SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to subfamilies! - INDEX of Genera
KEY to groups of genera of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to classification of Salticidae
a subchapter

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
group of genera
trial version

by Jerzy Prószyński & John T.D. Caleb
Version May 30th, 2015

Disclaimer This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed new taxonomic names, included here, are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images This introduction to a classification of Salticidaee includes only species defined by diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature arranged by similarities of embolus and spermophor. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of theoretically closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, whera are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.


Type genus Heliophanus. Index of genera Heliophanillus Heliophanoides Heliophanus Imperceptus Mexcala


HELIOPHANINAE are defined by possession of truly immovable embolus in males, that is being direct continuation of hardened, opaque tegument of bulbus - tegulum. Palps in males have usually one, two or three tibial apophyses, in subgenus Helafricanus there is also robust patellar apophysis. Femur in Heliophanus has robust and long femoral protuberance or apophysis, single or forked apically. Epigyne in a form of sclerotized plate, often concave or with central groove, without pockets. Copulatory ducts short, thick walled and heavily sclerotized like spermathecae, the latter are simple. External appearance of both sexes: slim bodied, slim legged spiders, small or medium size, often dark, with light reflecting scales, often with white abdominal spots. Move about on vegetation or ground. The group consist of large genus Heliophanus and a few smaller genera, classification of genera having no described males is tentative. A number of genera, previously listed in subfamily Heliophaninae, are transferred now to CHRYSILLINAE.
Historical note. The main concept of the subfamily was developed owing to extensive, basic research by Wesolowska 1986, in which she presented modern definition and contents of the genus Heliophanus and proposed division into subgenera. She has subsequently added large number of new species, described in numerous publications over next 28 years.

Guide to identification of genera

Gen. Heliophanillus Prószynski, 1989
expected, but not yet reported from Inian Subcontinent

Type species Heliophanillus fulgens.
ETYMOLOGY. Name relates to resemblance to the genus Heliophanus, and to very small size of specimens.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from Heliophanus by absence of femoral apophysis on palpal tibia and very small tibial
apophyses, bulbus passing smoothly into embolus; abdomen black with pairs of white dots. Epigyne resembling
rather Icius than Heliophanus.

Heliophanillus fulgens : [Type species] Proszynski 2003b. Ann. zool. 2003: 71-72, f 261-268
+ ©Photo B. Knoflach. By courtesy.

Gen. Heliophanoides Prószynski, 1992

Type species Heliophanoides epigynalis.

Heliophanoides epigynalis +b) bhutanicus : Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 44, 9: 177-178, fig. 49, 51 (Type species)
+b) 177, f. 52-5.5. By courtesy.
Heliophanoides spermathecalis : Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 178, fig. 50, 56. By courtesy.

Gen. Heliophanus Koch C.L., 1833

Type species Heliophanus cupreus.

Heliophanus (Heliophanus) cupreus: Zabka M. 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 5-187, figs 148-156 (Type Species). ©Photo A. Senglet.
Heliophanus (Heliophanus) curvidens: Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici: 72-73, figs 269-272
+ ©Photo Shazia Quasin: Nanda Devi Reserve 2000-4000 m, Uttarakhand, India. By courtesy.
Heliophanus (H.) decoratus: Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 53 (1): 73-75, figs 273-280. By courtesy
Heliophanus (H.) mordax : Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003a: 53, 1: 79, figs 303-308. By courtesy.
Heliophanus (H.) potanini: Proszynski 1982. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung. 74: 284-285, ff. 29, 32
+ Wesolowska 1981. Ann. zool., 36, 1: 133-134, f 14-17
Heliophanus (Heliophanus) iranus Wesolowska 1986. Ann. zool., 40, 1: 11, 223, f 776-786 .
Heliophanus (Heliophanus) xerxesi : Logunov, 2009. Contrib. Nat. History 12: 905-907, 13-17.

Gen. Imperceptus Proszynski, 1992
placement tentative

Type species Imperceptus minutus.

Imperceptus minutus : Proszynski J. 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 181, f 65-66. By courtesy.

Gen. Mexcala Peckham & Peckham, 1902
expected, but not yet reported from Inian Subcontinent

Type species Mexcala subinstructus.

Mexcala rufa + M. elegans : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 83.Type species + Wesolowska 2009a. Genus, 20: 176-177, f 95-99
+ 158-161, f 2 + Wesolowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Invert. 50(1): 101-104. By courtesy.
Mexcala farsensis: Logunov 2001b. Arthr. Sel. 10 (1): 61, f 1-3. By courtesy.