SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to subfamilies! - INDEX of Genera
KEYS TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT -KEY to subfamilies of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae
a subchapter

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
group of genera

trial version

by Jerzy Prószyński & John T.D.Caleb
Version May 27th, 2015

Disclaimer This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed taxonomic names included here are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images This introduction to a classification of Euophryinae includes only species with diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature arranged by similarities of embolus. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of theoretically closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, whera are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.

MOTTO: "...More than seventy years after the Euophryinae was erected, Jerzy Prˇszynski - (1976). clarified the group
. for the first time by a delimiting feature: the presence of a coiled embolus at the distal end of palpal tegulum.
Based on this delineation he included 13 genera as euophryines in his partial classification of salticids".........
Zhang J., Maddison W.P., 2015: 938 (1): 4 summarize Prˇszynski's contribution to Euophryinae.................


Interactive index of genera. Type genus Euophrys
Ballus Chalcoscirtus, Chalcotropis Colaxes, Cytaea Euophrys Euryattus Hispo Ligdus Marengo Pseudeuophrys Pystira Synageles Synagelides Thiania.


Euophryinae. Large group of genera having embolus sitting atop of inflatable, membranous anterior haematodocha (first discussed for Dendryphantinae by Maddison, 1996). In Salticidae embolus is free, hairlike, elastic, twisted into single coil, or several coils, or an incomplete coil. These coils seems to be correlated with meandering, translucent, duct like spermophor. Position of coil of resting embolus is variable: usually atop of anterior apex of bulbus, ahead of tegulum, perpendicularly to main axis of the segment, or moved onto ventral, or either lateral positions of apical part of bulbus, parallel to main axis. These positions of embolus and diameter of its coil appear variable to some extent within larger genera.
Epigyne in majority of Euophryinae is a flattish, sclerotized plate, usually with two large, membranous, white "windows", divided by a septum, in some cases merged into single "window", sometimes replaced by shallow, sclerotized groove, or grooves. There is a pair of sclerotized "pockets" on epigyne, but not in all genera. Basic form of internal structures is a pair of simple, globular spermathecae, in some genera developed into oval chambers, sometimes constricted in the middle or further developed into two chambers, connected by narrower part. There is always a sieve like structure of numerous minute punctures at the end of each spermatheca, called nutritive gland, assumedly permitting exchange of fluids between interior spermathecae and some unknown accessory soft structures. Copulatory ducts vary from simple and short, thin walled channels, to long ducts, bent or twisted into entangled knot or coils, sometimes making double spiral. Copulatory ducts have always sclerotized puncture, either near armature of copulatory opening or moved to nearby junction with spermathecae. In rare cases minute duct running towards surface tegument is visible on microscopic preparation its function hypothesized as exuding pheromones to the outside of body, hence named scent gland. Epigyne and, particularly, their internal structures characterize genera and groups of genera, but undergo parallel evolution within various clades, hence are less suitable for identification of genera. Other external characters like cheliceral teeth, spines on legs, used as main diagnostic characters in the past, appears much less useful for identification of genera.
ATTENTION. I interpret all genera having embolus twisted into coil as Euophryinae, assuming that they all have movable embolus sitting atop haematodocha (this assumption require confirmation). The number of graphically documented species amounts in Euophryinae to 1054, or 22.63% of all 4658 documented Salticidae (5790 nominal species are shown by the NMBM Catalog), they are divided now into 165 genera. So big number of components calls for further subdivision into units characterized by easily noticeable characters, stable within each group, easily separated from other subgroups. Unfortunately graphic documentation of many genera is incomplete and of low quality, not permitting to draw firm conclusion on similarities and possible relationship.

Guides to identification of genera
(including comparative genera of other areas)

Guide to identification of genera by male palps

Guide to identification of genera by internal structure of epigyne
[ATTENTION: diagnostic drawings by some authors simplified or grossly imprecise - hence unreliable]

Guide to identification of genera by external view of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by body shape and color pattern
[ATTENTION: usage of these useful characters is limited by shortage of available documentation]

Gen. Ballus C.L. Koch, 1850
occurrence in Indian Subcontinent uncertain

Type species Ballus chalybeius.

Ballus chalybeius: Type Species Proszynski 2003b, figs 99-100 + ęPhoto A. Henrard+J. Lissner. By courtesy.
Ballus segmentatus + b) tabupumensis: Benjamin 2004. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 142: 30-32, f. 22a-d
+b) Petrunkevitch 1914a. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 7: 170, 174, ill. T. 26, F. 19, 20 [species misidentified,
inquirenda]. By courtesy.

Gen. Chalcoscirtus Bertkau, 1880
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Chalcoscirtus infimus.

Chalcoscirtus infimus: Proszynski 1976: figs 356-358 + Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool.: 44-45, figs 136-137, 142-144
+ ęPhoto Arachnologische Gesellschaft + J. Lissner. By courtesy.
Chalcoscirtus glacialis +b) flavipes: Proszynski 1982. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 74: 277, ff.112-13(Mongolian specimen)
+b) Proszynski J. 1976: 43, 185 (label data), figs 362-363 (type specimen) . By courtesy.
Chalcoscirtus[?] martensi : Zabka 1980b. Senck. biol., 60 (3/4): 360-363, ff. 1-9. By courtesy.

Gen. Chalcotropis Simon, 1902

Type species Chalcotropis acutefrenata.

Chalcotropis acutefrenata TYPE SPECIES + b) sp : Proszynski 1984c: 18 (Java: Palembang/) +b) © Photo Jackson . By courtesy.
Chalcotropis pennata +b) praeclara : Proszynski 1984c: 18 [S India]+b) Proszynski 1987: 11 (Philippines). By courtesy.

Gen. Colaxes Simon, 1900

Type species Colaxes nitidiventris.

Colaxes nitidiventris : Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ...: 16. Type species. By courtesy.
Colaxes benjamini : Wesołowska & Haddad 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1): 188-191, f 4–6, 16, 43–48. . By courtesy.
Colaxes horton +b) wanlessi: Benjamin 2004. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142: 24, f 16a-d +b) 21-24, f 12A-C,
13A-E, 14A-C, 15A-H [application for permission to display rejected by the Publisher] . By courtesy.

Gen. Cytaea Keyserling, 1882

Type species Cytaea alburna.

Cytaea alburna [=?"severa"].Type species from Australia : Proszynski. 1984c. Atlas ... 30 + Davies Todd , Zabka
1989. Mem. Queens. Mus. 27 (2): 220, 226, t. 30 + Keyserling 1882: 1383, t 117, f 3, 4 + ©Photo R. Whyte. 2012.
Cytaea? sp from Kerala +b) from Mumbai : ©Photo K.S. Binu + b) © Photo Manisha Shah.. By courtesy.

Gen. Euophrys Koch C.L., 1834

Type species Euophrys frontalis.

Euophrys frontalis Type species: Zabka 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 46, figs 89-98
+Painting by Aart Noordam +©Photo B. Knoflach + J. Lissner.. By courtesy.
Euophrys declivis +c) dhaulagirica +d) evae: Zabka 1985: 219, ff. 149-150 +c) Prószyński 2009b. Arhr. sel. 18(3-4):
f 32-33 +d) Zabka M. 1980b.Senck. biol., 60 (5/6): 365-366, ff. 13-14. By courtesy.
Euophrys everestensis +b) yulungensis: Wanless 1975. 3 (5): 134-135, f. 4-5, 9-11 +b) Zabka 1980b. Senck. biol., 60 (5/6):
363-365, f. 12.. By courtesy.
Euophrys omnisupertes : Wanless F.R. 1975.Bull. Brit. Arachnol. Soc., 3 (5): figs 1-3, 6-8.. By courtesy.
Euophrys nepalica +b) sp [Shazia] +c) 2 sp : Zabka 1980b. Senck. biol., 60 (5/6): 363, ff. 10-11+b) ©Photo Shazia Quasin
[Nanda Devi Reserve 2000-4000 m, Uttarakhand] +c) Dhali, Roy, Saha, Raychaudhuri 2014. On two Euophrys ... India. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 9 (1): 143-149 . By courtesy.
Euophrys minuta [MISPLACED] : Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: figs 30-32. By courtesy.

Gen. Euryattus Thorell, 1881
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Euryattus porcellus.

Euryattus bleekeri : Proszynski 1984c: 44 [N Guinea: Andai No.1812, coll. Thorell]
+ Davies Todd, Zabka. 1989. . 27 (2): 228, t. 32 +c) © Photo R. Whyte.
Euryattus bleekeri = Plotius curtus [conspecif.?] : Proszynski J. 1987: 78, 107 [Type Plotius curtus]

Gen. Hispo Simon, 1886
expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Hispo cingulata.

Hispo georgii [rufescens + inemrmis] :Wesolowska, Cumming 2008. Ann. zool. 58: 186-188, f 55-66 + Proszynski 1987: 83.
Hispo bipartita: Wanless 1981a.. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.)41 (4): 195-196, ff. 12A-F. By courtesy.

Gen. Ligdus Thorell, 1895

Type species Ligdus chelifer.

Ligdus chelifer : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 75 immature. By courtesy.[body shape and long femur and tibia I,
resembling Philates thaleri]

Gen. Marengo Peckham, Peckham, 1892

Type species Marengo crassipes .

Marengo crassipes : Wanless F.R. 1978d.Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (4): 264- 266, ff. 3A-F; 4A-F,t. 1d-f; 2a-c
+ Proszynski J. 1984c. Atlas ...: 78 (Lectotype).+ Benjamin 2004. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. London, 142: 1-82, f 1-69 [ALL
species in this publication]..By courtesy.
Marengo inornata +b) nitida +c) striatipes : Wanless F.R. 1978d.Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (4):
264- 266, ff. 3A-F; 4A-F, 1d-f; 2a-c +b) 267, f. 5A-D +c) Simon, 1901a: 488, f 574-576. By courtesy.
Marengo rattotensis: Benjamin S.P. 2006. Zootaxa 1326: 2006: 29-34, f 1C-D,F, 5A-E, 6A-F, 7A-F. By courtesy.
Marengo sp.: ©Photo John & Frances Murphy + R. R. Jackson + H.K. Tang + J.T.D. Caleb. By courtesy.

P Gen. Pseudeuophrys Dahl, 1912
occurrence in Indian Subcontinent uncertain

Type species Pseudeuophrys erratica.

Pseudeuophrys erratica : Zabka 1997. F. Pol.. 19: 5-187, f 265-271+ Logunov 1998b. Rev. Arachn. 12(11): 115,
f. 1-7, 9, 12, 17-20, 23, 25-26, 33-34 + ęPhoto H. Metzner +J. Lissner + ©Zhang J., Maddison 2015: Zootaxa
3938 (1): f 469-473. © Magnolia Press.
By courtesy.

Gen. Pystira Simon, 190occurrence in Indian Subcontinent uncertain
see reasons for retaining separate genera Omoedus, Pystira and Zenodorus.

Type species Pystira ephippigera.

Pystira ephippigera: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 117 ("20334 ... Java" coll. Simon) +b) comparison of diagnostic
characters of 1-Omoedus, 2-Pystira and Zenodorus +c) photographs of Pystira from Singapore (©Photo D. Court).

Pystira versicolor: Dyal 1935: 4: 226 - spiders of Lahore (identification uncertain; Omoedus versicolor: in Zhang J. Maddison 2012b:
3491: 21-22 – transfer not accepted here)

Gen. Saitis Simon, 1876
genus Mediterranean, reported also from Australia (pending verification), possible in Indian Subcontinent

Type species Saitis barbipes.

Saitis barbipes : Proszynski 1976: f 108, 146, 369-372 + Zabka M. 1987b. Ann. zool. 40, 1: 453, 69 f 1-4 +Logunov 2004b.
Rev. Iber. Aracn., 9: 272-27s, f 5-6 + ęPhoto J. Holstein + J. Lissner. + ©Zhang J., Maddison 2015: Zootaxa 3938 (1): 479-484, 846-847. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Synageles Simon, 1876
genus of uncertain subfamilial position, expected but not yet reported from Indian Subcontinent

Type species Synagele svenator

Synageles venator : Zabka 1997. F. Pol. 19: 100, f 388-392 +Proszynski Internet + ęPhoto J. Lissner. By courtesy.

Gen. Synagelides Strand, 1906

Type species Synagelides agoriformis.

Synagelides agoriformis [Japan][Type species] +b) Primore : Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool. 41, 2:
133-138, f 268-279) +b) Proszynski 1979. Ann. zool. 34: 318, f 307- 315 (Russia: Far East - Primore). By courtesy.
Synagelides nishikawai: Bohdanowicz A. 1979. Acta Arachnologica, 25, 2: 59-60, f 18-25. By courtesy.
Synagelides sp[-ind-1] : Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 206-207, f 175-178 + 206, f 179-181. By courtesy. img_data/12/12445_palpal-p.jpg
Synagelides darjeelingus : Logunov, Hereward 2006: 13 (8): 289-290, f 41-45 +b) 282-283, f 7-11 [female misplaced!]. By courtesy.
Synagelides bagmaticus +b) doisuthep : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93: 68-69, f 5-9 + Logunov,
Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 287-288, f 33, 37-40 +b) 281-282, f 1-6. By courtesy.
+ b)b)
Synagelides oleksiaki and its supposed synonym +b) gorapanicus : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg,
93: 65-86 + Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 287.. By courtesy.
Synagelides gosainkundicus : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93 .: 78-79, f 45-46
+ Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull Brit. arachn. Soc. 13(8): 284-285, f 19. By courtesy.
Synagelides nepalensis +b) birmanicus : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93 .: 76-78, f 35-44
+b) 84-86, f 66-72 . By courtesy.
Synagelides martensi and its supposed (by Logunov, Hereward 2006) synonyms: +b) jiricus +c) himalaicus
+d) dhaulagiricus +e) thodungus f) wyszynskii
: ALL in papers: Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senck.
93: 65-86 + Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 287. By courtesy.
Synagelides tukchensis : : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93:81-82, f 57-59
+ Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 291, f 34. By courtesy.
Synagelides ullerensis b) lehtineni : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93: 82-83, f 60-61
+ Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 291, f 31 +b) 287, f 25-27. By courtesy.
Synagelides walesai : Bohdanowicz 1987. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 93: 72-75, f 23-29
+ Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 291, f 18, 36 . b)By courtesy.
Synagelides wuermlii : Bohdanowicz A. 1978. Ent. bas., Basel: 23, f. 1-5. By courtesy.
Synagelides kosi :Logunov, Hereward 2006. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13 (8): 285-286, 21-24, 32.

Gen. Thiania C. L. Koch, 1846

Type species Thiania pulcherrima (species dubius).

Thiania bhamoensis [RERERENCE SPECIES] : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas .. 144 (f - Birma - Thorell coll. Mus.
Stockholm) + ©Photo D. Petot. By courtesy.
Thiania viridimicans : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas .. 146 . By courtesy.