RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prószynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prószyński
13 - EUOPHRYINES-0 GROUP OF GENERA
INTRODUCTION and DIVERSITY
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Type genus Euophrys .Interactive index of genera.
EUODENINES - genera intermediate between EUOPHRYINES and DENDRYPHANITNE - test
EUOPHRYINES PART 0 - Introduction and diversity

Euophryinae PART 1 Admestina-Donoessus
Admestina Agobardus Allodecta Amphidraus Anasaitis Antillattus, Araneotanna Aruattus, Asaphobelis, Ascyltus Athamas, Attidops Barraina Bathippus Bathippus-Parabathippus Belliena, Bindax Bulolia Bythocrotus Canama Caribattus Chalcolemia Chalcoscirtus Chalcotropis Chapoda Charippus Cheliferoides, Chinophrys Chloridusa Cobanus, Colyttus Commoris Compsodecta Corticattus Coryphasia Corythalia Cytaea, Descanso Dinattus Donoessus, (334 species)
Euophryinae PART 2 Echeclus-Pystira.
Echeclus Ecuadattus ,Efate, Emathis, Ergane, Euophrys Euryattus, Featheroides, Foliabitus, Frewena, Gen[Jau 34] Hasarina, Hypoblemum Ilargus Jotus Junxattus, Lagnus, Lakarobius, Laufeia, Lechia Lepidemathis, Leptathamas, Lophostica, Lycidas, Mabellina Maeota Maeotella Magyarus, Maileus, Maratus, Marengo Margaromma, Mexigonus Microhasarius Mopiopia, Muziris, Naphrys, Nebridia, Neon Neonella Nicylla, Ocnotelus ,Omoedus, Opisthoncana Orcevia, Parabathippus, Paraharmochirus, Parvattus Pensacola Pensacolops Petemathis Phasmolia Popcornella, Pristobaeus (syn. Palpelius), Prostheclina, Pseudemathis Pseudeuophrys, Pseudosynagelides, Pystira (393 species)
Euophryinae PART 3 Rhyphelia-Zenodorus .
Rhyphelia, Rumburak Saaristattus, Saitidops, Saitis, Saitissus Salpesia, Saphrys, Semnolius, Servaea Sidusa, Sigytes Siloca, Soesilarishius, Spilargis, Stoidis, Talavera, Tanzania, Tariona, Tarodes, Tatari Thiania, Thianitara Thorelliola Thyenula Tisaniba Truncattus, Tylogonus Udvardya, Variratina, Viribestus,Viroqua, Wallaba Xenocytaea Yimbulunga, Zabkattus, Zenodorus. (327 species).

Introduction

EUOPHRYINES belongs to a supergroup of genera EUOPHRYOIDA having "free" embolus sitting atop of inflatable, membranous anterior haematodocha (Maddison 1996), structure proven in some genera, suspected in others, which seems to be one of major taxonomic divisions in Salticidae. Too large to be handled conveniently, it is split now and separated from parallel groups BALLINES and newly proposed EUODENINES, the latter containing genera considered here as intermediate betwee EUOPHRYINES and DENDRYPHANTINES.
DEFINITION. Genera of EUOPHRYINES are characterized by embolus free, usually hairlike and elastic, twisted into single coil, or several coils, or an incomplete coil, and by a pair of usually simple, globular spermathecae. Coil of embolus in resting position is positioned atop of anterior apex of bulbus, ahead of tegulum, it can be perpendicular to main axis of bulbus, or may be moved to the position parallel to it, onto ventral, or either of lateral positions of the apical half of bulbus, sometimes moved posteriorly along the bulbus.
Size of the coil is variable, in some cases encircles the whole bulbus, positions of embolus and diameter of its coil appear variable to some extent within larger genera. There are unprecise hints of more complicated structure and shape of embolus in drawings of many EUOPHRYINES, documented now in photographs of embolar apparatus by Whyte and by Otto & Hill (2015) and SEM photos by Baehr and Whyte (2016). That discovery may have tremendous influence on development on morphological taxonomy of Salticidae.

ABD
A-B Coil of embolus doubled by accompanuing processes of an undescribed Australian species (called informally "STRIPEY", common in Victoria) ©Photos by R. Whyte, D - SEM photo of embolar apparatus of Maratus volans (note accompaying process on photo G). By courtesy.
CE
Embolus and accopmpanying processes in several Maratus species. C - from Otto & Hill, 2015;E - SEM photo of embolar apparatus of Maratus anomalus, M. julianneae and M. michaelorum (note accompaying process on photo G photograph by BAEHR & WHYTE • Zootaxa 4154 (5): 510 f. 7G-I. © 2016). By courtesy.
Spermophor meandering, translucent trough tegument, is associated with coiled embolus, it consists of two bends, or one and half, on prolateral surface of bulbus, usually extending onto ventral surface. In some cases bends of spermophor are reduced to indistinct waving, genera with straight lateral stretch of spermophor are now transferred to the group EUODENINES.

Epigyne and, particularly, its internal structures, characterize genera and are very important diagnostic characters (although should be interpreted with caution because of parallel evolution) unfortunateley their documentation is neglected by many arachnologists. In EUOPHRYINES epigyne are flat, sclerotized plate, usually with two large, membranous, white "windows", separated by a septum, (in some cases merged into single "window"), sometimes replaced by shallow, sclerotized groove, or grooves. There are no prominent "pockets" on epigyne. Basic form of internal structures are pair of simple, globular spermathecae, in some genera developed into oval chambers, sometimes constricted in the middle, or further developed into two chambers, connected by narrower part. In some genera spermathece have different form - of duct like coils, continuous with less sclerotized ducts, or have a form of compact bodies, internally convoluted and resembling these structures in DENDRYPHANTINES, with initial part of ducts running from anterior copulatory openings, posteriorwards and then passing into a number of coils, a knot, or a compact body with internal convoluted ducts. Some genera with this type of spermathecae are now separated into intermediate group EUODENINES, but these transfers require further considerations.
There is always a sieve like structure of numerous minute punctures at the posterior part of each spermatheca, near terminal fertilization duct, assumedly permitting exchange of fluids between interior of spermathecae and some unknown accessory soft structures (or directly from mixocoel), I used to call it nutritive gland.
Copulatory ducts vary from simple and short, thin walled channels in majority of genera, to long ducts bent or twisted into entangled knot or coils, sometimes even double spiral. Copulatory ducts have always sclerotized accessory opening, located near armature of copulatory opening or near the junction with spermathecae. In rare cases there is visible, on microscopic preparations, a minute duct running from armature of that opening towards surface of the tegument, its function is hypothesized as exuding pheromones to the outside of body, hence I have named them scent gland. Other external characters like cheliceral teeth, spines on legs, used as main diagnostic characters in the older taxonomic divisions, appears much less useful for identification of genera. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definition.

REMARKS. The number of species of EUOPHRYINES amounts to about 20% of all >4658 documented species of Salticidae (5790 nominal species are shown by the WORLD SPIDERS CATALOG), they are divided now well over 100 genera (the exact figures changing with each classification and with every new publication). So big number of components calls for further subdivision into units characterized by easily noticeable characters, stable within each group, easily separated from other subgroups. Unfortunately graphic documentation of many genera is incomplete and of low quality, not permitting to draw firm conclusion on similarities and possible relationships. Some interesting views about classification were given in valuable papers by Zhang & Maddison (2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013, 2014, 2015), results of their studies on 203 sample species are summarized by Maddison 2015 (for documentation of morphological data see also PART IA "Maddison's views on classification of Salticidae", but translation of these into workable methods of identification are not produced yet.

Main characters of representative genera

a)
b)
Palps and internal structures of epigyne in representative genera of EUOPHRYINES: a)palps and internal structures of epigyne b) color pattern of cryptic colored genera.

Diversity of male palps

Average palp appearance in majority of genera of EUOPHRYINES
embolus: reduced to a very small loop, or a fragment of a loop
embolus: medium size loop, or a fragment of a loop
embolus: large loop
palp atypical: (could these be misplaced[?] groups)
++

Diversity of internal structure of epigyne
[ATTENTION: part of diagnostic drawings in literature simplified or grossly imprecise - hence unreliable]

simple ducts and globular spermathecae
spermathecal chambers doubled or otherwise complicated
ducts complicated or spermathecae ductlike
alignment uncertain: entangled loops of ducts or internally convoluted solid spermathecae, palps like EUOPHRYINES
Corrections of false synonymy!
Structure and placement unreliable due to diagrammatized drawings!

Diversity of external view of epigyne

epigyne with a pair of "windows"
epigyne different, group possibly misaligned

Diversity in body shape and color pattern
[ATTENTION: usage of these useful characters is limited by scarcity of photographs of reliably identified species]

colorful or contrasting colored
cryptic colored and small

other body shapes