RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prˇszynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prˇszyński
20 - HARMOCHIRINES GROUP OF GENERA
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

This chapter contains the following genera: type genus Harmochirus.
Bianor , Harmochirus , Havaika , Microbianor , Modunda , Napoca , Neaetha , Sibianor , Stichius
(98 species)

Introduction

HARMOCHIRINES contains genera with embolus hair thin, parallel to bulbus, which is broad oval or round, sometimes anteriorly truncated. Epigyne divided into 1) anterior half occupied by white membranous "window", bisected by prominent, sclerotized pocket and 2) posterior half with translucent internal ducts and spermathecae, separated by deep, axial groove. These two parts are separated by continuous sclerotized border consisting of edge of median pocket and sclerotized edges of "window". Copulatory duct in epigyne usually with C-shaped connection, spermathecae thick walled, sclerotized, in a form of entangled ducts, or compact body with convoluted internal chambers.


copulatory duct in epigyne usually
with C-shaped connection

Diversity of genera - male palps


Diversity of genera - epigyne

Diversity of genera - body shape and color pattern

Gen. Bianor Peckham, Peckham, 1885 (25 species)

Type species Bianor maculatus.
DIAGNOSIS. Squat looking spiders with high carapace, about equal in length to abdomen, which is usually pointed posteriorly. Body coloration dark, with some scattered colorless scales, in males often with pair of white dots. Genital organs conform to description given above for the whole group of genera. Differs by flattish bulbus from very similar looking Sibianor which has conical protuberance developed on bulbus. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

Bianor maculatus : Davies Todd, Żabka 1989: 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus.: 245, t 47. By courtesy. <
+?
<
+?
Bianor [AUS-603] + F [3-10-11](= maculatus?) : ©Photo R. Whyte [=P1150485] By courtesy.
>
Bianor albobimaculatus : Proszynski 2003a . Ann. zool.,39-42, figs 113-114,21 + © and phot by B. Knoflach. By courtesy.
+
Bianor angulosus: Logunov 2001. Arthr. Selecta, 9 (4): 231-234, figs. 47-74.+ Zabka M. 1988b. Ann. zool., 41 (14): 442-443,
ff. 56-58.
b)
Bianor biguttatus +b) eximius : Wesolowska, van Harten 2002. F. Arabia 19: 370, figs 1-4. +b)Wesołowska, Haddad 2009.
Afr. Invert., 50(1): 23, photo 211. By courtesy
.
+
Bianor biocellosus : Logunov D.V. 2001a. Arthropoda Selecta, 9 (4): 234-235, figs. 75-84. + Galiano 1963b.
Physis, 23 (66): 312-313, tab. XI, figs 11-13. By courtesy
.
b)c)d)
Bianor concolor +b) hongkong +c) nexilis +d) monster : Keyserling 1882: 1335 T. 114 F. 1 +b) Song, Zhu, Chen, 1999:
506, figs 289 G-H +c) Jastrzębski 2007b. A. arachn., 56 (1): 26, f 1-4 +d) Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 203-204,
figs 26-29. By courtesy
.
Bianor incitatus : Logunov D.V. 2001. Arthropoda Selecta, 9 (4): 236-240, figs. 89-104. By courtesy.
+b)
Bianor kovaczi +b) paulyi : Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 6, 13-20. + Logunov 2001. Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 240, figs. 85-86 +b) 273-275, photo 7. By courtesy.
b)
Bianor murphyi +b) senegalensis :Logunov 2001 [2000] .Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 242-244, figs 135-142 + 247, figs.154-157.
Bianor obak [synonymy not accepted]: Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arachn. 24(3): 220-222, figs 18-24..
Bianor pseudomaculatus : Logunov D.V. 2000 . Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 244, figs.108, 110-114, 130--134. By courtesy.
Bianor punjabicus : Logunov D.V. 2000 . Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 244-246, figs 143-153. By courtesy.
b)
Bianor vitiensis +b) tortus : Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arachn. Vol. 24(3): 222-223, figs 25-28
+ Jastrzębski. 2007b. A. arachn., 56 (1): 27-28, f 5-12. By courtesy
.
Bianor quadrimaculatus : Logunov 1996c. Genus, 7 (3): 526-527, figs 24-27. By courtesy.
Bianor wunderlichi: Logunov 2000. Arthr. Selecta, 9 (4): 247, figs.154-157 + 248-249, figs. 9-12, 28-35. By courtesy.
Bianor sp [AUS-295-297] : Queensland IRM. ©Photo R. Whyte. By courtesy.
Bianor sp [P1150485] : Whyte, 0. Australia. ©Photo R. Whyte. By courtesy.

Gen. Harmochirus Simon, 1885 (12 species)

Type species Harmochirus brachiatus
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from average HARMOCHIRINES by more "angular" body appearance, with eyes III more protruding laterally and higher carapace, with narrower and more abruptly sloping thoracal part. Striking difference are robust, black, long leg I, with swollen tibia, enlarged additionally by dense fringe of long, broad setae, metatarsus I and tarsus I are contrasting by being thinner and light colored.. Genital organs conform to description given above for the whole group of genera. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

++
Harmochirus brachiatus : Prˇszynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr.selec., 19(3): 166-168, 73-78 (Bali)
+ Davies Todd, Zabka 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus., 27 (2): 217, t. 22.ę Photo P. Koomen. By courtesy
++++
Harmochirus luculentus : Proszynski 1987: 59, 108 (specimen "7553" - coll. Simon) + Wesolowska 1994. Genus, 5 (3):
203, f 14-15 (the same specimen) + Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 254-260, figs 214-221 (holotype?) + Wesolowska, van Harten. 2007. F. Arabia, 23: 214-216, f 68-75 + ę Photo B. Knoflach. By courtesy
+
Harmochirus bianoriformis : Wesolowska 1994. Genus, 5 (3): 199-201, f. 4-13. + Lessert 1936. Rev. suisse zool., 43(9):
292-293, figs 87-89. By courtesy
b)c)
Harmochirus duboscqui + elegans + lloydii: Wesolowska 1994. Genus, 5 (3): 201-202, figs 16-20 + 203-204, f 14-15 +b) Narayan 1915 : 394, pl 32, f 1.. By courtesy
+
Harmochirus insulanus: Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 253-251, f 194-203. + Ono, Ikeda, Kono 2009:
581, f 248-251, pl 48-1.
b)
Harmochirus pineus +b) sp [Tanzania] : Xiao X., Wang S. 2005: 30: 527, f 1-12 +b) Wesolowska, Russel-Smith 2000. Tr. Zool., 13 (1): 33-35, f 59-65.
+b)
Harmochirus zabkai +b) "brachiatus" : Logunov 2001. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 260, f 250-256 (conspecific?) + Tikader 1977e: 73: 410-411, f 1-5. By courtesy
+
Harmochirus exaggeratus : Harmochirus Caleb, Mathai, 2015. Mun. Ent. Zool.10 (1): 117-121, f 1-26.. By courtesy

Gen. Havaika Prˇszynski, 2001(24 species)

Type species Havaika jamiesoni.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from average HARMOCHIRINES by shape of body, which is longer and has different color pattern. Males differ by thicker embolus, longer, oval bulbus and longer tibia. Epigyne confront to pattern described for other HARMOCHIRINES and is the main argument for placement in this group of genera. However, spermatheca and part of ducts are stronger sclerotized, with only traces of "C" connection. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.
REMARKS. Havaika is prolific genus, endemic to Hawaiian Archipelago, which seem to undergone intensive island radiation, resulting in indistinct morphological differences between species. Origin of Havaika outside Hawaiian Archipelago is unknown. Interesting study of evolution of Havaika was published by Arnedo and Gillespie 2006.

b)
Havaika jamiesoni +b) albociliata : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 204, f 3-4, 31, 47, 60, 72, 88 + Prˇszynski, 2007b:
16(4): 199, f 23, 39, 67, 77, 96.. By courtesy
b)c)d)e)
Havaika arnedoi +b) beattyi +c) berlandi +d) berryorum +e) canosa : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4):199-201, f 24, 40, 62
+b) 201, f 8, 9, 29, 45, 58, 71, 89 +c) 201, f 27, 43, 64, 69, 85, +d) 201, f 1-2, 19-20, 28, 44, 61, 73, 87
+e)203, f 11, 81. By courtesy
b)+
Havaika ciliata + cruciata : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 203, f 70, 86. + 203, f 13, 16-18, 30, 46, 55. Prˇszynski, 2007b:
16(4): 199, f 23, 39, 67, 77, 96 + Arnedo, Gillespie 2006: photo 2 B, G, L and R. By courtesy
b)c)
Havaika gillespieae +b) gressitti +c) kahiliensis : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 203, f 83, 90.8 +b) 203-204, f 79, 91
+c) 204-206, f 14-15, 82, 97. By courtesy.
b)c)
Havaika kauaiense +b) kraussi +c) mananensis : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 2206, f 76, 93 +b) 16(4): 206, f 74, 94
+c) 206, 7, 32, 48, 57. By courtesy.
b)c)++
Havaika mauiensis +b) navata +c) oceanica: Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 206, f 5-6, 25, 41, 66, 80, 92 +b) 207, f 12, 35, 51,
56, 84 +c) 207-208, f 6 75, 95 + Arnedo, Gillespie, 2006: f. 2 E, I, O, t. 9 (female from Necker Is.-E., male - Nihoa Is.-J, O - matching doubtful). By courtesy
+b)+
Havaika pubens +b) rufescens [placement?] : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 208, f 21, 37, 63, 78 + Arnedo, Gillespie 2006 ("pubens lineage") +b) Proszynski 2002. Arthr. Sel., 2002: 10 (3): 235, figs 51-53 + Arnedo,Gillespie, 2006: Phot 2Q. By courtesy.
b)c)d)
Havaika senicula +b) tantalensis +c) valida +d) verecunda : Prˇszynski 2007b: 16(4): 208-209, f 10, 34, 50, 54
+b) 209, f 22, 38, 65 +c) 209, f 26, 42, 59 +d) f 33, 49, 53. By courtesy
.

Gen. Havaika-cf Whyte, 0

Type species Havaika-cf sp Gen [AUS-1571].

Havaika sp [AUS-506] : Havaika sp [AUS-506] Whyte, 0.Australia: Ku-ring-gai. Berowra + Barron Gorge NP. ©Photo I.R. Macaulay + R. Whyte. By courtesy.
M
Havaika-cf sp [AUS-1561] : Australia. ©Photo I.R. Macaulay + R. Whyte. By courtesy.

Gen. Microbianor Logunov, 2000 (7 species)

Type species Microbianor nigritarsus. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

b)c)+
Microbianor nigritarsus +b) golovatchi +c) saaristoi : Logunov D.V. 2000b. Cimbebasia, 16: 264-265, figs 11-20
+b) 264, figs 7-10 [actually 2 species!] +c) Ledoux 2007. Rev. Arachn. 17(2): 32-33, f 34 [MISIDENTIFIED]. By courtesy.
b)
Microbianor deltshevi +b) madagascariensis : Logunov 2009: ZooKeys 16: 276-278, f. 20-23.
+b) 279-281. phots 24-32. By courtesy.
b)
Microbianor globosus +b) furcatus : Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 87-89, f 73, 98-100
+b) Haddad & Wesołowska 2013: 24(3-4): 489-492, f 68–72, 75–76. By courtesy.Haddad & Wesolowska, 2013: 24(3-4): 489-492, f 68ľ72, 75ľ76. By courtesy.

Gen. Modunda Simon, 1901 (5 species)

Type species Modunda staintoni .
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from other genera by longer and lower body. Legs I robust, black. Palp and epigyne agrees.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

+
Modunda staintoni : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 98-99, f 113, 116-117, 120, 123-129 + © phot. B. Knoflach - Yemen.
b) ++
Modunda angustata +b) aeneiceps: Proszynski 1987: 64 +b) 9 + Peng X., Xie L., Xiao X. 1993. Salt. China.. 24, figs 22-25
+ Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sstaintoniel., 9 (4): 276, f. 338-346. By courtesy.
+
Modunda narmadaensis +b) pashanensis: Tikader B. K. 1975: 81: 151-153, f. 5-8 +b) 151, f. 1-4.

Gen. Napoca Simon, 1901(1 species)

Type species Napoca insignis.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from other genera by short and broad body. Leg I with femur, patella and tibia broadened, with fringe of setae, metatarsus and tarsus thin. Legs I robust, black. Bulbus oval with high, conical protuberance. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

+
Napoca insignis : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 108-109, f 133-135 + Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 280-281, f 367-370.

Gen. Neaetha Simon, 1884 (10 species)

Type species Neaetha membrosa.
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from other genera by short and broad body shape and color pattern. Embolus is thick and arises from fleshy basis, or is accompanied by fleshy layer. Epigyne has typical for HARMOCHIRINES appearances, spermatheca is heavily sclerotized compact body with internal convoluted spaces. Leg I robust, black except lighter tarsus, leg III seems noticeably long, it is not clear yet which is longer. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

+
Neaetha membrosa : Proszynski 1984c: 91-92"19852 (Pozuelo de Calatrava" Typus. Mus. Paris) [external view of epigyne looks atypical, perhaps require revision] +Lecigne 2015. Nieuwsbr. Belg. Arachnol. Ver. (2015), 30(3): 107, f. 4J-K, 4Q-S. By courtesy.
Neaetha murphyorum : Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53(1): 109, f 453-455. By courtesy.
+
Neaetha cerussata : Proszynski 1984c: 93 + ©Photo J°rgen Lissner. By courtesy.
+
Neaetha oculata : Proszynski 1993. F. Saudi Arab. 13: 39-43, f 20-27.+ 2003a. Ann. zool. 53(1): 109, f 453-455
+ Logunov 1996d: 7 (3): 522-525, f 18-23. + Wesolowska, van Harten 2010: UAE, 3: 40, pl 8, f 40-43. By courtesy.
b)
Neaetha absheronica : Logunov, Guseinov 2001. Arthr. Sel. 10 (3): 252, f 1-3 +b) Coşar, Danişman & Yildiran, 2014: Serket: 89, f. 6A-B, 7A-C. +c) Lecigne, 2015. Nieuwsbr. Belg. Arachnol. Ver. 104, f. 4A-I, 4L-P, 11L-M. By courtesy.
b)
Neaetha catulina +b) fulvopilosa: Berland, Millot 1941: 12, 2: 308, f 9, 10 +b) Lucas 1846: 171, t 9, f 1.
b)
Neaetha irreperta +b) maxima: Wesolowska, Russel-Smith. 2000. Tr. Zool., 13 (1): 76-77, f 200-204 + 2011 Ann. zool. 61(3): 585, f 124-125. By courtesy.

Gen. Sibianor Logunov, 2000 (14 species)

Type species Sibianor aurocinctus.
DIAGNOSIS. Spiders similar to Bianor, squat looking with high carapace, about equal in length to abdomen, which is usually pointed posteriorly. Body coloration dark, with some scattered colorless scales, in males often with pair of white dots. Genital organs conform to description given for the whole group of genera. Differs from flattish bulbus in Bianor by conical protuberance developed on bulbus. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

+
+
Sibianor aurocinctus : Zabka M. 1997. F. Polski 19: 5-187, f 60-69 + Logunov D.V. 2000. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): figs 270-271, 276-280 + Proszynski 1984a. Ann. zool.: 379-389, f 15-24 + ęPhoto J. Lissner. By courtesy.
++
Sibianor aemulus + anansii : Paquin, Duperre 2003. Fabr., Suppl. 11: 201, figs 2245-2247 + Logunov, Marusik 1991. Sibirskiy biologicheskiy zhurnal, 2: 39-46, f 1d-k, 2e-i, 3 + Logunov, 2009. 16: 282-284, photos 33-37 . By courtesy.
++
Sibianor annae + japonicus +kenyaensis : Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 264, f 266-269. + 267-268, figs 290-291
+ Logunov, 2009: 16: 285, phots 42-44. By courtesy
.
++
Sibianor kochiensis + sp (China) : Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987.Ann. zool., 41, 2: 60-61, f 45-48. + Logunov 2000
Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 2268, f 296-305 + Proszynski - Internet. By courtesy
.
+
+
Sibianor larae : Logunov 2000. Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 269-271, f 1, 175-176, 192-193, 257-260, 262-263, 306-314 + Logunov,
Wesolowska 1992. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: 118-119, f f 4C-D, 5C+ ęPhoto J. Lissner + Arachnol. Gesells. 2012. By courtesy
.
++
Sibianor latens +tantulus : Logunov 2000 . Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): f 315-321 + Logunov, Wesolowska 1992. Ann. Zool. Fennici,
29: 116-117, f 2-3 + Logunov 2000. Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 274-276, f 329-337. By courtesy
.
b)+c)
Sibianor nigriculus + turkestanicus + victoriae: Logunov 2000 . Arthr. Sel. 9 (4): 274-276, f 274-275, 286-289
Wesołowska & Haddad 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1): 227-229, f 151–154. By courtesy
.
+ ++
Sibianor pullus: Boesenberg, Strand 1906. Abh. senck. naturf. Ges., 30: 354, f 378 + Proszynski 1984c: Atlas ... 55-56
+ Logunov, Wesolowska 1992: 119, f 6A-B, 7A-B [new matching of male] ęPhoto Ono, Ikeda, Kono. By courtesy
.
Sibianor proszynski : Song D.., Zhu M., Chen J. 2001: 429, f 284. By courtesy.

Gen. Stichius Thorell, 1890(1 species)

Type species Stichius albomaculatus.
REMARKS. Logunov 2000d[2001a]: 281 calls attention to discrepancy: Thorell describes immature female specimen, while specimen in Stockholm Museum, illustrated below, is male. He is right postulating revision of the holotype, kept in the Thorell collection in Genoa, however the species cannot be a synonym of Bianor incitatus because its palp is very different (see above).

Stichius albomaculatus : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 57.Non-type, det. Thorell, from Sumatra. By courtesy.

Harmochireae - characters by Simon