SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to groups of genera! - INDEX of Genera
KEYS TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT -KEY to groups of genera of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae
a subchapter

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
group of genera

trial version

by Jerzy Prószyński & John T.D. Caleb
Version June 3rd, 2015

Disclaimer This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Some proposed taxonomic names (WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS) are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images This introduction to a classification of Myrmarachninae includes only species with diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature arranged by similarities of spermathecae. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of theoretically closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, whera are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.


Type genus Myrmarachne .
Interactive index of genera Emertonius , Gen[Baliga] , MYRMA MYRMANU MYRMAPENI MYRMAPLATA

[Names written in CAPITAL LETTERS - provisional, invalid until formally published]
Following genera are transfered to subfamily Ligonipeinae: Belippo, Damoetas , Judalana , Ligonipes , Rhombonotus


Subfamily Myrmarachninae was created as a group of genera Myrmarachneae by Simon [1901: 390, 496-505], its type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 was described as early as 1839 [MacLeay 1839: 10], the popularly recognized European species Myrmarachne formicaria (De Geer, 1778) was described even earlier - in 1778, but was mentioned by naturalist as early as in 1671 [Lister 1671: 2175], the first Central American species is known since 1794 - Myrmarachne parallela (Fabricius, 1794). The recognition was due to peculiar body shape resembling ants and to their interesting behavior of hiding from predators among ants. Due to big number of species occurring World wide and their diversity, there are 19 synonymic names of Myrmarachne listed by Bonnet [1955-1958: 2997], reprinted recently by Edwards [2013a], but no new synonym of a genus name was created after Simon 1901 [op. cit.]. Name of subfamily was changed to nomenclatorically correct Myrmarachninae by Petrunkevitch [1928: 57], who has, however, included into it several unrelated genera LIGONIPEINAE. Myrmarachne, as well as other Myrmarachninae, have been frequently mentioned and described in a number of scientific and popular publications, there is also a large number of photographs displayed in the Internet. There were numerous descriptions of Myrmarachne during XIX and first half of the XX centuries, especially valuable were those by Mr. & Mrs Peckham, documented in a modern way. Special importance in the modern time have papers by Galiano 1969b (on South American Myrmarachne, on the background of other ant-like genera). Subdivision of Myrmarachne of the Ethiopian Region into smaller groups of species was proposed by Wanless [1978a: 19-20]. His analysis of characters and their diversity is very sound, and is largely followed here. Wanless considered analysis of African Myrmarachninae incomplete without similar study of Oriental Myrmarachninae. 35 years later the knowledge of the Oriental Myrmarachninae has advanced to a degree permitting preliminary generalizations on the global fauna, still imperfect and requiring further study of multitude of species. Speaking on Oriental fauna I wish to remember particularly the initiative of M. Edmunds to study Malayan species, both of old type specimens of Badcock and his own collections and field observation, in which I had occasion to participate by making diagnostic drawings [Edmunds & Prószyński 2003]. Numerous new species were described by several authors, including Żabka [1985], Prószyński [2001], Huang [2004], Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010] and other. Special importance have extensive studies by Benjamin 2015 on Myrmarachne of Sri Lanka, who connects field studies and descriptions of new species with redescriptions of old type specimens and with collection of new specimens from original collecting localities of these species. also important are papers by Yamasaki [2010, 2012a, 2012b], [Yamasaki & Huang [2012], Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], Yamasaki & Edwards [2013]
Studies of behavior of Salticidae, including Myrmarachne were developed and much advanced by R. R. Jackson and his collaborators (numerous publications), with important results. Research are now very effectively assisted by almost complete collection of diagnostic documentation in the Internet "Monograph of Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014" That was continued by Prószyński published after 2003 (unpublished manuscript on Philippinese species, all drawings available in the Internet). It should be mentioned that the progress of the research on Myrmarachninae was influenced by methods of precise documentation of internal structures of epigyne in Salticidae (staining of cleared epigyne, published as large drawings) introduced by Prószyński [all taxonomic publications since 1968]. 35 years after Wanless the study of Oriental Myrmarachninae are advanced to a degree permitting separation of genera and distinguishing species.

Taxonomy of Myrmarachninae is difficult because of great but irregular diversity in their external appearance, developed as protective adaptation to mimic local species of ants. The popular understanding of "ant-likeness" is rather subjective and imprecise, the external appearance is in fact diverse and cannot be easily defined for all genera and species. Some natural grouping of species become apparent if one looks deeper into structure of epigyne and palp, which seem to be more independent from adaptative pressures, better reflecting hereditary traits.The diagnostic value of internal structure of epigyne is well demonstrated by the series of 103 species of Myrmarachne with spermathecae of the same type, but sufficiently diverse to distinguish species, their similarities demonstrating at the same time their relationships. The structure of epigyne is easily noticeable after correct procedure of clearing and staining, their diversity can be grouped into some 9 types, which may well be used as guiding characters to separate genera. Comparison of palps does not demonstrate specific differences so clearly. Subfamily Myrmarachninae sensu lato (as used in the current literature) contains at present 284 nominal species, of which only 157 have diagnostic genital drawings documentation and are therefore identifiable. I propose to consider now these identifiable species the subfamily Myrmarachninae sensu stricto. That means that remaining 127 species cannot be considered until sufficient diagnostic drawings would be provided. The relationships between these 157 species and their rearrangement into genera is discussed below. That contains provisionally genus Panachraesta, until further research.
Relationships of four genera of "Ligonipedeae" to Myrmarachninae (see below) are uncertain and most probably they should be returned to the group of genera Ligonipedeae (or Ligonipeinae nom. nov.), as created by Simon 1901-1903, until erroneously mergad with Myrmarachninae by Petrunkevitch 1928. They contain together 10 nominal species, out of which only 2 have drawings for both sexes and 6 more for one sex. I list African genus Belippo provisionally with that subfamily, but morphologically it differs from both.

Relationship of Myrmarachninae to other groups is uncertain, the newest discovery of undescribed yet new genera in Australia by R. Whyte (in preparation for print) suggests relationships to Euophryinae, as a specialized subfamily, which is followed in this Introduction to Alternative Classification (See Introduction). They are not related to other ant-mimicking subfamilies, from which they differ clearly by genital organs and other body characters. Differend opinion is expressed by Maddison et al. [2008: 49, 54-55], according to whom molecular characters suggest relationship of Myrmarachne and Ligonipes with higher taxon Astioidea, however, molecular characters of these genera are not calibrated, also there is no clear taxonomic definition of Astioidea, morphological basis confirming that relationships is not indicated.
For full documentation of Myrmarachninae of the world see: .

Myrmarachninae of the Indian Subcontinent

Myrmarachninae are very speciose and diversified in warm areas of the Eastern Hemisphere, with centers of proliferation in tropical Africa and S East Asia, so there are no reasons why their fauna should be less numerous in the Indian Subcontinent. It probably just happened that much less studies were carried out here. In expectation of future discoveries, we include below diagnostic data of genera which may possibly be discovered in the Subcontinent and neighboring islands.

Taxonomy of Myrmarachninae Simon, 1901

Type genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 from India,
Type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 from India, redesignated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 2309: 5]
DIAGNOSIS. Females differing from other ant-like subfamilies by epigyne and its "pipes-like" spermathecae, stretching parallel along main axial diameter of epigyne, often with characteristic detour in one third of their length, or with small terminal vesicle, or dilatation. Copulatory ducts membranous, joining "pipes" posteriorly, visible on cleared and stained epigyne preparation. Males recognizable by enlarged chelicerae armored by numerous but separate teeth. Palps with bulbus round or oval, encircled by embolus, usually twice, with spermophor along margin of bulbus, making andditional, small and thin loop. Tibial apophysis small, often twisted. For details see drawings (below).
An important, newest tool for identification of local species become photographs of live specimens, their usage require, however, preliminary calibration with internal structure of epigyne and with palps. Due to big variability of appearance, and repetition of similar morphs in unrelated species and in various areas, the external appearance is unreliable for faunal comparison, they cannot seem of little use for phylogenetical conclusions.

DESCRIPTION. Body resembling diverse local ants.
Females. Epigyne externally whitish, has tegument medium sclerotized with a pair of membranous "windows", oval or round, with posterior "pocket" single or split into two, but not very striking. "Windows" occur also in some other subfamilies, but internal structure of epigyne is unique. Spermathecae can be described as a pair of sclerotized "pipes", connected with membranous copulatory ducts near the posterior end of epigyne and running anterior wards along longitudinal diameter, parallel and almost straight. Majority of genera have developed terminal sperm containers in the anterior part of spermathecae, in a form of either simple dilatation, or broadened single loop, or several loops, making knot, or even a double spiral. There may be also developed a discreet compartment, round or oval. Internal walls of sperm storage compartment are usually covered with small spines (in Myrma gedongensis covering the whole length of "pipes"). There is indistinct, sieve like porous opening of the "nutritive [?] gland" at the terminal end of spermathecae, near cone-like "fertilization duct". The spermathecae are usually translucent through tegument, and so characteristic that they are usually marked on drawings, however often imprecisely. The copulatory ducts are irregular tubes of soft transparent membrane, with shrunken walls, making broad coils dorsally to white membrane of "windows" and are intertwined between soft tissues.The copulatory ducts are visible only after clearing of soft tissues and staining, so often overlooked and known as yet in a small number of species. Their diagnostic significance were discovered only in 1990ties and 2000ties in Myrmarachne, their course in Belippo was traced only in 2013. The copulatory openings are narrow slits, difficult to notice, located closely to medium septum of epigyne. Ducts join posterior tips of "pipes", just past the inconspicuous swelling being apparently armature of the spermathecal "scent gland [?]". That junction proves that "pipes" are really parts of spermathecae, and not copulatory ducts, as they were sometimes interpreted.
Males. Common feature of palps in majority of Myrmarachninae is round bulbus, encircled internally, along margins, by thick and well visible, translucent spermophor, usually incomplete, in Myrmarachne with characteristic additional thin loop, less developed in remaining genera. Embolus encircles bulbus twice, it consists of a thin black thread, hard but elastic, hidden in a protective sheath (until discovery of that structure by Logunov [1999, P.1999. Figs 22-23] considered the embolus itself), clearly visible along the sheath, it's tip is protruding from the end of sheath. Tibial apophysis is short and fleshy, often with sclerotized tip, slightly waving or bending, in Myrmarachne twisted screw like and with developed flange - a flap of tegument, extending towards the mid length of tibia. Chelicerae in females are always short, in males of majority of Myrmarachninae genera enormously enlarged, presumably used as visual deterrent during mating duels, but of little use in catching prey. There are two long rows of minute teeth (pluridentati) along posterior (inner) edges of chelicerae. Chelicerae are remarkably shorter in Myrmavola and in transfered to subfamily Ligonipeinae genera Damoetas Ligonipes and Rhombonotus; their inner posterior teeth form compact group on ventral lobe of chelicera.

Guide to identification of genera by spermathecae and ducts

Figs 21-41. Guide to identification of genera by spermathecae and ducts..

Guide to identification of genera by palps and chelicerae

Figs 42-81. Guide to identification of males by palps and chelicerae.

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance and color pattern

....................................................Bocus (1), .............................................................................................................................Emertonius (2-3)

...........................................................Myrmaplata (4-5), ...........................................................................................................Myrmarachne melanocephala - male + female (7-8)

....................................... (9-10).Myrmarachne formicaria - male + unusually colored female
Figs 1-10. Diversity of habitus in Myrmarachninae. Bocus (1), Emertonius (2-3), Myrmaplata (4-5), Myrmarachne (7-10 [10 unusually colored female of M. formicaria]). 1 -from Brunei, 2-3 -from Indonesia: Ceram, 4-5 -from Sri Lanka, 7-8 Sri Lanka, 9 -Czech Republic,10 -Sweden. 1 -©photo by J. Koh, 3-4 - ©photo by D. Knowles, 4-5 - ©photo by M. Freudenschus, 7-8 - ©photo by S. Benjamin, 9-10 - ©photo by J. Lissner.

Gen. Belippo Simon, 1909 - see LIGONIPEINAE

Gen. Emertonius Peckham & Peckham, 1892
expected, but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Emertonius exasperans Peckham & Peckham,1892.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from Belippo and Bocus by broader and relatively shorter "pipes" of spermathecae, bow-like bent, terminating anteriorly by globular swelling (Figs. 97-98), comparable to that in Myrmapana gen. n. (Fig. 29). Palps resembling Myrma by spermophor having no additional loop and by straight tibial apophysis, inclined but not twisted (Fig. 100-101). Type species differs from remaining genera of Myrmarachninae by shape of thorax and by striking color pattern of abdomen and carapace (Fig. 102), but coloration of other species is unknown.
DESCRIPTION. The cephalic part and anterior thorax in both sexes of the type species are flat, or almost flat, the posterior slope is high and step. Abdomen is oval, not constricted. Chelicerae in male are enlarged, dorsally flattened, stretches horizontally. Tibial apophysis slightly bent but not twisted. Windows in epigyne round, relatively small. Pipes of spermathecae as long as diameter of windows, bow-like bent, pass into almost round terminal swellings, which, however is not a discrete compartment..
REMARKS. Clear original description and delimitation of the genus by Peckham & Peckham [ 1892: 54, pl. 4, fig. 8] was blurred by Wanless [1978c] who has overlooked taxonomic significance of internal structure of epigyne, of body shape and color pattern and reclassified it to the genus Myrmarachne. Opinion of Wanless was repeated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 22] and Edwards 2013: 4-5] without adding new evidences. The excellent photographs by D. Knowles of Emertonius, supported additionally by photographs of damaged specimen from Bali, confirm characters presented by Peckham & Peckham. Detailed analysis of properties of Emertonius was given by Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010: 162-164, Figs 164-171].

REFERENCES. Prószynski J., Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. 2010. Vol. 19. N. 3: P. 162-164. Figs 164-167, 169-171.
Wanless F.R. 1978c. Vol. 33. N. 4. P. 235-238. Figs 1-2. 1a-f, 2a-e.
Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 505.

Emertonius exasperans +b) sp [Palawan] +c) sp [Sabah]. Comparison of: drawing of the type by Peckhams 1892,
photo from Bali and epigyne of lectotype. Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold [2010], ©Photo D. Knowles +b) Wanless
1978b: 33(4): 235-238, f 1a-f, 2a-e [captioned as E. exasperans] +c) ©Photo P. Koomen [Borneo: Sabah]. By courtesy.

Emertonius kilifi +b) globosa (both comb. n. Myrmarachne k.+ g.). Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000.
Tr. Zool., 13 (1): 72-73, figs 188-191 + Wanless 1978b, 33(4): 102-103, figs 63 c-d, f, j, k, 64a, d, 65 d +b) Wanless 1978a.
: 33, (1): 99, figs 61b-c, g, 62d-e + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 246, ff. 328-331. By courtesy.
Emertonius laurentinus +b) shelfordi ( both comb. n. Myrmarachne l.+ s.). Wesołowska, Haddad 2009.
Afr. Invert., 50(1): 61, f 111-114 + Wanless 1978b. 33(4): 99-102, figs 63 a-b, e, g, i, 64 b-c, g-h +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013.
Zootaxa 3710 (6): 549-551, f 39A–G, 40A–E. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Gen [Baliga] Vipin Baliga, 0
[genus and species not yet named, undescribed].

Type species Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim].
ETYMOLOGY. DIAGNOSIS. Unusual termite mimicking, termites hunting spider, living on bark of trees in S India. DESCRIPTIONS. See enclosed photographs. REFERENCES. First photographs shot by Mr. Vipin Baliga. Pending description. COMPOSITION. Until now only one species known.

Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim] : Undescribed termite mimic. India: S-Kodagu District, Karnataka. ©Photo Vipin Baliga. By courtesy.

M Gen. "MYRMA" gen. n.
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne cuneata Badcock, 1918.
ETYMOLOGY. Name derived from word Myrmarachne, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal pipes much narrower than in Emertonius and Myrmapana, only slightly and gradually dilating terminally, with internal spines confined to the dilated part. Palps resembling Emertonius by lack of additional thin loop of spermophor.
DESCRIPTIONS. Size of specimens large, some species have total length 7-8 mm. Females characterized by almost straight "pipe"-like spermathecae, with only indistinct anterior swellings, internal spines limited to the swelling. Tibial apophysis indistinctly double bent, but not twisted screw like. Chelicerae lobate.
REMARKS. Genus limited to South East Asia.
REFERENCES. Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12. N. 7. P. 297-322.

"MYRMA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) hirsutipalpi comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.Bull. Br. Ar. 12 (7): 319-321, figs 110-116.
"MYRMA"(syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) gorontaloensis +b) grossa comb. n. . Yamasaki 2012b 104: 163-165, f 28-31
+b) Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): figs 69-79. By courtesy.
"MYRMA"(syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) latithorax +b) magna comb. n. Yamasaki, Huang 2012.. A. arachn., 61(1): 7-10, f 1-13 +b) Huang J. 2004: 44-48, t 17-18.
"MYRMA"(syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) maxillosa. Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G,
31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) Huang J. 2004: 44-48, t 17-18 +c) ©Photo Vipin Baliga (S Kodagu Distr.,
Karnataka). By courtesy.

Gen. MYRMAGE gen. n. (1 species)
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Myrmarachne leserti group of species by Wanless [1978a: 106-9].
Type species Myrmarachne gedongensis Badcock, 1918 comb. n.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and gedongensis, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal pipes differs from Myrma by being straight (Fig. 117), devoid of any swellings and covered by spines over their entire internal surface. Palps resembling Myrma by distinct spermophor along margin, without additional thin loop. Tibial apophysis indistinctly double bent, but not screw like twisted.
DESCRIPTIONS.The genus characterizes by pipe-like spermathecae, straight, devoid of any swellings, covered by spines over their entire internal surface. Copulatory ducts present, but their details are not yet known. Chelicerae lobate.
REMARKS. The structure of spermathecae is unique. Genus known from Borneo only, there is a photo of an undescribed species Danum Valley, Sabah with similar spermathecae
COMPOSITION. Single species Myrmarachne gedongensis Badcock, 1918 comb. n.
REFERENCES. Edmunds M., Prószyński J. 2003. Vol. 12. N. 7. P.  297-322.
Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 524-526. Figs 18A–G, 19A–E.

Myrmage gedongensis comb. n. (syn. Myrmarachne g.) [f 118-122] Edmunds M,. Proszynski J. 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc.12 (7): figs 48-52.18 + [f 117] Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy. Borneo: Sabah; Malaysia: peninsular Malaysia.
MYRMAGE ? (syn. Myrmarachne) dishani comb. nov. Benjamin 2015: 10, f 5A–C, 6A–D, 7A–F, 8G–H. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J.
Nat. Hist. By courtesy. Sri Lanka. [No licence to display. BODY SHAPE DISAGREE WITH M. gedongensis?].

MYRMAGE (syn. Myrmarachne) imbellis comb. nov. : Peckham, Peckham 1892. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wisc.,
2 (1) : 36, t. 2, f. 10 + Benjamin 2015: 15, f 8A–F, 9A–D, 10A–C, 11A–C, 12A–F. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist.
By courtesy. Sri Lanka.[No licence to display. BODY SHAPE DISAGREE WITH M. GEDONGENSIS!].

NOTE on MYRMAGE : Two species from Sri Lanka (M. dishani and M. imbellis) differ from M. gedongensis from Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia by having body more elongate, males with longer chelicerae, directed horizontally. All these forms have columnar spermathecae with internal surfaces densely rippled (and not covered by spines, as commented before).

Gen. "MYRMANU" gen. n.;
expected, but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Myrmarachne nubilis group of species by Wanless [1978: 110-113].
Type species Myrmarachne mahasoa Wanless, 1978.

ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and nubilis, grammar gender assumed female.

DIAGNOSIS. Body and carapace shape shown on Figs 130-131. Spermathecae resembling Myrmarachne but coils of "pipes" bent anteriorly and lies parallel to main axis of the body, not transversally.
DESCRIPTION.Two species of uncertain position, with spermathecae resembling Myrmarachne, with spermathecal spiral turned 90% parallel to main axis of the body. Males unknown.
COMPOSITION. Two species from Madagascar: Myrmanu mahasoa (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. nubilis (Wanless, 1978) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.110-115. Figs 71-72.

"MYRMANU" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) nubilis : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): 111-112, ff. 71 a-c, 72 a-c [from Madagascar]. By courtesy.

Gen. "MYRMAPENI" gen. n.
S & C American genus, but one specie known from Borneo and two from Madagascar, hence possible in Indian Subcontinent
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne penicillata Mello-Leitao, 1933 from Brazil.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and penicillata, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Males recognizable by unique row of long, stout and broad setae ventro-laterally on pedipalpal tibia, posteriorly to apophysis (Figs 160-161, 168-171). Internal structures of epigyne shown on Fig. 162, spermathecae longer and less swollen that in Myrmapana.
DESCRIPTION. Male. Body shape shown on Figs 163-164, 173-174, 176-177. Palpal tibial apophysis gently bent, followed ventro-laterally by prominent fringe of long, stout and broad setae, posteriorly to apophysis. Spermophor with additional thin loop. Chelicerae lobate. Female. Body shown on Figs 165-166. Spermathecal "pipes" moderately long, anteriorly gently dilated and pressed to each other, posteriorly diverging.
REMARKS. Distributed in Central and South America, one species found in Sarawak and one in Madagascar.
COMPOSITION. The genus contains following species: Myrmapana borneensis (Peckham, Peckham, 1907) comb. n., M. chickeringi (Galiano, 1969) comb. n., M. diegoensis (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. penicillata (Mello-Leitao, 1933) comb. n., M. simplexella Roewer, 1951 comb. n., M. sumana (Galiano, 1974) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Galiano M. E. 1969. Vol. 3. N. 2. P. 107-148.
Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 514-515. Figs 10a-g.
Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.125-126. Figs 84a-g.

"MYRMAPENI" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) borneensis (170-174) + chickeringi (159-166) + diegoensis (167) + penicillata (168-169, 175-177):. 159-162, 167-171 - male palps and tibia, ventral & lateral views; 162 - internal structure of epigyne; 163-166, 173-174, 176-177 - habitus of male and female, dorsal and lateral views; 172, 175 - chelicera. 167 - from Madagascar; 170-174 - from Borneo; 159-166 - from Panama; 168-169, 175-177 - from Brazil; 159-166, 168-169, 175-177 - after Galiano [1969], 167 - Wanless [1978]; 170-174 - after Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013]. By courtesy.
"MYRMAPENI" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) simplexella : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist.(Zool.), 33, (1): 121-123, ff. 81A-J. [Madagascar]. By courtesy.

Gen. "MYRMAPLATA" gen. n. (5 species)
[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Salticus plataleoides Pickard-Cambridge O. 1869a: 68, plate 6, figs 61-65 from India.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and plataleoides, grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Pipes of spermathecae long and thin, with developed discrete oval chamber anteriorly, and swollen posterior end (Figs 184-185). Males differs from majority of Myrmarachninae by shorter loop of embolus overlying flat anterior half of a bulbus (Figs178-179, 181-182) . Type species with enormously long chelicerae and pedicel,
DESCRIPTION. Female's abdomen oval without constriction, pointed posteriorly. Spermathecal "pipes" differs from Myrmarachne by absence of transversal detour and are terminated by oval chamber, distinctly broader than "pipes". Males very long, with long pedicel and very long chelicerae, swollen apically, with strongly pronounced body constriction, cephalic part block like, twice higher than thorax (Figs 4-5). Palps with short, straight, conical apophysis, spermophor is not visible on available drawings and photos of bulbus. In M. plataleoides embolus makes single coil in anterior half of bulbus, in M. turriformis encircles entire bulbus.
REMARK. The genus accommodate species delimited previously to the Myrmarachne plataleoides group of species. M. plataleoides itself is reported from South and South East Asia and is associated with Oecophylla ants, large and yellow, building large aerial nids from living leaves of trees, common in Asian, African and Australian tropics. M. plataleoides is a common and popularly known species, recognized at the first glance, often mentioned in popular literature, but making in fact taxonomic problem because nobody bothered to make it's diagnostic drawings. There were no genitalic drawings in the literature, until drawings by Prószyński published in 1992 and 2003 and reproduced here - epigyne of female from India (Figs 183-185) and male from Peninsula Malaya (Figs 178-180). Owing to long distance separating collecting points of these specimens, it is not certain whether they are really conspecific. In addition photographs of palps of specimen from Sri Lanka (Figs 181-182) seems to be somewhat different.
DISTRIBUTION. South and South East Asia.
COMPOSITION. The genus contains following species: Myrmaplata aureonigra (Edmunds, Prószyński, 2003) comb. n., M. hispidacoxa (Edmunds, Prószyński, 2003) comb. n., M. plataleoides (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1869) comb. n., M. turriformis (Badcock, 1918) comb. n., M. wanlessi (Edmunds, Prószynski, 2003) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12, N. 7. P. 298-301. Figs 1-7.
Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 499. Figs 586, 590-592.
Peckham G.W., Peckham E.G. 1892. Vol. 2. N. 1. P. 1-83. Plate 3. Fig 1

"MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) plataleoides : 178-179, 181-182 - palp; 180 - male chelicera; 183-185 - epigyne, its internal structures and sternum. 178-180 - from Peninsula Malaya; 181-182 - from Sri Lanka; 183-185 from India. 178-180 - after Prószyński & Edmunds [2003]; 183- 185 - after Prószyński [1992]; 181-182 - photo by M. Freudenschus. By courtesy. "MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) plataleoides: Benjamin 2015: 38, f 29A–D, 30A–D, 31A–E). ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy. [No licence to display!]
"MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) spissa : Peckham, Peckham 1892. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wisc., 2 (1): 37. T. 2, Figs. 8-9. + Benjamin 2015: 44, f 32A–J, 33A–D, 34A–D, 35A–F, 36A–C, 37A–F[No licence to display!]. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. +b) 5, f 2A–D, 3A–D, 4A–F. By courtesy. REMARKS on M. spissa (following data published hy Benjamin 2015): resembles M. plataleoides by palps and internal structure of epigyne, differs strikingly by shorter body, shorter chelicerae and by coloration of live specimen - which is strikingly black, light reflecting].
"MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) aureonigra +b) hispidacoxa: Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 321-322, figs 117-121 +b) 311-313, figs 64-68. By courtesy.
"MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) turriformis +b) wanlessi : Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 306-308,figs 40-47 +b) 311-313, figs 64-68. By courtesy.
"MYRMAPLATA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) wanlessi : Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 315-317, figs 80-100.. By courtesy.

Gen. Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 (103 species)

Type species Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 from India, redesignated by Edwards & Benjamin [2009: 2309: 5].
DIAGNOSIS. Spermathecal “pipes” with transversal detour in anterior one third of length, twisted into loop, knot, or double spiral. Copulatory ducts membranous, transparent, in a form of entangled coils, visible only after clearing of soft tissues and staining in Chlorazol Black E. In males bulbus with additional thin loop of spermophor in the center, tibial apophysis short, twisted screw like, with developed flange, chelicerae oversized, their length variable even within the same species. Body variable, always with pedicel visible, constrictions of carapace and abdomen in males variable, in females less pronounced.
REMARKS. Usage of the name Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 is now restricted to the tristis and formicaria groups of species, described by Wanless 1978a. Delimited in this way, the genus contains now 103 identifiable species distributed in warm areas of Asia, Africa, Australia, one species occurs in Europe and has recently appeared in North America. Distributional centers of the genus are in SE Asia and tropical Africa. An important contribution to understanding of the genus Myrmarachne is newest paper of Benjamin 2015 on Sri Lankan species, giving perfect drawings and SEM of palps, very good drawings of internal structure of epigyne, photographs of living and preserved specimens.

Figs 186-213. Diagnostic characters of Myrmarachne. Myrmarachne cornuta (195-196, 201-202, 209-210), M. glavisi (193-194, 199, 211-212), M. melanocephala (190-191, 212-213), M. sp. misidentified as melanocephala (192), M. ramosa (188-189, 203-204, 207-208), M. tristis (186-187, 200, 205-206), 205-213 - palps, ventral and lateral views; 200, 203-204 - male chelicera; 186, 188, 191-193, 196 - epigyne, ventral view; 187, 189-190, 194-195 - internal structures of epigynw; 213 - sternum. 193-194, 199, 211 - from Bali, 186-187, 197, 200, 205-206 - from Israel; 188-189, 203-204, 207-208 - from Peninsula Malaya; 190-192, 212-213 - from Sri Lanka; 186-187, 200, 205-206 - after Prószyński [2003]. 190-192, 212-213 - after Edwards & Benjamin [2009],©2009 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Species of special interest
Myrmarachne melanocephala [collective "neotype specimen"] +b) male +c) female [2 species mixed up] +d-e) male & female from Sri Lanka +f) mistaken synonymy M.- ramosa-melanocephala : Edwards, Benjamin 2009. Zootaxa 2309: 5, f 1-5. ©Magnolia Press + f) Prószyński on line. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne cf. melanocephala [?]: Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. ZooKeys 299: 15-19, 46-58. By courtesy. [Flores].

Myrmarachne ramosa +b) 2 sp from Singapore : Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arach. Society. 12 (7): 301,
figs 8-29 +b)© Photo H.K. Tang. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne tristis : Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003, 51, 3: 108, figs 446-452. By courtesy.

Myrmarachne acromegalis :Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 503-507, f 2A–F, 3A–E, 41C–F. ©Magnolia Press [conspecificity of specimens from Borneo and Thailand improbable!!!]. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne biseratensis +b) palladia : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 512-514, f 8A–G, 9A–F.
© Magnolia Press [Singapore] +b) Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13(6): 223-224, f 15-17
[Afghanistan]. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne constricta +b) contracta+providens +c) cowani :Wanless 1983a. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr.,
8. 241: 24-27, ff. 7a-g, 8a-c. 23-124 [Seychelles] +b) M. contracta (D-H) and M. providens (A-C) (considered
synonyms of M. melanocephala): Edwards, Benjamin 2009. Zootaxa 2309: 5, f 1. © 2013 Magnolia Press +c) Wanless 1978a.
Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): figs 44A-E; 45A-G [Madagascar]. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne cornuta : Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): f 30-39 + Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013.
Zootaxa 3710 (6): 518-520, f 13A–G, 14A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press + © Photo H. K. Tang. By courtesy. [Borneo,
Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore].
Myrmarachne cyrtodens +b) dundoensis : Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 521-522, f 6A–G. © 2013 Magnolia
Press [Borneo] +b) Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33, (1): 82-84, f 51a-i, 52a-e, t. 5a-b. [Africa].
Myrmarachne formicaria : Zabka 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 5-187, figs 189-200 + ©Photo J. Lissner
[Palearctics, imported to USA]. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne gisti +b) hanoii : Logunov 1993b. Arthropoda Selecta, 2(1): 51, tab. 1a-c. + Song et al., 1999: 535, figs 304N-P, 305A-B [China] +b) Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 11: 246, ff. 332-336 + Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 526-528, f 20A–G, 21A–D. © 2013 Magnolia Press.[Vietnam, China, Borneo, Sumatra]. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne ramosa: Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arach. Society. 12 (7): 301, figs 8-29 + ©Photo H.K. Tang.
By courtesy. [Malasia, Singapore].
Myrmarachne rufescens +b) sabahna : Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 171-173, f 49-54 [Sulawesi] +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013.
Zootaxa 3710 (6): 547-549, f 37A–G, 38A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Myrmarachne smaragdina : ©Photo. R. Whyte. By courtesy. [Australia]
Myrmarachne platypalpus +b) megachelae +c) calcuttaensis +f) dirangicus : Bradoo B.L. 1980. Curr. Sci., 49 (10): 387, f. 1-8
+b) Ganesh Kumar, Mohanasundaram, 1998. Zoos' Print J. 13(11): 27-28 (cotton fields of Tamil Nadu) [Presumably Myrmarachne
. +c) Biswas B. 1984. Bull. Zool. Surv. India 6: 126-127, figs 17-19 +d) Bastawade 2002: 99: 278, f 20-18 . By courtesy.
Myrmarachne maratha +b) orientales +c) poonaensis +d) bengalensis e) ludhianensis : : Tikader, 1973 Proc.
Indian Acad. Sci., 78: 65, figs 12-15 +b) 60, f. 3-6 +c) 60, f. 3-6 +d) 65, f. 16-18 +e) Sadana, Gupta 1998.
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 95 (3): 469, f 1-9 +f) .

Myrmarachne aurantiaca : Benjamin 2015: 5, f 1a-d. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. . By courtesy.[No licence to display!] Myrmarachne bicurvata: Benjamin 2015: 5, f 1a-d. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. 5, f 2A–D, 3A–D, 4A–F. By courtesy.
[No licence to display!]
Myrmarachne morningside : Benjamin 2015: 20, f 20A–D, 21A–D, 22A–D). ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy.[No licence to display!]
Myrmarachne prava (Karsch, 1880) +) bengalensis: Benjamin 2015: 5, f 23A–E, 24A–D, 25A–D, 26A–D, 27A–C,
28A–E). ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy.
[No licence to display!]
[NOT ACCEPTED SYNONYM Myrmarachne (dubia) paivae: Narayan, 1915: 403, f 3, pl 32, f 8.]
[ Doubtful SYNONYM Myrmarachne bengalensis : Tikader, 1973: 65–67, f 16–18 - New synonymy].
Myrmarachne bengalensis : Benjamin 2015: 5, f 1a-d. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. +b) 5, f 2A-D, 3-
D, 4A–F. By courtesy.
[No licence to display!]

Myrmarachne nemorensis +b) opaca : Benjamin 2015: 52, f 39A, B + b) f 39C–F. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist.
By courtesy. [No licence to display!] +c) sketches of palpal organ - by J. Proszynski +d) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 546-547, f 36A–G. © 2013 Magnolia Press [ATTENTION: Karsch described M. opaca from Philippines, Yamasaki from Borneo, are they conspecific between themselves, and specimens from Sri Lanka???]

Myrmarachne pumilio : Benjamin 2015: 52, f 40A–E. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy. [No licence to display!]
Myrmarachne robusta: : Benjamin 2015: 52, f 41A–B. ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka J. Nat. Hist. By courtesy. [No licence to display!]

No diagnostic drawings and no specimens are available in collections: M. ramunni (Narayan, 1915), M. satarensis (Narayan,1915),M. himalayensis (Narayan, 1915), M. incerta (Narayan, 1915), M. paivae (Narayan, 1915),, M. transversa (Mukerjee, 1930), M. uniseriata (Narayan, 1915)
REFERENCES (for Myrmarachne). Prószynski J., Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. 2010. Vol. 19. N. 3: P. 174-178. Figs 113-126.
Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12, N. 7. P. 297-322.
Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.18-27, 28-97. Figs 10-60.
Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 504-505.

Gen. "MYRMATHECA" gen. n.
expected, but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Myrmarachne alticephalon Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and spermatheca, assumed grammar gender - female.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from Myrmarachne by huge spermathecal chamber, resembling two tightly pressed sclerotized hemispheres and minute, thread-like, thin and short pipes.
DESCRIPTION. Body shape of male and female shown on Figs 222-227, cephalic part much higher than thoracal one. Male chelicerae long, anteriorly swollen (Figs 226-227). Bulbus oval, with shape of spermophor not yet clearly understood. Tibial apophysis inclined and waving, apically narrowing (Figs 219-221). Female. Antero-median rim of "windows", on both sides of posterior pocket, is light sclerotized (compare remark on similar structure in Myrmagua - Fig. 123). Posterior end of pipes expanded transversally in both directions, left and right, making two striking processes, one of which may be armature of junction with copulatory duct, the second armature of a scent gland. Membranous copulatory ducts are not yet displayed, their visible fragment seems to indicate that they run broad circle (Fig. 214). Posterior pocket very narrow and small, moved ahead towards center of epigyne and touching spherical chambers of spermathecae.
REMARKS. The genus contains two species, shown below, of which one is pending description, conspecificity of Bornean and Sumatran populations of Myrmatheca alticephalonis not yet documented.
DISTRIBUTION. Two species in Borneo: Sabah, a specimen reported from Indonesia: Sumatra: Padang may belong to different species, the third species described from Madagascar.
COMPOSITION. Myrmatheca alticephalon (Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013)comb. n., Myrmatheca ransoni (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., there is an undescribed species photographed by P. Koomen.
REFERENCES. Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 507-509. Figs 4A–G, 5A–E
Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P. 83A-C.

Myrmatheca (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) alticephalong +b) ransoni comb. n. M. (215, 218-221, 225-227) +b) M. sp. cf. alticephalon (214), M. (216-217, 213-215). 217 - epigyne; 214-216 - internal structure of epigyne; 219-221- male palp; 222-223, 225-226 - habitus; 227 - chelicerae; 218, 224 - sternum. 214-215, 218-221, 225-227 - from Borneo; 216-27, 222-224 - from Madagascar. 214-215, 218-221, 225-227 - after Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], © 2013 Magnolia Press; 216-217, 222-224 - after Wanless [1978].

Gen. "MYRMAVOLA" gen. n.
expected, but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Type species Damoetas galianoae Prószyński, 2001
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words Myrmarachne and volatilis, assumed grammar gender - female.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from Myrmarachne by lack of spermathecal transverse detour, instead apical end of pipes is twisted into single loop, much broadened, resembling that in Myrmelec.
DESCRIPTION. Body shape without constrictions (Figs 234-237), with thorax gently sloping, in M. christae with hump-like swelling. abdomen elongate oval, pointed posteriorly. Color pattern with dark transverse band across abdomen, which is not common in Myrmarachninae. Male. Chelicerae short, ventrally lobate, with group of four teeth (or four cusps on mutual basis?) grouped at the distal slope of the lobe. Palps with bulbus oval, with indistinct spermophor posteriorly, making additional thin ducts resembling shallow "U" anteriorly. Tibial apophysis longer than in Myrmarachne, apically waving. Female. Epigyne with very thin "pipes" appearing long, terminated by broader loop, having internal wall covered by short spines (Figs 228-231, 238-239). Posterior pocket small, distinctly different in particular species. Male tibial apophysis  straight, or gently waving, but not twisted.
REMARKS. M. eumenes (Simon, 1900) comb. n. is standing out by body shape, with enormous long pedicel and constriction of carapace and abdomen, however shape of spermathecae fits definition of Myrmavola - see Wanless[1978a, Fig. 73].
COMPOSITION. Myrmavola andrewi (Wanless,1978), M. brevichelicera (Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013), M. christae (Prószynski, 2001) comb. n., M. eumenes (Simon, 1900) comb. n., M. galianoae (Prószyński, 2001) comb. n. , M. globosa (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. volatilis (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) comb. n., M. yamanei (Yamasaki, 2012) comb. n., M. yamasakii Prószyński, sp. n.. (see below).
REFERENCES. Prószynski J. 2001. Vol. 51. N. 4. P. 517-522. Figs 1-10.

"MYRMAVOLA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) galianoae +b) christae comb. n. (syn. n. Damoetas g.+ c.). Prószyński [2001] Ann. zool., 51 (4): 520-521, f 5-10 +b) 520-521, f 5-10. a) (228, 230, 232-235) and +b) (229, 231-233, 236-237). 228-231 - epigyne and its interrnal structures; 232-233 - male palps, ventral and lateral view; 234-237 - habitus, ventral and lateral views. From Borneo. By courtesy.
"MYRMAVOLA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) andrewi +b) eumenes +c) volatilis : Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit.
Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (1): 103-105, ff. 66b-e, g-h, j, 67a, d-e [Africa] +b) 114-115, figs 73A-K; 74A-E [Madagascar]
+c) 419-420, ff. 62A-C + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: ff. 368-371 [China, Vietnam, Madagascar]. By courtesy.
"MYRMAVOLA" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) yamanei +b) brevichelicera : Yamasaki 2012b. 104: 173-177, f 55-66 [Sulawesi] +b) Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 515-518, f 11A–G, 12A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. [Borneo] .

"MYRMAVOLA" yamasakii sp. n.
[name unpublished].

Myrmarachne mariaelenae: Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013 (misidentified) syn. n.
Material: Syntypes 2 males and 3 females, Gunung Alab, Crocker Range Park, Sabah, 9 X 2010, T. Yamasaki leg.; 5 males and 24 females, Kinabalu Park Headquarter area, Sabah, 10–12 XI 2010, T. Yamasaki leg.
ETYMOLOGY. Named for Dr. Takeshi Yamasaki, an author of excellent papers on Myrmarachne.
NOMENCLATORICAL NOTE. Original name used by Yamasaki & Ahmad Myrmarachne mariaelenae is a result of double mistake - assumption by Edwards & Benjamin, 2009 that the species Damoetas galianoae Prószyński, 2001 should be transferred to the genus Myrmarachne, where would become junior synonym of Myrmarachne galianoae Cutler, 1981. Hence they replaced specific name by "mariaelenae". Because classification to Myrmarachne cannot be sustained, the replacement name become superfluous and, as never used in the primary literature, become invalid. The second mistake was identification of the species described by Yamasaki & Ahmad as conspecific with "mariaelenae" - that is originally "galianoae", as these are in fact not conspecific, it become necessary to describe it under new name. Informed on changed status of this species Dr. Yamasaki did not use occasion to describe it himself.
DIAGNOSIS. Resembling Myrmavola galianoae, this species differs distinctly by small and narrow posterior pocket of epigyne (Figs 238-239), fitted in wide span between terminal ends of spermathecal "pipes", in M. christae the posterior pocket is also small and narrow, but posterior ends of "pipes" are very close each other and pocket is fitted tightly. In males bulbus oval with open additional loop, tibial apophysis slightly longer than in Myrmarachne, gently waving apically, but not twisted apically, there is no flange (Figs 240-242)..
DESCRIPTION. For full description - see Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710(6): 534-535.
REMARKS. Species known from Borneo: Sabah.
REFERENCES. Yamasaki T., Ahmad A.H. 2013. N. 3710. P. 534-535. Figs 26A–G, 27A–G.

"MYRMAVOLA" yamasaki sp. n. [Misidentified as Myrmarachne mariaelenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013] 238-239 - internal structure of epigyne, ventral and dorsal views; 240-242 - male palp, ventral, lateral views and tibia; 243 - male chelicera; 244, 246 - habitus of male and female; 245, sternum and carapace of male. From Borneo. After Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013], © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. "MYRMELE" gen. n.
expected, but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

[name unpublished, proposed as partial synonym for the genus Myrmarachne (in part)].

Myrmarachne electrica group of species Wanless 1978a.
Type species Myrmarachne electrica Wanless 1978a from Madagascar.
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words "Myrmarachne" and "electrica", grammar gender assumed female.
DIAGNOSIS. Epigyne resembling Myrmavola, from which differs by strange structure resembling double spiral developed at the posterior end of spermathecal pipes, being most probably modified copulatory ducts (Figs 247-249).
DESCRIPTIONS. Body appearance shown on Figs 254-259, chelicerae in males moderately enlarged, ventrally lobate, dorsally flat (Figs 252-253). Palps with round bulbus, spermophor without additional thin duct, distal part of embolus filamentous (Figs 250-251).
REMARKS .I propose to include provisionally four species from Madagascar of Myrmarachne electrica group (Wanless 1978a [: 115-121]) which differ by membranous copulatory ducts twisted into seemingly double spiral at the posterior end of spermathecal "pipes".
COMPOSITION. Myrmele andringitra (Wanless,1978) comb. n., M. eugenei (Wanless, 1978) comb. n., M. electrica (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) comb. n., M. peckhami (Roewer, 1951) comb. n.
REFERENCES. Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P. 115-121. Figs 75-77, 79-80.

"MYRMELE" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) eugenei +b) peckhami :Wanless 1978a. 33, (1): 115-117, figs 75a-g,
76 a-e, + b) 119-121, ff. 79A-I, 80A-E. By courtesy.
"MYRMELE" (syn. Myrmarachne comb. n.) andringitra+b) electrica : Wanless, 1978:117, f 77A-D,
76 a-e, + b) 33, (1): figs 78A-F. By courtesy.

P Gen. Panachraesta Simon, 1900

Type species Panachraesta paludosa Simon, 1900
Syntypes of this monotypic genus does not resemble Myrmarachninae (Figs 274-276) except by external view of epigyne, with two white "windows" and translucent, long "pipes" of spermathecae [Prószyński 1987: 74]. While Benjamin 2015: 21 confirms appearance of syntype, his photographs of live females disagree, hence his further reasoning on appearance and structure of palps and epigyne, although very valuable, require confirmation by further research.
. Single species described from Sri Lanka.
REFERENCES. Prószyński [1987. P. 74]. Simon [1901. P. 504].

Panachraesta paludosa.: Prószyński 1987: 74-76 (From Sri Lanka) +b) as Myrmarachne paludosa : Benjamin 2015: 21, f 13A, B [syntype MNHN- identical with drawn by Prószyński, see above NOTE PROGRES from 1987 to 2015 ] 14A–G, 15A–H, 16A–D (shape of abdomen in new females from Sri Lanka, photographed by Benjamin 2015 figs 14F-G, disagrees with his photo of syntype fig 13A, the first have abdomen broadest at 3/4 of length, which give its terminal part trapezium shape, while the latter is elongate ovoid, gradually narrowing posteriorly [Unfortunately have no licence to display that!]. That difference does not seem artifact, hence photographed alive females do not seem to be conspecific with syntype specimen. Panachraesta paludosa cannot be congeneric with Myrmarachne melanocephala! ). ©Myrmar. Sri Lanka, Journal of Natural History.


This paper is documented by drawings made by myself, accumulated with years, published in several papers. Complementary diagnostic drawings are taken from publications by S.P. Benjamin & G.B. Edwards, M.E. Galiano, J. Huang, J. Lissner, F.R. Wanless ,W. Wesołowska, T. Yamasaki, M. Zabka. New source of diagnostic documentation became, during the last decade, artistic macrophotos of spiders, for these reproduced in this paper I am grateful to M. Freudenschuss, D. Knowles, J. Koh, W. Wesołowska and R. Whyte and photographers displaying their photos in Internet. I wish to express my thanks to all above persons. Copyright permissions for usage of drawings was was granted by the publishers and copy right holders of Acta arachnologica. Tokyo, African Invertebrates, Annales Zoologici, Arthropoda Selecta, Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Zoology series), Journal of Arachnology, Magnolia Press, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias naturales B. Rivadavia, Entomologia. My very special thanks are due to Y.M. Marusik for editorial guidance and help.