 3–4 distal teeth; with 6–8 small unevenly spaced retrolateral teeth; fang two-thirds to three-quarters length of chelicera, with no apophysis, Abdomen: pear-shaped, dorsally dark, with two sclerites. Legs I-IV legs brown, with yellow patches.
Integral part of the definition are drawings below.
Remarks. Yamasaki and Ahmad 2013 call attention to diversity among original specimens of Badcock, as well as difference in the spelling in original labels. Acknowledging that, I cannot comment on significance of these differences. The most important, however and striking feature is structure of spermathecae, which decides on genus classification.
Distribution. Genus known from Borneo and Malay Peninsula, there is a photo of an undescribed species from Danum Valley, Sabah, with similar spermathecae http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/img_data/23/23617.jpg.
Composition. The species transferred from the genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Myrmage gedongensis (Badcock, 1918), comb. n., also Myrmage sp. Danum Valley, Sabah. Myrmarachne dishani Benjamin, 2015 and M. imbellis (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) from Sri Lanka, both described in Benjamin, S. P., 2015: 2609-2666 [1-58]: 10, 15, f. 5A–C, 6A–D, 7A–F, 8A–H, 9A–D, 10A–C, 11A–C, 12A–F should be also placed in this genus, unfortunately I have no license to copy their diagnostic pictures to display that.
REFERENCES. Edmunds M., Prószyński J. 2003. Vol. 12. N. 7. P.  297-322.
Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 524-526. Figs 18A–G, 19A–E.

Figures 8-25. Myrmage gedongensis comb. n. 8, 10 - epigyne, 9 - proximal end of spermathecae, details, 11 - female body appearance, 12, 13 - female carapace, ventral and lateral views, 14-15, 21 - male body, 16, 24 - male sternum, 18-19, 22 - male palp, ventral and lateral views, palp, 20, 23 - male tibial apophysis, 17, 25 - male chelicera. 8-20 - from Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710: 524, f. 8, 15-16. © 2013 Magnolia Press; 21-25 from Edmunds & Prószyński 2003. © Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 12(7): 308, f. 48-52. By courtesy.
+
Figures 26-30. Myrmage gedongendis (male, from Sabah, Danum Valley). 26 - appearance of living male, dorsal and lateral views, 27 - male palp and tibial apophysis, 28 - male chelicera, ventral view, 29 - thorax, ventrally, 30 - frontal view. ©Photo P. Koomen. By courtesy.
+
Figures 31-37. Myrmage sp. - (female, from Sarawak, Danum Valley). 31 - epigyne, 32 - spermathecae, cleared, 33-34 - female appearance, fresh and discolored after preservation in alcohol, 35 - sternum, 36 - chelicera, postero-ventral view, 37 - frontal view. ©Photo P. Koomen. By courtesy.

I transfer hereby the following species to MYRMAGE based on excellent diagnostic drawings by Benjamin 2015, unfortunately I have no licence to display them]:
Myrmage dishani (
Benjamin 2015), comb. nov. [ = syn. Myrmarachne dishani]
: Benjamin 2015: 10, f 5A–C, 6A–D, 7A–F, 8G–H). ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy. Sri Lanka.
Myrmage imbellis (Benjamin 2015), comb. nov.[ = syn. Myrmarachne imbellis]: Benjamin 2015: 15, f 8A–F, 9A–D, 10A–C, 11A–C, 12A–F. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy. Sri Lanka.

Gen. Myrmagua Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (1 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne guaranitica Galiano, 1969 from Argentina.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and guaranitica, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. "Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae very thin and long, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne and extending right to the posterior rim of epigyne, anteriorly terminated by small, transverse oval chambers with thin internal spines. Coils of copulatory ducts developed in posterior third of epigyne, it is not clear from the published drawings whether are they membranous, or have somewhat thicker walls. Pocket narrow and long. The structure of epigyne is not comparable to any known S and C American MYRMARACHNINES, resemble Asiatic genus Bocus Peckham & Peckham, 1892, but there are no other premises for that comparison. Carapace low and broad, slightly constricted dorsally behind eyefield. Integral part of the definition are drawings below.
Remarks. Galiano 1969 described and drawn this species on single, damaged female specimen. Classification as separate genus is tentative, due to striking difference of internal structures of epigyne from all other genera, is pending confirmation by new male and females specimens, none were found during last 48 years.
COMPOSITION. Single species Myrmagua guaranitica (Galiano, 1969) comb. n. REFERENCES. Galiano M. E. 1969. Vol. 3. N. 2. P. 107-148.

Myrmagua guaranitica gen. n. (= syn. Myrmarachne guaranitica ) Galiano M.E. 1969b. Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Natur., Entomol. 3 (2): 143, figs 5-6, 69-70 [from Argentina]. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmanu Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (2 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Myrmarachne nubilis group of species by Wanless [1978: 110-113].
Type species Myrmarachne nubilis Wanless, 1978.

ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and nubilis, grammar gender assumed female.

DIAGNOSIS. "Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae resemble these in Myrmarachne, however, transversal detour is turned 90 degrees anteriorwards, in a results double coils of detour lay parallel to main axis of epigyne, making compact group with terminal parts of spermathecae. Presence of coils of copulatory ducts is distinctly marked posteriorly to spermathecae on Wanless drawings, but without details, so their shape is unknown. Pocket is proportionately long and narrow, located between posterior edge of epigyne and spermathecae. Pedicel relatively short, abdomen of females not constricted, carapace with indistinct, shallow dorsal constriction. Males unknown, without knowledge of their palps the relationship with Myrmarachne is tentative.
Integral part of the definition are drawings below.
REMARK. Two species of uncertain position, with spermathecae resembling Myrmarachne, with spermathecal spiral turned 90% parallel to main axis of the body. Males unknown. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
COMPOSITION. Two species from Madagascar: Myrmanu mahasoa (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. nubilis (Wanless, 1978) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.110-115. Figs 71-72.

Myrmanu nubilis (comb. n. = syn. Myrmarachne m.): Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1):
112-113, figs 71d-f, 72d-f. [from Madagascar]. By courtesy.
Myrmanu mahasoa (comb. n. = syn. Myrmarachne m.): Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): 111-112, ff. 71 a-c, 72 a-c [from Madagascar]. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmapana Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (5 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne panamensis Galiano, 1969.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and panamensis, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. "Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae are relatively short, with broad anterior dilatation, resembling Asiatic genera Emertonius Peckham & Peckham, 1892 and Toxeus Koch C.L., 1846. Copulatory ducts are not demonstrated in drawings of internal structures of epigyne, by analogy to other genera could have shape of membranous coils. Males have almost circular bulbus, encircled with coils of embolus inside semitranslucent sheath. Spermophor broad with distinct additional loop. Tibial apophysis (RTA) short, straight, slightly inclined. Male chelicerae long, dorsally flattened and broad, ventrally with row of tiny individual teeth row along internal posterior edge, fang is very long.
Body is not constricted, that of females is shown on Figure 52, of males on Figure 51. Bulbus with distinct additional loop of spermophor, "U" shaped and opened anteriorwards, tibial apophysis straight, slightly inclined (Figures 49-50). Chelicerae long (Figures 53-54), dorsally flat, relatively broad. Integral part of the definition are drawings below.

Remarks. South and Central America species.
Composition. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Myrmapana brasiliensis (Mello-Leitao, 1922) comb. n., M. centralis (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) comb. n., M. mocamboensis (Galiano,1974) comb. n., M. panamensis (Galiano, 1969) comb. n., M. parallela (Fabricius, 1794) comb. n.

Figures 47-54. Myrmapana panamensis (Galiano, 1969) comb. n. 47 - epigyne, 48 - spermathecae, 48-49 - male palp, lateral and ventral view, 51 - body of male, dorsal and lateral views, 52 - body of female, dorsal and lateral views, 53-54 chelicerae of male, lateral and dorsal views. From Galiano, 1969. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Ent.) 3: 136, f. 11-12, 21-23, 34-35, 42, 46-48, 62, 66. © Dra Cristina Scioscia. By courtesy.
COMPOSITION. Myrmapana brasiliensis (Mello-Leitao, 1922) comb. n., M. centralis (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) comb. n., M. mocamboensis (Galiano,1974) comb. n., M. panamensis (Galiano, 1969) comb. n., M. parallela (Fabricius, 1794) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Galiano M. E. 1969. Vol. 3. N. 2. P. 107-148.
Myrmapana brasiliensis (135, 142, 158), M. centralis (133, 140-141,149-150, 155-156), M. panamensis (134, 138-139, 147-150), M. parallela (132, 136-137, 143-146, 157) ( all new combinations: Myrmarachne b.+ c. + p. + p.).:
132-134 - internal structures of epigyne; 143-144, 147-148, 149-150 - habitus of male, dorsal and lateral views; 145-146,
151-152 - habitus of female, dorsal and lateral views; 153-158 - male chelicerae, dorsal and lateral views. (from S and C America). After Galiano 1969b. Rev. Mus. Argen. Cienc. Nat., Ent. 3 (2): 107-148, f 1-70.figs 1, 2, 28, 29, 39, 58-60.
Myrmapana mocamboensis (comb. n. Myrmarachne m.): Galiano M.E. 1974b. Physis C. 33 (87): 227, f. 13-18.

Gen. Myrmapeni Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (6 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne penicillata Mello-Leitao, 1933 from Brazil.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and penicillata, grammar gender assumed female.

DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecae have typical for MYRMARACHNINES "pipes-like" appearance, but with unusual wide divergence of their proximal parts (that is topographically posterior), in addition their proximal ends are twisted into a small coil. Copulatory ducts are not marked on drawing of epigyne, presumably can be membranous, like in other related genera. External epigyne is unusually broad, with "windows" anterior and set obliquely, pocket small, posterior. These epigyne structures are known in only one species - Myrmapeni chickeringi (Galiano, 1969) comb. n, it is impossible to tell whether are they representative for the whole genus, or unique for this species only.
Male palps are characterized by unusual bunch of long, black setae on palpal tibia, near apophysis. Palpal tibia is short and relatively wide, bulbus circular, with distinct additional thin loop of spermophor. Chelicerae with ventral lobe, dorsally flat, broad. Body shape of male shown on drawing below. Integral part of the definition are drawings below.
REMARKS. Distributed in Central and South America, however, one species is found in Sarawak, another one in Madagascar.

COMPOSITION. The genus contains following species: Myrmapeni borneensis (Peckham, Peckham, 1907) comb. n., M. chickeringi (Galiano, 1969) comb. n., M. diegoensis (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. penicillata (Mello-Leitao, 1933) comb. n., M. simplexella Roewer, 1951 comb. n., M. sumana (Galiano, 1974) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Galiano M. E. 1969. Vol. 3. N. 2. P. 107-148. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.125-126. Figs 84a-g. Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 514-515. Figs 10a-g.

Myrmapeni borneensis (170-174) + chickeringi (159-166) + diegoensis (167) + penicillata (168-169, 175-177), ( all comb. n. . Myrmarachne b. + c. + d. + p. + s.):. 159-162, 167-171 - male palps and tibia, ventral & lateral views; 162 - internal structure of epigyne; 163-166, 173-174, 176-177 - habitus of male and female, dorsal and lateral views; 172, 175 - chelicera. 167 - from Madagascar; 170-174 - from Borneo; 159-166 - from Panama; 168-169, 175-177 - from Brazil; 159-166, 168-169, 175-177 - after Galiano [1969], 167 - Wanless [1978]; 170-174 - after Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013].

b)
Myrmapeni simplexella +b) sumana (comb. n. Myrmarachne s. + s.) : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1):
121-123, ff. 81A-J.. +b) Galiano 1974b. Physis, Secc. C. 33 (87): 221-227, f. 1-12 + ©Photo Machado & Gasnier 2003.

Gen. Myrmaplata Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (5 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne ].

Type species Salticus plataleoides Pickard-Cambridge O. 1869a: 68, plate 6, figs 61-65 from India.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and plataleoides, grammar gender assumed feminine.
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal "pipes" long and thin, differing from Myrmarachne by absence of transversal detour, terminated at the anterior end by discrete, round or oval small chamber, with internal spines. The proximal (topographically posterior) end of pipe is somewhat swollen, like in Bocus, ends near posterior rim of epigyn. Copulatory ducts, visible after staining, make large membranous coils, copulatory openings slit-like, almost indiscernible, pressed to median septum of epigyne. Males differ from majority of MYRMARACHNINES by broad basis of embolus, gradually narrowing. In M. plataleoides loop of embolus is shorter, overlaying only anterior half of a bulbus, but in M. turriformis and M. wanlessi encircling entire bulbus, spermophor is not visible on enclosed drawings. Tibial apophysis is short, straight and conical. Body of males is very long, with strongly pronounced body constriction, cephalic part twice higher than thorax, block like. Chelicerae are very long, swollen apically, pedicel is long. Female's abdomen oval, without constriction, pointed posteriorly. Philipinese Myrmarachne assimilis Banks, 1930 and Myrmarachne markaha Barrion, Litsinger, 1995 have similarly elongate chelicerae, but their palps and epigyne indicate that belongs to true Myrmarachne. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
Remark. Myrmaplata plataleoides, recognizable at the first glance and common in South and South East Asia, is associated with large, yellow Oecophylla ants, broadly distributed in tropical Asia, Africa and Australia and popularly known because build large aerial nest of living leaves of trees. However, in Australia, similar local species Myrmarachne smaragdina Ceccarelli, 2010 is also associated with Oecophylla smarragdina but has spermathecae of true Myrmarachne, so is not related. Some species (Myrmarachne assimilis Banks, 1930 of Philippines) may be relatively resistant behaviorally to Oecophylla (see Nelson et all. 2005), but display not so striking resemblances.
Composition. The genus accommodate species classified heretofore as the Myrmarachne plataleoides group of species: Myrmaplata hispidacoxa (Edmunds, Prószyński, 2003) comb. n., M. plataleoides (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1869) comb. n., M. turriformis (Badcock, 1918) comb. n., M. wanlessi (Edmunds, Prószynski, 2003) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12, N. 7. P. 298-301. Figs 1-7. Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 499. Figs 586, 590-592. Peckham G.W., Peckham E.G. 1892. Vol. 2. N. 1. P. 1-83. Plate 3. Fig 1.

Figures 67-76. Myrmaplata plataleoides (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1869) comb. n. 67-68 - male palps, 69 - male body, dorsal and lateral views, 70 - chelicera, ventrally and sternum, 71 - epigyne, 72 - spermathecae, 73 - coils of membranious copulatory ducts, 74 - sternum, female. 67-70 - after Prószyński & Edmunds 2003. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society,12: 298-301, f. 1-7; 71-74 - after Prószyński 1992. ©Annales Zoologici, 44: 185, f. 80-81, 83-89; 75-76 - © photo H.K. Tang [from Photo Gallery of Peckhamia]. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmaplata aureonigra +b) hispidacoxa: Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 321-322, figs 117-121 +b) 311-313, figs 64-68. By courtesy.
Myrmaplata turriformis: Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 306-308,figs 40-47. By courtesy.
Myrmaplata wanlessi : Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 315-317, figs 80-100 [placement tentative, pending further study]. By courtesy.
Myrmaplata turriformis-cf [PLACEMENT?] : Philippines-Luzon-Biak na Bato Santolcave. ©Photo M. Freudenschuss. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 (103 species)
- genus restricted now to Myrmarachne tristis and formicaria groups of species described by Wanless 1978a, species from other groups are now transferred
to newly delimited genera Myrma gen. n., Myrmage gen. n., Myrmagua gen. n., Myrmanu gen. n., Myrmapana gen. n., Myrmapeni gen. n.,
Myrmaplata gen. n., Myrmatheca gen. n., Myrmavola gen. n., Myrmele gen. n., see also genera and Belippo and Emertonius.

Type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 from India, redesignated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 2309: 5].
DIAGNOSIS. Correspond with general characteristics of MYRMARACHNINES, which includes differences from several other ant-mimicking groups of Salticidae by exceptional "pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne. Copulatory ducts, invisible without staining, make large membranous coils, running from almost indiscernible slit-like copulatory openings, pressed to median septum of epigyne, towards posterior end of spermathecae, near posterior rim of epigyne. Epigyne externally with two membranous "windows", in some species (M. tristis) septum separating "windows"not developed, "pocket" either single, median, or divided into two, narrowly spaced. Males have oval, or almost circular bulbus, encircled with coils of embolus inside semitranslucent sheath. Spermophor broad, runs along margin of bulbus, making additional loop, small and thin, before entering embolus. Tibial apophysis (RTA) short, twisted corkscrew-like, or straight. Male chelicerae usually disproportionately long, with row of individual tiny teeth along internal posterior edge, fang is very long. For details see drawings (below).
More detailed features include transversal detour in anterior one third of lengt of spermathecal “pipes”, twisted into loop, knot, or double spiral. In males bulbus with additional thin loop of spermophor in the center, tibial apophysis short, twisted screw like, with developed flange, chelicerae oversized, their length variable even within the same species. Body variable, always with pedicel visible, constrictions of carapace and abdomen in males variable, in females less pronounced. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
REMARKS. Usage of the name Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 is now restricted to the tristis and formicaria groups of species, described by Wanless 1978a. Delimited in this way, the genus contains now 103 identifiable species distributed in warm areas of Asia, Africa, Australia, one species occurs in Europe and has recently appeared in North America. Distributional centers of the genus are in SE Asia and tropical Africa. Related genera (previously included in Myrmarachne) occur also in Central and South America,
REMARKS ON NEOTYPE. Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 2309: 5] replaced lost type specimen with the neotype they have designated - the specimen from the Calcutta Botanical Garden collected in 1973, kept in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. Following their working philosophy ".. many well known species are easily recognized by their overall habitus, and we are of the opinion that this is true for M. melanocephala as well" [Edwards & Benjamin, 2012, No 2309, P. 10-11] they created four new synonyms, specimens of which they use for description of neotype, together with fresh specimen from geographically distant location, but they have failed to describe and document the neotype specimen itself. The drawing of male palps are made from an old specimen from Sri Lanka, two drawings of epigyne belongs to two different species, internal structure of one of these is incompatible with supposed synonym M. ramosa, the photographs of old and new specimens from different locations do not prove alleged conspecificity. It is regrettable that they failed to provide documentation of fresh specimens from the terra typica (Calcutta Botanical Garden) they designated. Their interpretation of geographical area of the species is based in part on misidentified specimens and conclusions based on "geographical proximity (Pakistan, Bintang Isl.)" of unchecked specimens. Because of lack of necessary documentation and obvious misidentifications, the synonymy of M. melanocephala with Salticus contractus Karsch, 1880; S. providens Peckham and Peckham, 1892; M. ramosa Badcock, 1918 and M. lateralis Badcock, 1918 should be considered void, the neotype specimen itself should be redescribed and documented.
Edwards [2013b. P. 8] additionally defines his methodology: "Previously unmatched opposite sexes from the same genus or subgeneric entity (whichever is smaller) found in the same general location (but not necessarily taken together or at the same time), lacking any evidence of other local congeneric species or morphological character states that would indicate they belonged in different taxa, must be considered conspecific until proven otherwise". The above described case of M. melanocephala illustrate well merits of his philosophy. Edwards created a large collection of Salticidae in Gainesville, FL, containing not less than 24 species of Myrmarachne s.l. [ Prószyński 2014], however, did not use it to publish diagnostic drawing (palps or epigyne) or photographs.

Figs 186-213. Diagnostic characters of Myrmarachne. Myrmarachne cornuta (195-196, 201-202, 209-210), M. glavisi (193-194, 199, 211-212), M. melanocephala (190-191, 212-213), M. sp. misidentified as melanocephala (192), M. ramosa (188-189, 203-204, 207-208), M. tristis (186-187, 200, 205-206), 205-213 - palps, ventral and lateral views; 200, 203-204 - male chelicera; 186, 188, 191-193, 196 - epigyne, ventral view; 187, 189-190, 194-195 - internal structures of epigynw; 213 - sternum. 193-194, 199, 211 - from Bali, 186-187, 197, 200, 205-206 - from Israel; 188-189, 203-204, 207-208 - from Peninsula Malaya; 190-192, 212-213 - from Sri Lanka; 186-187, 200, 205-206 - after Prószyński [2003]. 190-192, 212-213 - after Edwards & Benjamin [2009],©2009 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Species of special interest
b)c)d)e)
Myrmarachne melanocephala [collective "neotype specimen"] +b) male +c) female {2 species mixed up} +d-e) male & female from Sri Lanka +f) mistaken synonymy M. ramosa-melanocephala : Edwards, Benjamin 2009. Zootaxa 2309: 5, f 1-5. ©Magnolia Press + f) Prószyński on line. By courtesy.
<
Myrmarachne ramosa +b) 2 sp from Singapore : Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arach. Society. 12 (7): 301,
figs 8-29 +b)© Photo H.K. Tang. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne tristis : Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003, 51, 3: 108, figs 446-452. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne acromegalis :Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 503-507, f 2A–F, 3A–E, 41C–F. ©Magnolia Press [conspecificity of specimens from Borneo and Thailand improbable!!!]. By courtesy.
++b)
+c)+d)
Myrmarachne annamita +b) COMPARISON +c) angusta +d) acutidens : Zabka 1985. Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 243-244, ff. 306-313 + Huang J. 2004. ... from Taiwan. MSc Thesis, on line. 2004: 12-, t 4 +b) UNPROVEN SYNONYMY of M. annamita and M. angusta proposed by Yamasaki 2012b - can not be accepted because of substandard quality of documentation, (especially spermathecae!) +c) Yamasaki T. 2012b. Sulawesi. Ann. Mus. civ. Stor. nat., Genova 104:155-158, f 2-12 +d) Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 3-7, f 2–19. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne assimilis : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 510-512, f 6A–H, 7A–F. 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne balinese + glavisi + jacksoni +b) bamakoi :Prószyński,Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthropoda selecta, 19(3): 176, f 23-124 +b)Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 33, (1): ff. 43 a-g.By courtesy.
b)c)
Myrmarachne bellicosa +b) biseratensis +c) calcuttaensis : Peckham E.G. 1892. 32, plate 2, figs 11 +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 512-514, f 8A–G, 9A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +c) Biswas B. 1984. Bull. Zool. Surv. India 6: 126-127, figs 17-19.By courtesy.
+b)c)d)
Myrmarachne chapmani +b) clavigera +c) collarti +d) ) confusa : Type specimen - by an Artist at IRRI + sketches of palpal organ - by Proszynski +b) Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 161-163, f 20-27 +c) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.). 33, (1): 49, f. 24 a-h, plate 1e-f +d) 46, f 23 a-h ..By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Myrmarachne constricta +b) contracta+providens +c) corpuzrarosae +d) cowani :Wanless 1983a. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr.,
8. 241: 24-27, ff. 7a-g, 8a-c. 23-124 +b) M. providens (D-F) and M. providens (considered synonyms of M. melanocephala): Edwards, Benjamin 2009. Zootaxa 2309: 5, f 1. © 2013 Magnolia Press +c) Barrion, 1991: 144, f. 2a-j, 3a-g +d) Wanless 1978a.
Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): figs 44A-E; 45A-G. By courtesy.
+
+
Myrmarachne cornuta : Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): figs 30-39 + Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013.
Zootaxa 3710 (6): 518-520, f 13A–G, 14A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press + © Photo H. K. Tang.By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne cyrtodens +b) dundoensis : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 521-522, f 6A–G. © 2013 Magnolia P +b) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 33, (1): 82-84, f 51a-i, 52a-e, t. 5a-b.By courtesy.
Myrmarachne endoi : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 521-522, f 6A–G. © 2013 Magnolia P. By courtesy.
+
Myrmarachne dubia : Peckhams 1892. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wisc., 2 (1): 29, T. 2, F. 4 + Type specimen - sketch of palpal organ by Proszynski & body by an Artist at IRRI, Los Banos. Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthropoda selecta, 19(3): 176, f 23-124 +b) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 33, (1): ff. 43 a-g.By courtesy.
Myrmarachne edentata : Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arachn.. 24(3): figs 84-90. By courtesy.
+
Myrmarachne edentula : Peckham Peckham 1892: 31, illustrations plate 2, fig. 5 23-124 + Type specimen - sketch of epigynum by Proszynski & body by an Artist at IRRI, Los Banos. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne edwardsi : Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arachn.. 24(3): 241-242, f 97-102. By courtesy.
b)++
Myrmarachne eidmanni +b) elongata : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 39, f 17A-H 50-54
,+b) f 25A-F; 26A-H; 27A-I; 28A-I + Szombathy 1915c. 13: 475, f 6 + Wesołowska, Russel-Smith.61(3): 582-583, f 99-102.
Myrmarachne epigealis : Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 7-11, f 20-32. By courtesy.
b)+c)
Myrmarachne evidens +b) foenisex +c) inflatipalpis : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 33, (1):42-43, f 20a, h-i, 21d, f, i, 22a, d +b) 60-61, figs 33A-G + Wesołowska, Russel-Smith 2011: Ann. zool. 61(3): 583, f 103-110 +c) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): figs 59a, c, f-g, 60a, c, e-g. . By courtesy.
b)+c)
Myrmarachne foreli +b) formosana +c) formicaria : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 85-86, f 53A-L
+b) Huang J. 2004: 19-23, t 7-8 +c) Zabka. 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 5-187, figs 189-200 + ©Photo J. Lissner. By courtesy.
b)+
Myrmarachne formosicola +b) giltayi: Huang J. 2004: 24-28, t 9-10 +b) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 82-84, f 51a-i, 52a-e, t. 5a-b + Wesolowska, Wiśniewski, 2015. Zootaxa, 3980(4): 556, f. 34-38. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne gigantea +b) COMPARISON OF FALSE SYNONYMY (M. gigantea contra c)Myrma maxillosa - note entirely different spermathecae) : Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 244-245, ff. 318-327 +b) Zabka 1985 contra c)Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+b)+
Myrmarachne gisti +b) hanoii : Logunov 1993b. Arthropoda Selecta, 2(1): 51, tab. 1a-c. + Song et al., 1999: 535, figs 304N-P, 305A-B +b) Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 11: 246, ff. 332-336 + Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 526-528, f 20A–G, 21A–D. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Myrmarachne hesperia +b) ichneumon +c) imbellis +d) insulana: Wesołowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 753-755, f 70–76 +b) Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. African Invertebrates, 50(1): 58-60, 105-110 +c) Peckham 1892. 2 (1) : 36, t. 2, f. 10 +d) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): figs 19A-C, F. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne inermichelis +b) isolata : Bohdanowicz A., Proszynski J. 1987. Ann. zool., 41, 2: f 160-166.
+b) Clark, Benoit, 1977. Annls Mus. royal. afriq. centr. (Zool.-Ser. 8), 220: figs 35a-d, 36a-b. By courtesy.
+b)
Myrmarachne iridescens +b) mcgregori : a + b Type specimen sketches by J. Proszynski and an Artist at IRRI, Los Banos.
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Myrmarachne japonica : Proszynski J. 1973b. Ann. zool., 30: ff. 59-60 (Type specimen) +Ono, Ikeda, Kono.
Salticidae of Japan. 2009: 564, f 31-35 +©Photo Akio Tanikawa. By courtesy.
+++b) c)
Myrmarachne kiboschensis +b) lanyuensis +c) luteopalpis : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 78-80, figs 47A-G; 48A-K + Proszynski J. 1992b. Ann. zool., 44, 9: 187-188, figs 93-98 + Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 28, f 107-111 + Huang 2004. 2004: 32-33, t 12 +b) 34-36, t 13 +c) 41-443 t 16. By courtesy.
b)+
Myrmarachne kitale +b) kuwagata : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 59b, d-e,h-i, 60b, d, h-m +b) Yaginuma 1986a.: 243, f. 134.3 + Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool. 41, 2: 98, ff. 167-171. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne lambirensis +b) nigra : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 529-531, f 22A–G, 23A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 167-169, f 36-41.
+ +b)
Myrmarachne luachimo +b) moesta Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): figs 14c-e, g, 15b-e, h, 1 a-c, g +b) 32-33, figs 10b-d, g, j, 11d, g, j, k, 12c-d, f, i. + Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 28, f 112-114 +b) Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 165-167, f 32-35.
+
Myrmarachne lesserti Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.),33, (1): figs 68A, C, D, F; 69A, B, E-G + Lawrence, R. F., 1938. Ann. Natal Mus., 8 (3): 521-523, figs 39a-c.
b)+
Myrmarachne leleupi +b) legon : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 80-82, figs 49a-b, e, 50b, d-e, g, i. +b) 78-80, figs 47A-G; 48A-K + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: ff. 342-348 (IS THIS CONSPECIFIC?). By courtesy.
+++
Myrmarachne lugubris : Proszynski 1979. Ann. zool., 34: 313-314, figs 222-223 + Proszynski 1987. Atlas ... : 26 +Zabka 1985. 39, 11: ff. 349-358 + Logunov., Wesolowska 1992. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: figs 21-23. By courtesy.
++
Myrmarachne lawrencei: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): figs 10b-d, g, j, 11d, g, j, k, 12c-d, f, i + Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology, 4: 28, f 112-114 + Wesolowska, Wisniewski, 2015. Zootaxa, 3980(4): 558, f. 39-43.© Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
b)++
Myrmarachne lulengensis +b) lulengana: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): figs 29a-i +b) 33-36, figs 12g, j,-l, 13a-h + Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Invert., 50(1): 61-63, f 115-120 + Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 30-32, 115-119. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne macrognatha: Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 11-15, f 33–45. By courtesy.
b)+++c)
Myrmarachne richardsi +b) mussungue +c) marshalli : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): 61-63, ff. 35a-h +b) ff. 19d-e, g, j +b) 67-69 , f 39A-G. +b) Wesolowska, Cumming 2008. Ann. zool. 58: 197-199, f. 92-97. + Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Invert., 50(1): 63-64, 121-123.+ Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 30-32, 115-119 +c) Peckhams 1892. 1892. 2 (1): pl. 2, f. 6. By courtesy.
+b)
Myrmarachne melanotarsa +b) robusta: Wesolowska, Salm 2002. Genus, Wroclaw, 13(3): 409-415, figs 1-16 + ©Photo R.R. Jackson +b) Peckham 1892. 2 (1): 27, T. 2, F. 2.
++b)
Myrmarachne militaris +b) cf. melanocephala [?]: Szombathy 1913: 33 , 56 f. 9 + .Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): 30-32, f 10A, E-F, H-I, 11A, E, 12A-B, E, H + Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 32, 120-124 +b) Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 15-19, 46-58. By courtesy.
b)c)+
Myrmarachne naro +b) natalica +c) nigeriensis [?]: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): ff. 21b, e, g, j, 22b, e, g +b) 39-40, ff. 18A-E +c) 88-89, ff. 55a-j + Wesołowska, Russel-Smith 2011: Ann. zool. 61(3): 583-585, f 114-120. By courtesy.
b)+c)d)
Myrmarachne nitidissima +b) onceana +c) opaca +d) palladia : Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 169-171, f 42-48 +b) sketches of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski +Barrion, Litsinger 1995. IRRI: 58-61, figs 25a-j +c) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 546-547, f 36A–G. © 2013 Magnolia Press +d) Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13(6): 223-224, f 15-17. By courtesy.
+b)+c) +d)
Myrmarachne piercei +b) pinakapalea +c) pinoysorum +d) seriatis +e) robusta : Type specimen - sketch of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski + .Artist at IRRI, Los Banos +b) sketch of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski + Barrion, Litsinger 1995. IRRI: 54, figs 22a-g +c) sketch of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski + Barrion, Litsinger 1995. IRRI: 61, figs 26a-h +d) sketch of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski + Artist at IRRI, Los Banos. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne pisarskii : Proszynski in Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arach. 24(3): 240, figs 91-96. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne platypalpa +b) robusta : Bradoo B.L. 1980. Curr. Sci. (Bangalore), 49 (10): 387, f. 1-8 +b) Peckham, Peckham 1892. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wisc., 2 (1): 27, T. 2, F. 2. By courtesy..
b)
Myrmarachne rufisquei +b) russellsmithi : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 55-56, ff. 30a-c +b) 92-93, ff. 58a-h. By courtesy.
+
Myrmarachne solitaria : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 55-56, ff. 46 a-l + Wesolowska, Haddad 2009. Maputaland, S. Africa. African Invertebrates, 50(1): 65, 124-126. By courtesy.By courtesy.
b)
Myrmarachne rufescens +b) sabahna : Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 171-173, f 49-54 +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 547-549, f 37A–G, 38A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne smaragdina : ©Photo. R. Whyte. By courtesy. REMARK. An Australian species associated with ant Oecophylla smaragdina, just like Indian Myrmaplata plataleoides, however by structure of spermatheca it is a true Myrmarachne.
b)c)++
Myrmarachne topali +b) [comparison with a misidentified sp] +c) uvira : Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 419, ff. 364-367 +b) FALSE SYNONYMY by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013: F M. topali from Vietnam & F M. hanoi from either Borneo or Sumatra. [Drawings 1 & 3 by Żabka 1985, 2 by Yamasaki 2013].+c) 86-88, ff. 54a-m + Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000.Tropical Zoology, 13 (1): 73, figs 192-195 + Ann. zool. 61(3): 585, f 121-123. By courtesy.
+b)c)
Myrmarachne vanessae +b) vulgaris[a] +c) uelensis : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (1): ff. 57a-l +b) Wesolowska W., A. Russel-Smith. 2000.Tr. Zool., 13 (1): 73-75, figs 196-199 +b) Barrion A.T., Litsinger J. A. 1995. IRRI. Pp. 53, figs 23a-h +c) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (1): ff. 49c-d, f-g, 50a, c, f, h.. . By courtesy.
++
Myrmarachne markaha : Barrion, Litsinger 1995: 51-54, figs 20a-h, 21a-h + Proszynski 2003 Internet - sketches of palpal organ (Paratype) + Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 536-538, f 28A–G, 29A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne tamsuiensis : Yamasaki, 2013. Acta Arachnologica 62(1): 29-31, f 1-13. By courtesy.

Myrmarachne species unclassified because diagnostic drawings are unclear.

Myrmarachne maratha Tikader, 1973, M. orientales Tikader, 1973, M. poonaensis Tikader, 1973, M. schenkeli Peng X., Li S., 2002, M. striatipes (Koch L., 1879).

Myrmarachne species unclassified because females are unknown and spermophor is not visible on drawings
Myrmarachne bicolor (Koch L., 1879), M. bakeri Banks, 1930, M. bidentata Banks, 1930, M. caliraya Barrion, Litsinger, 1995, M. crassembola Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013, M. dilatata (Karsch, 1880), M. linguiensis Zhang Y, Song D., Zhu M., 1992, M. myrmicaeformis (Lucas, 1869), M. nigella Simon, 1901, M. opaca (Karsch, 1880) , M. tagalica Banks, 1930, M. thaii Zabka, 1985.

Myrmarachne species "inquirenda" - unclassified because lack of diagnostic drawings
(but specimens are preserved in the collections), or their drawings are not allowed to be displayed here.

Myrmarachne aenescens Simon, 1901 , M. alticeps (Thorell, 1890), Myrmarachne aurea Ceccarelli, 2010; M. bengalensis Tikader, 1973, M. bicurvata (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1869), M. brevis Xiao X., 2002, M. capito (Thorell, 1890), M. cognata (Koch L., 1879), M. consobrina Denis, 1955, M. debilis (Thorell, 1892), M. decorata Reimoser, 1927, M. denticulata (Karsch, 1880), M. dirangicus Bastawade, 2002, M. erythrocephala (Koch L., 1879), , M. exultans Caporiacco, 1949, M. formosa (Thorell, 1892), M. furcata (Karsch, 1880), M. gurgulla Ceccarelli, 2010, M. hidaspis Caporiacco, 1935, M. hoffmanni , M. hidaspis , M. hoffmanni Strand, 1913 , M. jacobsoni Reimoser, 1925, M. jugularis (Simon, 1900), M. kochi Reimoser, 1925 , M. laeta (Thorell, 1887), M. leptognatha (Thorell, 1890), M. luctuosa (Koch L., 1879), M. ludhianensis Sadana, Gupta, 1998, M. lupata (Koch L., 1879), M. mandibularis (Thorell, 1890), M. manducator (Westwood, 1841), M. megachelae Ganesh Kumar, Mohanasundaram, 1998 , M. nemorensis (Peckham, Peckham, 1892), M. obscura (Taczanowski, 1871), M. paviei (Simon, 1886), M. pectorosa(Thorell, 1890), M. prava (Karsch, 1880), M. prognatha (Thorell, 1887), M. pumilio (Karsch, 1880), M. rhopalota (Thorell, 1895), M. roeweri Reimoser, 1934, M. rubra Ceccarelli, 2010, M. sansibarica Strand, 1910, M. septemdentata Strand, 1907, M. simoni (Koch L., 1879), M. simonis (Herman, 1879), M. vehemens Fox,1937, M. vestita (Thorell, 1895).

Myrmarachne species dubia
(no diagnostic drawings and no specimens are available in collections).

Myrmarachne albocincta (Koch C.L., 1846), M. annandalei (Simon, 1901), M. attenuata (Karsch, 1880), M. cuprea (Hogg, 1896), M. formica (Doleschall, 1859), M. formosana (Matsumura, 1911), M. himalayensis (Narayan, 1915), M. incerta (Narayan, 1915), M. lugens (Thorell, 1881), M. lurida (Simon, 1885), M. macleayana (Bradley, 1876), M. paivae (Narayan, 1915), M. patellata (Strand, 1907), M. pectorosa (sternodes) (Thorell, 1890), M. pygmaea (Thorell, 1894), M. radiata (Thorell, 1894), M. ramunni (Narayan, 1915), M. satarensis (Narayan,1915), M. tayabasana Chamberlin, 1925, M. transversa (Mukerjee, 1930), M. uniseriata (Narayan, 1915).

REFERENCES (for Myrmarachne).
Benjamin S.P. 2015.Journal of natural History: 1-58, plates 1-41.
Prószynski J., Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. 2010. Vol. 19. N. 3: P. 174-178. Figs 113-126.
Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12, N. 7. P. 297-322.
Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.18-27, 28-97. Figs 10-60.
Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 504-505.

Gen. Myrmatheca Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (2 species)

Type species Myrmarachne alticephalon Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and spermatheca, assumed grammar gender - femininae.
DIAGNOSIS."Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae are modified in into a pair of huge distal chambers in anterior part of epigyne, resembling two tightly pressed sclerotized hemispheres, followed by minute, thin and short, thread-like proximal parts of pipes, with slightly more distinct, transverse parts, expectedly harboring armatures of junction with copulatory duct, and of a scent gland. These should be examined under higher microscope power. Membranous copulatory ducts seem to coil around distal parts of "pipes", but are not sufficiently visible on enclosed photo. Pocket very small and thin, moved ahead towards center of epigyne, reaching level of spherical chambers of spermathecae. Antero-median rim of "windows", on both sides of posterior pocket, is light sclerotized. Males have chelicerae long, anteriorly swollen. Bulbus oval, spermophor broad, with indistinct, thin duct anteriorly. Tibial apophysis short, inclined and waving, apically narrowing. Body shape of male and female with cephalic part much higher than thoracal one.
Remarks. Grace to excellent photograph of stained microscopic slide by T. Yamasaki, we have learned structure of the astonishing spermatecae of his Myrmatheca alticephalon, whose details can be interpreted only by comparison with evolution of other genera of MYRMARACHNINES. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
Distribution. Two species in Borneo: Sabah, of which one is pending description. A specimen reported from Indonesia: Sumatra: Padang pending confirmation of conspecificity, the third species is described from Madagascar.
COMPOSITION. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Myrmatheca alticephalon (Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013) comb. n., Myrmatheca ransoni (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., undescribed species was photographed by P. Koomen.
REFERENCES. Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 507-509. Figs 4A–G, 5A–E. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P. 83A-C.

Myrmatheca alticephalon ?: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231&#8211;292, f. 79. By courtesy.
Figures 69-79. Myrmatheca alticephalon Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013, comb. n. 69 - epigyne, 70 - internal structure of epigyne (note shadows of copulatory ducts), 71-73 - male palp, 74 - female body dorsally, 75 - female carapace laterally, 76 - female sternum, 77 - male body dorsally and carapace laterally, 78 - male chelicera laterally and fang, 79 - male sternum. From Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013. Zootaxa 3710: 507, f. 4A-G, 5A-E. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmavola Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (8 species)
[proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne ].

Type species Damoetas galianoae Prószyński, 2001
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and volatilis, assumed grammar gender - feminine.

DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecae "pipes-like", stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne, differ from Myrmarachne by lack of spermathecal transverse detour, instead apical end of pipes is twisted into single loop, much broadened, having internal wall covered by short spines resembling that in Myrmele, posterior parts of pipes are very thin. Copulatory ducts visible after staining, make membranous coils, running from copulatory openings, near median septum of epigyne, towards posterior end of spermathecae, near posterior rim of epigyne. Posterior pocket small, diverse in particular species. Male palps with bulbus oval, encircled with coils of embolus, spermophor running along posterior part of margin of bulbus, it has narrow branch running anteriorwards, but disappearing under coil of embolus without completing small loop in visible part of bulbus. As irregularities in appearance of spermophor are visible in several genera of MYRMARACHNINES, in difference to typical Myrmarachne, this structure deserves closer attention in future research. Tibial apophysis (RTA) inclined and gently bent, but not twisted. Male chelicerae medium long, with ventral edge lobate anteriorly, with a group of somewhat longer teeth. Body without constrictions, with thorax gently sloping, abdomen oval, pointed posteriorly. Body in M. christae longer. Color pattern in some species with dark transverse band across abdomen, which is not common in MYRMARACHNINES. Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
Note on placement. Note on placement. Edwards & Benjamin [2009] were partially right, proposing to remove Damoetas galianoae Prószynski, 2001 and D. christae Prószynski, 2001 from that genus, and pointing at similarities of the single ventral loop in their spermathecal complex to the volatilis and electrica groups of Myrmarachne. However, they were wrong basing placement on palp appearance, which is poor character in separating genera in MYRMARACHNINES , also body shape is entirely unreliable, because is influenced by mimicking various ants, or other insects. Since both species are placed now in a new genus Myrmavola gen. n., replacement of the species name "galianoae" is superfluous, because Damoetas galianoae was never used in the primary literature in combination with genus "Myrmarachne", so it is not a homonym. See also description of Myrmavola yamasaki sp. n. below.

Composition. The genus contains two species described originally in the genus Damoetas Peckham & Peckham, 1886: M. christae (Prószynski, 2001), comb. n., and M. galianoae (Prószynski, 2001), comb. n. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Myrmavola andrewi (Wanless,1978), comb. n., M. brevichelicera (Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013), comb. n., M. eumenes (Simon, 1900), comb. n.,, M. globosa (Wanless, 1978), comb. n., M. longiventris (Simon, 1903), comb. n., M. volatilis (Peckham & Peckham, 1892), comb. n., M. yamanei (Yamasaki, 2012), comb. n.. Species M. yamasakii Prószyński, sp. n. is described as new (see below).
REFERENCES. Prószynski J. 2001. Vol. 51. N. 4. P. 517-522. Figs 1-10.

Figures 80-83. Diversity of internal structures of epigyne and its internal structures in: 80, 80a - Myrmavola galianoae (Prószynski, 2001) comb. n., 81, 81b - M. christae Prószynski 2001 comb. n., 82-83 - Myrmavola yamasaki Prószynski, 2001 sp. n. [misidentified as Myrmarachne mariaelenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013, ventral and dorsal side up. 80-81 - from Prószynski 2001. Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 51: 519-520, f. 1-10, 82-84 - from Yamasaki & Ahmad 2003. Zootaxa 3710: 534, f. 26A-G, 27A-G. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Figures 84-93. Diversity of male palps and body in Myrmavola galianoae (Prószynski, 2001), comb. n. (84-87), M. yamasaki Prószynski 2001 sp. n. [misidentified as Myrmarachne mariaelenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013 (88-93). 84-85, 92 - body, 86-90 - palps, 91 - chelicer, 93 - sternum. 80-81 - from Prószynski 2001. Annales Zoologici, 51: 519-520, f. 1-10, 82-84 - from Yamasaki & Ahmad 2003. Zootaxa 3710: 534, f. 26A-G, 27A-G. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
a)b)
Figures 94-96. Diversity of female body in Myrmavola christae (Prószynski, 2001) comb. n., (94) M. yamasaki Prószynski, 2001 sp. n. [misidentified as Myrmarachne mariaelenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013 (95-96). 94-95, body dorsal and lateral view and carapace, 96 - sternum. 94 - from Prószynski 2001. Annales Zoologici, 51: 519-520, f. 1-10, 95-96 - from Yamasaki & Ahmad 2003. Zootaxa 3710: 534, f. 26A-G, 27A-G. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy. .
b)c)d)
Females of Myrmavola yamanei [female] +b) eumenes +c) volatilis +d) brevichelicera: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (1): 103-105, ff. 66b-e, g-h, j, 67a, d-e +b) 114-115, figs 73A-K; 74A-E +c) 419-420, ff. 62A-C + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: ff. 368-371 +d)+b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 515-518, f 11A–G, 12A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy. . By courtesy.
b)c)
Myrmavola andrewi +b) yamanei [male] +c) brevichelicera : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (1): 103-105, ff. 66b-e, g-h, j, 67a, d-e +b) Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 173-177, f 55-66 +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 515-518, f 11A–G, 12A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmavola longiventris [placement tentative]+b) eumenes [placement tentative]: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 105-106, figs 66A, F, I, 67B-C +b) 114, figs 73A-K, 74A-E, pl 2b. By courtesy.

Myrmavola yamasakii Prószyński, 2016 sp. n.

Myrmarachne mariaelenae: Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013 (misidentified) syn. n.

Material: Syntypes 2 males and 3 females, Gunung Alab, Crocker Range Park, Sabah, 9 X 2010, T. Yamasaki leg.; 5 males and 24 females, Kinabalu Park Headquarter area, Sabah, 10–12 XI 2010, T. Yamasaki leg. [studied by T. Yamasaki].
Etymology. Named for Dr. Takeshi Yamasaki, an author of excellent papers on Myrmarachne.
DIAGNOSIS. Resembling Myrmavola galianoae (Prószyński, 2001), comb. n., from which differs distinctly by small and narrow posterior pocket of epigyne, fitted into wide span between proximal ends of spermathecal "pipes", in M. christae (Prószyński, 2001), comb. n., the posterior pocket is also small and narrow, but posterior ends of "pipes" are very close each other and pocket is fitted tightly. In males bulbus oval with open additional loop, tibial apophysis slightly longer than in Myrmarachne, gently waving apically, but not twisted, there is no flange. For full description - see Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710(6): 534-535. Drawings (below) and comparative drawings of related (above) are integral part of the definition.

Nomenclatorical note. Original name of this species - Myrmarachne mariaelenae used by Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013 is a result of double mistake, the first - assumption by Edwards & Benjamin, 2009: 14 that the species Damoetas galianoae Prószyński, 2001 should be transferred to the genus Myrmarachne, where would become junior homonym of Myrmarachne galianoae Cutler, 1981. Hence they replaced specific name by "mariaelenae". Because classification to Myrmarachne cannot be sustained, the replacement name become superfluous as never used in the primary literature. The second mistake was identification of the species described by Yamasaki & Ahmad as conspecific with "mariaelenae" - that is originally "galianoae", as these specimen are in fact not conspecific, it become necessary to describe them under new name. Informed on changed status of this species Dr. Yamasaki did not use the occasion to describe it himself.
Distribution. Species known from Borneo: Sabah.
REFERENCES. Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 534-535. Figs 26A–G, 27A–G.

Myrmavola yamasaki sp. n. [Misidentified as Myrmarachne maraielenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013] 238-239 - internal structure of epigyne, ventral and dorsal views; 240-242 - male palp, ventral, lateral views and tibia; 243 - male chelicera; 244, 246 - habitus of male and female; 245, sternum and carapace of male. From Borneo. After Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmele Prószyński, 2016 gen. n. (4 species)

Myrmarachne electrica group of species Wanless 1978a.
Type species Myrmarachne electrica Wanless 1978a from Madagascar.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words "Myrmarachne" and "electrica", grammar gender assumed feminine.

DIAGNOSIS. Anterior part of "pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae resembling these in Myrmavola by single loop of anterior detour of "pipes", but differs strikingly by strange, double spiral structures, in membranous parts attached to the proximal ends of spermathecae (but located in posterior epigyne!), being presumably modified copulatory ducts. Palps with round bulbus, spermophor without additional thin duct, distal part of embolus filamentous. Chelicerae in males moderately enlarged, with basal ventral lobe, dorsally flat. Body elongate in various degree and relatively flat, constrictions weakly developed. This diagnosis agrees with Wanless definition of Myrmarachne electrica group of species from Madagascar by "coiled distal seminal ducts and median pouch [pocket]" in females, in males by "filamentous distal embolus". Drawings below are integral part of the definition.

Note on genera relationships. Imprecise drawings hamper drawing final conclusion on relationships of genera Myrmele and Myrmavola, While this paper rearranges genera of MYRMARACHNINES by structure of spermathecae and ducts, Wanless (1978: 106) confirms similarity of females of M. longiventris and M. peckhami, which, incidentally, he has found in the same vial). Further research may necessitate revival of Bizonella.
Remarks. "Myrmarachne" eumenes (Simon, 1900) is standing out by body shape, with enormous long pedicel and constriction of carapace and abdomen, however shape of spermathecae fits definition of Myrmavola - see Wanless (1978a, Fig. 73), its placement pending further considerations and leave uncertain "Myrmarachne" longiventris (Simon, 1903) (the latest being type species of the genus Bizonenella Strand, 1929 (= Bizone Simon, 1903), deserving reinstatement).
Composition. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Myrmele andringitra (Wanless,1978) comb. n., M. eugenei (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. electrica (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) comb. n., M. peckhami (Roewer, 1951) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P. 115-121. Figs 75-77, 79-80.

b)
Myrmele eugenei +b) peckhami [both comb. n. syn. n. Myrmarachne e & p.] :Wanless 1978a. 33, (1): 115-117, figs 75a-g,
76 a-e, + b) 119-121, ff. 79A-I, 80A-E. By courtesy.
b)
Myrmele andringitra +b) electrica: Wanless, 1978:117, f 77A-D, 76 a-e + b) 33, (1): figs 78A-F. By courtesy.

Gen. Panachraesta Simon, 1900 (1 species) (comb. reinstated)

Panachraesta paludosa Simon, 1900b: 405 (Df).
Panachraesta paludosa: Simon, 1901a: 504, f. 596-597 (f).
Panachraesta paludosa: Prószynski, 1987: 74 (f unnumbered)
Myrmarachne paludosa: Benjamin 2015: 21-26, illustrations 13a-b (do Figs 14a-16d show DIFFERENT SPECIES mixed up?).

Type species Panachraesta paludosa Simon, 1900.
Remarks. This monotypic genus does resemble MYRMARACHNINES by epigyne with two white "windows" and translucent, long "pipes" of spermathecae (Figure 74). The internal structure of epigyne and palps were studied recently by Benjamin 2015: 21, his drawings of spermatheca (fig. 15E-H) indicate resemblance to genus Myrmage Prószyński, 2016c, the appearance of palp (fig. 16A-C) does not contradicting that possibility. They could be even congeneric. There is also some similarity to some Toxeus (T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), comb. n. or T. jajpurensis (Prószynski, 1992), comb. n.). However, his excellent documentation seem to indicate mixing up several species of the genus, in particular female (his Figures 14a-16d), show different shape of abdomen, broadest at 2/3rd of its length and triangular posterior tip of abdomen. That could possibly be explanable if the photographed female was pregnant, with abdomen swollen with eggs - but that need confirmation.While placement in Myrmage or Toxeus require confirmation, the transfer of Panachraesta paludosa to the genus Myrmarachne is not accepted, and the original combination is hereby reinstated, pending further research.
COMPOSITION. Single species described from Sri Lanka.
REFERENCES. Prószyński 2016a, b, c - online, 1987: 74.Benjamin 2015: 21, Simon 1901: 504.

Panachraesta paludosa Simon, 1900: Prószyński 1987: 74 one of two original females in the Simon's collection in the MNHN-Paris, comparable, with minor differences, with Benjamin 1915 photos 13A-B (conspecific??), but differing by shape of abdomen from photos 14F-G, which excludes conspecific status of the latter. + Benjamin 2015: 21-26, illustrations 13a-b [as Myrmarachne paludosa], (Figs 14a-16d may show DIFFERENT SPECIES mixed up, no license to display). From ©Prószyński 1987 ( illustrations from Benjamin cannot be compared here because of lack of license to display them) .

Gen. Toxeus Koch C.L., 1846 gen. reinstated (10 species)

Type species Toxeus maxillosus Koch C. L. 1846 [syn. Myrmarachne maxillosa (Koch C.L., 1846)].
Nomenclatorical note. Genus name "Toxeus" was introduced by Koch C.L. in 1846 in combination with specific name "maxillosus", subsequently used as synonymic combinations with five other specific names, by Thorell, Pickard-Cambridge F., and one Smith (1907). Names of two taxa of the family level, derived from Toxeus - Toxeae and Toxeinae were proposed by Pickard-Cambridge F. in 1900. None were used after 1907 in primary literature (Bonnet 1957, 1959: 2997-3014, 4663). Progres in knowledge of Myrmarachne, especially in internal structures of epigyne, suggests now splitting of the genus Myrmarachne into several smaller genera, one of which characterized by features of Myrmarachne maxillosa, so as a name for that genus is accepted reinstated name Toxeus, still available according to Edwards (2013, Peckhamia 110.1: 7).
DIAGNOSIS. "Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne, without transverse detour, usually pressed to each other along part of their course, are either thin, gradually slightly dilating along their course in terminal half (located in anterior part of epigyne), with internal spines in the dilated part, as in T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), or making asymmetrical terminal chamber (as in T. aureoniger), with long internal spines. They differs from spermathecae in Myrmage gedongensis comb. n. (Edmunds & Proszynski, 2003) which retain the same diameter along their whole length, devoid of swellings, and covered internally by similar minute spines. Posterior (proximal) ends of "pipes" are diverging, making room for the pocket, located between them. Membranous copulatory ducts, visible after staining, make irregular large coils, running from almost indiscernible slit-like copulatory openings at median septum of epigyne, towards beginning of spermathecae, near posterior rim of epigyne. Palps have almost circular bulbus, resembling Emertonius by lack of additional thin loop of spermophor, encircled with coils of embolus inside semi translucent sheath. Spermophor broad, runs along margin of bulbus. Tibial apophysis indistinctly double bent, but not twisted screw like. Chelicerae in both sexes have developed ventral lobe, extending their height, none the less, male chelicerae are long, but shorter than in Myrmarachne, with two rows of tiny teeth, fang is long. Size of specimens medium, some species have total length 7-8 mm. Body compact, constrictions variable, in some species indistinct, with thoracal part depressed, abdomen in some species almost round. ATTENTION: spermathecae of some Toxeus are almost identical with some Emertonius, while their external appearance is strikingly different!
Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
Composition. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Toxeus aureoniger (Edmunds & Prószyński, 2003), comb. n.; T. bicuspidatus (Yamasaki, 2012); T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), comb. n.; T. gorontaloensis (Yamasaki, 2012, comb. n. [reinstated]; T. hirsutipalpus (Edmunds & Proszynski, 2003), comb. n.; T. jajpurensis (Prószyński, 1992), comb. n.; T. latithoracicus (Yamasaki & Huang J. 2012), comb. n.; T. magnus (Saito, 1933), comb. n.; T. maxillosus Koch C. L. 1846.

+
Toxeus maxillosus comb. n. 114 - spermatheca and ducts, 115-119 - details of female, 120-127 details of male Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) ©Photo H.K. Tang and Marcus Ng. By courtesy.
Toxeus hirsutipalpi comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.Bull. Br. Ar. .
Toxeus cuneatus comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): f. 56-63. By courtesy.
Toxeus grossus (Edmunds & Prószyński, 2003) comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): 13, f. 69-79. By courtesy.
Toxeus jajpurensis: Prószyński, 1992 India: Orissa: Ann. zool. 1992b: 44(9): 87, f 90-92. By courtesy.
b)
Toxeus bicuspidatus + gorontaloensis Yamasaki 2012b Ann. Mus. civ. Storia nat. Giacomo Doria: 104: 153-161, f 13-19 +b) 163-165, f 28-31. By courtesy.
+
A new hypothesis on matching sexes based on geographic distribution. a) Comparison of M. bicuspidata and M. gorontaloensis [see above] b) environment and geographic location where assumedly ONLY THIS SINGLE SPECIES LIVES. Dr. G.B. Edwards writes: "The description of separate new species for male and female individuals with similar morphology, especially if they have similar locality data, is untenable …., as it … hyper-inflate the species count …, giving a false sense of extant biodiversity. Geographical data male and females collected on Mt. Tilongkabila, Gorontalo Province, Sulawesi. Elevation given for females (800m, 1200 m) but not given for male. Morphological data. Male and females have a similar overall appearance, for example, the coxal color pattern is relatively similar. Yamasaki (2012: 165) states “M. gorontaloensis might be the female of M. bicuspidatus [sic] because they share a very unique shape of the thorax. However, M. gorontaloensis does not possess the protuberance on its carapace, which is a diagnostic character of M. bicuspidatus [sic].” As first reviser, I choose M. bicuspidata Yamasaki 2012 as the name of the species; M. gorontaloensis Yamasaki 2012 becomes a NEW SYNONYM." Edwards,2013b A philosophy and methodology for matching opposite sexes of one species, exemplified by a new synonym in Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae). Peckhamia 1, 10. By courtesy.
Toxeus latithoracicus comb. n.+b) shelfordi Yamasaki & Huang J. 2012. Acta Arachnologica .
b)
Toxeus maxillosus comb. n. +b) Toxeus magnus (Saito, 1933) comb. n. . Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) Huang J. 2004. MSc Thesis, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan, on line: 44-48, t 17-18. By courtesy.
Toxeus aureoniger : Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 321-322, figs 117-121. By courtesy.

Gen. Uncertain genus of MYRMARACHNINES by Davies Todd, Zabka, 1989 (1 species)

The genus is monotypic, pending further research.

Uncertain genus: Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., Brisbane, 27 (2): 203, t. 10. By courtesy.

Characters of groups Myrmarachneae and Ligonipedeae by Simon 1901-1903

Copy of Simon's 1901: 390 key to Salticidae Pluridentati.
Translated by H.D. Cameron and D.P. Wijesinghe. PECKHAMIA: 3, 1.
Definition of the subfamily Myrmarachninae by Petrunkevich 1928, with list of Simon's 1901 groups synthesized into it