RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD
- 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prószynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prószyński
08 - CHRYSILLINES GROUP OF GENERA
Version July 1st, 2016.
Sources and permissions of illustrations are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Interactive index of genera. Type genus Chrysilla .
Akela Apricia Bavia, Bristowia, Carrhotus, Chrysilla, Clynotis, Epidelaxia, Epocilla, Flacillula, Freya, Frigga, Habrocestum, Hasarius, Leptofreya Megafreya Nandicius, Natta, Nycerella, Orsima, Pachomius, Pachypoessa, Phiale, Phintella, Plexippus, Proszynellus , Rhondes, Salticus, Siler, Tara, Triggella .
(295 species)

Introduction

CHRYSILLINES are characterized in males by antero-lateral angle of spermophor loop emerging from underneath thin fleshy layer, running diagonally over bulbus and narrowing anteriorly, ending by short sclerotized embolus. Typical structure is developed in Hasarius adansoni or in Phintella, in some genera structure of embolus and bulbus is comparable or possibly derived. Females with spermathecae globular, relatively small, with ducts running anteriorly. In some genera there is a pair of pockets, developed posteriorly on epigyne. Diversity in this character in particular genera is illustrated below. Body shape not specialized, medium sized or small spiders, living mainly on vegetation. Large group of genera, distributed world wide, containing several subgroups, previously recognized as independent subfamilies. Present composition temporary, some transfers to other groups may be advisable. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

>
Hasarius adansoni. Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 68-69, figs 256-260. Singapore.©Phot H.K.Tang.
Phintella castriesiana Proszynski J. 1979.. Photo J. Holstein. By courtesy.
Chrysilla lauta:Type species Proszynski J. 1983c. Acta arach., XXXI, (2): 44, f. 4-6. © Photo H. Tang + Marcus Ng. By courtesy.
Plexippus paykulli: Type species Proszynskib 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 143-145, f 577-578, 583, 587-588 + ©Phot A. Senglet, 2002 + ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy

Guide to identification of genera by male palps

Guide to identification of genera by internal structure of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by body shape and color pattern

Gen. Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896 (2 species)

Type species Akela charlottae.
Present classification pending revision. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Akela sp.: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 121. By courtesy.
++
Akela charlottae : Galiano 1989b: 8 (2): 49, f 1-4 + Chickering 1946: 188, f. 160-162 + Edwards, 2015: 17, f. 1A-I. Zootaxa 4036 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
++
b)
Akela ruricola +b) sp : Galiano M.E. 1998b. Physis, sec. C, 55 (128-129): 1-4, figs 1-8 + Edwards, 2015: 17, f. 1A-I. Zootaxa 4036 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press. By courtesy + b) ©Photo Simó & Rodríguez - Uruguay. By courtesy.

Gen. Apricia Richardson, 2016

Type species Ocrisiona jovialis [MISPLACED comb. "Breda", "Ocrisiona"]
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

+
Apricia jovialis ["Ocrisiona", "Breda"] : TRUE Apricia jovialis: Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus. 27(2): 263, t 62 + ©Phot: R. Whyte. By courtesy. Nomenclatorical note: species misplaced by Simon 1909b: 198 into S American genus Breda, later transfered into wrong Australian genus Ocrisiona.
+
Apricia jovialis [CONSPECIFIC? sp. n.?] : Apricia jovialis Richardson, 2016: Zootaxa 4114 (5): 508, f. 17-30. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+female
Apricia longipalpis : Richardson, 2016. Zotaxa 4114 (5): 518-521, f. 50–66. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+b)
Apricia bracteata [CONGENERIC?] : Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., 27 (2): 256, 258, t. 57 +b): Richardson, 2016. Zotaxa 4114 (5): 518-529, f 32-49. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Bavia Simon, 1877 (16 species)
apparently composite genus containing unrelated species

Type species Bavia aericeps.
NOTE. Diversified genus, recognizable by similar body shape: elongate, narrow, with robust and long legs I and pointed abdomen. However palps and epigyne so diverse that reclassification some species to other genera seems unavoidable. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

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Bavia aericeps + elegans : Type species Bavia Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1997. J. Arachn. 25 (2): 117-118, 31-34, 45.
©Phot H.K. Tang.By courtesy.
> > >
Bavia sexpunctata (Doleschall, 1859).B & B & Proszynski 1997. J. Arachnol. 25 (2): 118-119, figs 35-38, 46 + Singapore.
©Phot Marcus Ng.
+
Bavia fedor + sonsorol Berry, Beatty, Prószynski, 1997 J. Arachnol. 25 (2): figs 39-42, 47 + 120-121, figs 43, 44, 48,.
Bavia suhartoi Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012b.Kalimantan, Kaharian. Arthr selecta. 22(2): 115-117, f 18-20. By courtesy
Bavia kahariana Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012b. Kalimantan, Kaharian. Arthr selecta. 22(2): 115-117, f 1-9. By courtesy
+ >
Bavia annamita + Bavia thorelli: Simon, 1903 Zabka M. 1988b. Ann. zool., 41 (14): 438-440, ff. 46-51 +440-441, ff. 52-55.
>+
Bavia capistrata + intermedia Zabka M. 1988b. Ann. zool., 41 (14): 435-436, ff. 37-39 + Zabka in: Prószynski 2009: Arhropoda selecta 18(3-4): f 7-9.
Bavia planiceps: Prószynski 2009b. Arhropoda selecta 18(3-4): f 10-11.
> + +
Bavia modesta + B. valida + B. albolineata + B. sinoamerica:
+ Peckham, Peckham, 1885: 39 T. 1 F. 9 + Lei H., Peng X., 2011 Acta zootax. sin. 3: 218-220, f 1-4. .

Gen. Bristowia Reimoser, 1934 (2 species)
Alternative classification - DIOLENINAE.

Type species Bristowia heterospinosa .
DIAGNOSIS. With palp and epigyne typical for this group of species, Bristowia can be best recognized by habitus, especially by enormously long leg I, with dense fringe of dark setae ventrally on tibia I. Note elongation of coxa I and trochanter I, analogous to DIOLENINES. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

> +
Bristowia heterospinosa + Bristowia sp. Proszynski 1984c:14 + © Photo H.K. Tang (Singapore).
+ © Photo J. Caleb (India). By courtesy.
Bristowia afra: Szüts, 2004. Folia ent. Hungarica 65: 30, f. 1-4, 8-10, 12-13, 16-17. By courtesy.

Gen. Carrhotus Thorell, 1891 (18 species)

Type species Carrhotus viduus.
REMARK. With some diversity of palps and epigyne this genus can be easiest recognized by habitus appearance. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

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Carrhotus xanthogramma : Zabka 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 43, figs 70-76 + Czech Rep. ©Phot J. Lissner. By courtesy.
>>
Carrhotus viduus + C. sannio: Zabka 1997. F. Pol.19: 43, figs 70-76 (type species) + Proszynski 1984c: 16 (Burma - coll. Oates) + . ©Phot H.K. Tang (Singapore). By courtesy.
+ b)COMPARE
Carrhotus viridiaureus (from Brazil or SE Asia - labels mixed up?)+b) compare Siler semiglaucus : Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 345-347, t. 15, ff. 11-14 [But see: Maddison 2015: 249, also similar palp in Siler semiglaucus :]: + b) Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool.: 75-76, f 24-26. By courtesy.
+ +
Carrhotus albolineatus +b) coronatus +c) barbatus: Prószynski 2009b. Arthr. sel. 18(3-4): f 12 + Zabka M. 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 207, f 60-62 , m. 4. + Prószynski 2009b. Arhr. sel. 18(3-4): f 13-18. By courtesy.
+ +
Carrhotus bellus + fabrei [male only, female = Mogrus?] : Wanless, 1983. Ann. Mus. Roy. Afriq. Centr., 241: 61-63, ff. 21a-g (erroneous caption) + Andreeva, Kononenko, Proszynski 1981. Ann. zool.,36: 103, f 39-40 .
+ +
Carrhotus catagraphus + erus + kamjeensis: Jastrzebski, 1999 Senck. biol., 79 (1): 7, figs 22-24. + 4-5, figs 12-15 + 5-6, figs 16-18. By courtesy.
+
Carrhotus harringtoni + malayanus: Prószynski, 1992 Ann. zool., 44, 8: 90-91, fig. 4-6 + 167, figs 1-5. . By courtesy.
+
Carrhotus operosus + samchiensis: Jastrzebski, 1999 Senck. biol., 79 (1): 7-8, figs 25-27+ 6-7, f 19-21. By courtesy
+
Carrhotus sufflavus +b) s-bulbosus [MISPLACED]: Jastrzębski, 2009. Nepal. Genus 20: 533-537, f 1-2. +535, f 3-4, photo 6 +b) 533-537, f 1-2, photo 5. By courtesy.
+
Carrhotus sundaicus + tristis: Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr. sel., 19(3): 157-159, f 21-24, 26-28 + Proszynski J. 1992b. 1992b. Ann. zool., 44, 9: 168-169, figs 9-11. By courtesy.

Gen. Chrysilla Thorell, 1887(4 species)

Type species Chrysilla lauta Thorell, 1887 .
NOTE. With only four recognizable species, having in addition similar palps and epigyne, Chrysilla may be best recognized by bright, shinning coloration. In difference, forms with white spots on darker background are classified in the genus Phintella, independently from similarities in palps and epigyne. Often photographed by macrophotographers, the correlation of coloration with genital characters is not certain, hence identification of living specimens without revision of type specimens is tentative.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Chrysilla lauta: Type species Proszynski J. 1983c. Acta arach., XXXI, (2): 44, f. 4-6. © Photo H. Tang + Marcus Ng. By courtesy.
Chrysilla deelemani: Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010 (compared with Chrysilla lauta). Arthr. sel., 19(3): 159-160, f 31-35.
Chrysilla acerosa: Wang L., Zhang Z. 2012. Zootaxa 3243: 65–68 , f 1-19. ©Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Chrysilla volupe : Zabka 1988b. Sri Lanka Ann. zool., 41 (14): 465-466, f 122-125 + : Caleb Mathai, 2014. ©JEZS: 2(5): 64, 15-23 as Phintella volupe]. By courtesy.

Gen. Clynotis Simon, 1901 (5 species)
composite genus pending reclassification

Type species Clynotis severus.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

>>+
Clynotis severus: Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., Brisbane, 27 (2): 257, t. 56. + Zabka M. 1987a. Ann. zool., 40, 10: 444, ff. 14-21 + ©Phot R. Whyte + Richardson, 2016. Zotaxa 4114 (5): 523, f. 77–86. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
>
Clynotis albobarbatus: Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989, 27 (2): 260, t. 59 + Koch L. 1879: 1138, pl 99, f 2, 3. + ©Phot: Robert Whyte. By courtesy. Remark. Apparently not congeneric!
+ >
Clynotis saxatilis + C. semiater: Bryant 1935, Rec Canter. Mus. 4: 88, pl 12, f 26 + Zabka M. 1987a. Ann. zool., 40, 10: 441, ff. 8-10 + Koch L. 1879: 1133, pl 98, f 6. . By courtesy.
+
Clynotis semiferrugineus: Zabka M. 1987a. Ann. zool. 40, 10: 442-444, ff. 11-13 + Koch L. 1879: 1135, pl 99, f 1. By courtesy.

Gen. Epidelaxia Simon, 1902(1 species)

Type species Epidelaxia albostellata .
Present classification pending revision. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

b)
Epidelaxia albostellata +b) E. sp [Sri Lanka] in: Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 22 (Type, Colombo, "20475") +b) Sri Lanka,
coll. Deeleman. Drawn by J. Prószynski. By courtesy.

Gen. Epocilla Thorell, 1887(8 species)

Type species Epocilla praetextata.
NOTE. Habitus appearance, and especially facial coloration may be important in identification. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Epocilla sp.: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 94. By courtesy.
Epocilla praetextata : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 39 (Java, van Hasselt, "1648") + Jastrzebski P. 2007.
Acta Arachn., 56 (1): 16-19, f 5-13, 16-19. By courtesy.
Epocilla aurantiaca (Simon, 1885)Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 38 (specimens "16293 Coll. Simon. MNHN-Paris)
Epocilla blairei Zabka, 1985 Zabka 1985. Ann.zool., 39, 11: 217, ff. 127-131. + Specime misidentified as E. aurantiaca
by Simon, (specimen "22475 Coll. Simon. MNHN-Paris"). In: Proszynski 1984c: 155 By courtesy
Epocilla calcarata Zabka 1985. Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 217, ff. 132-148. © Photo H.K. Tang. By courtesy.
Epocilla chimakothiensis Jastrzebski 2007a. Acta Arachnologica, 56 (1): 15-16, f 1-4, 14-15. By courtesy.
b)
Epocilla picturata +b) kalapani: Proszynski 1984c: 39 (from Swatow, China) +b) Tikader B. K. 1977a: 72: 200, figs 23A-B.
Epocilla xylina Simon, 1906 - "18922. Bas. pl. de l'Himalaya /type/. Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 40.

Gen. Flacillula Strand, 1932 (3 species)

Type species Flacillula lubrica .
Present classification pending revision. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

>>
Flacillula lubrica + minuta + nitens Type species Ceylon "20542", Simon coll: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ... 77+ Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1997. J. Arachnology. Vol. 25(2): f 69-70 + 125-126, f 66-68, 71-74. By courtesy.
>
Flacillula albofrenata + incognita: Zabka, in litt. Java: Buitenzorg [Bogor] "aus Farnkraut detritus" leg. K. Kraepelin, 7. III. 1904 + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 225-226, ff. 197-198.. By courtesy.

Gen. Freya Koch C.L., 1850 (27species)

Type species Freya decorata .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

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Freya decorata : Galiano 2001. J. Arachnol. 29: 24, f. 1-3, 12-13, 19-20, 27, 33, 36, 44, 49 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036(1): 36, f. 12A-K. ©Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Freya regia :Galiano 2001. J. Arachnol. 29: 24, f. 1-3, 12-13, 19-20, 27, 33, 36, 44, 49 + 28, f. 17-18, 30-32, 42-43, 46, 52 + 28, f. 17-18, 30-32, 42-43, 46, 52. By courtesy.
Freya atures Galiano, 2001 J. Arachnology: 29: 21-26, f 6, 10, 21, 25-26, 34, 39, 54-55. By courtesy
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Freya chapare Galiano, 2001 J. Arachnology 29: 37, f 4, 11, 22, 35, 40, 47, 53. + Freya chionopogon Simon, 1902
.: Galiano M.E. 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 356-357, t. 20, ff. 1-4.
> +
Freya petrunkevitchi + F. demarcata + F. rubiginosa Chickering 1946. .Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 185 f. 157-159
+ Chamberlin, Ivie, 1936 Chickering 1946. .Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 177, f. 151-153
+ Galiano M. E. 2001 J. Arachnology , 29, f. 38, 45, 50 .
>
Freya dureti Galiano, 2001 J. Arachnology , 34, illustrations 7-8, 23, 28-29, 41, 48, 51
> + +
Freya nigrotaeniata + F. perelegans + F. rufohirta : J. Arachnol. 29: 31, f 5, 9, 24, 37, 56-57. +
Galiano M.E. 1963b. Physis, Buenos Aires, 23 (66): 359, t. 20, ff. 8-9 + 349, pl. XVIII, f. 14-15
b) >
Freya decorata +b) regia:Type species Galiano 2001. J. Arachnol. 29: 24, f. 1-3, 12-13, 19-20, 27, 33, 36, 44, 49
+ 28, f. 17-18, 30-32, 42-43, 46, 52. By courtesy.
>>
Freya albosignata + F. bicavata + F. bifida ) Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, : 228, 235, table 19, figs 16
+228, 235, table 19, figs 15224, 233, t. 19, f. 7.
b)
Freya emarginata + grisea Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 225, 234, t. 19, f. 11
+ 226, 235, table 19, figs 13 +224, 233, table 19, figs 6.
>b)c)
Freya fannae + F. justina + Freya arraijanica : Peckhams 1896: tab. VI, Fig. 6 + P.-Cambridge F., 1901 Biol. Centr.-Amer.,
Zool.:240, t 20, f 22 + Banks, 1929: Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 182 f. 154-156
Chickering, 1946 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 170, f. 145-148
+
Freya maculatipes Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 224, 230, table 17, figs 14. + 225, 234, table 19, figs 12 + Galiano 2001. J. Arachnology: 34, f. 14-16. ©Phot T. Shahan. By courtesy.
b)c)
Freya minuta +b) prominens +c) rustica: Pickard-Cambridge F., 1901 Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 224, 227, 231, t. 19, f. 1, 2. + Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 224, 227, 231, pl 19, f 8a-d, 9.

Gen. Frigga Koch C.L., 1851 (9 species)

Type species Frigga coronigera .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

>
Frigga coronigera : Galiano 1981f. Rev.Soc. Ent. Argentina 39 (3-4): 283, f. 1-2. + 1979a.. Acta Zool.Lil. 33 (2): 119, f. 11, 21-22, 34, 49. Brasil: Amazonas: Manaus, Copas, Igapó, Anavilhanas.©Phot Gasnier & Azevedo + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036(1): 39, f. 13A-G. ©Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
>
Frigga crocuta : Davies, Zabka 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., Brisbane, 27 (2): 246, 249, t. 50.. + Galiano 1979 Acta zool. Lillo., 35: 691-694, f. 1-7, + 28, f. 17-18, 30-32, 42-43, 46, 52. + from N Caledonia. ©Phot B. Patoleta. By courtesy.
>
Frigga finitima + flava ; Galiano, 1979a. Acta Zool.Lilloana 33 (2): 122-124, f. 46-48 + 33 (2): 133-134, f. 26, 28.
>
Frigga kessleri Galiano 1979a. Acta Zool.Lilloana 33 (2): 125, f. 25, 35 + ©Phot Gasnier & Azevedo.
b)
Frigga opulenta +b) rufa Galiano, 1979. Acta Zool.Lilloana 33 (2): 122-124, f. 46-48
+ Galiano M.E. 1982a.. Bull. Br. arachnol.Soc. 5 (9): 424, f. 5-6.
++
+
Frigga pratensis Galiano M.E. 1979a. Acta Zool.Lilloana 33 (2): 132-133, f. 7, 19, 27, 29, 39-40 + 128-132, f. 9-10, 24, 32, 41-42 +.F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, 1901: 232, pl. 19, f. 4-5.
Frigga quintensis Galiano M.E. 1979a. Acta Zool.Lilloana 33 (2): 128-132, f. 9-10, 24, 32, 41-42 +.F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, 1901: 232, pl. 19, f. 4-5.

Gen. Habrocestum Simon, 1876 (38 species)

Type species Habrocestum pullatum
DIAGNOSIS. Two chambered spermatheca, with short, membranous ducts, are particularly useful recognition character. Palps are rather uniform in majority of species. Many species have white spots on abdomen, often a pair of round spots, also some white markings on carapace. Body high, short. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

b)
Habrocestum pullatum +b) simoni: Proszynski 1987. Atlas: 35-36 "11.121 Pyrenees" coll. Simon, Mus. Paris.
+b) +c)
Habrocestum algericum +b) arabicum +c) bovei: Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 29-30.
+ Prószynski, 1989. Fauna of Saudi Arabia. 33-34, ff. 3-4. . + Lucas 1846: 179, t 9, f 7. By courtesy.
+
+
Habrocestum egaeum Metzner, 1999. Andrias 14: 63-64, 182, table 28a-m, f 30 = "Habrocestum cf. graecum" Proszynski
1987. Atlas ...: 31-33. C©Phot J. Lissner - M+F 6768 Greece: Telendos. By courtesy.
>
>
Habrocestum graecum Type specimen - Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 30-31 (male only) + Metzner H. 1999
. Andrias 14: 60-61, 179, table 25a-i, map 27. + M 5737 Greece: Lefkas. C©Phot J. Lissner. By courtesy.
b)
Habrocestum hongkongiensis +b) ibericumPrószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 96, figs 28-32.
Type specimen Proszynski 1987: fig. 30."13.379 Cartagena". By courtesy.
>
+
Habrocestum latifasciatum : Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003a: 65-66, figs 244-251 + Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 30, 32-34.
+ Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 61-62, 180, table 26a-i, map 28 [ID female uncertain] + Logunov, 2015. Arthropoda Selecta 24(1): 34, f. 1-3, 7-9. By courtesy.
>+
+
Habrocestum papilionaceum Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 54; Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 59 (female identification uncertain)
+ female - according to Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 181, table 27d-e. By courtesy.
b) >
Habrocestum laurae +b) lepidum +c) ornaticeps. Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 36 + 29-30 +32. "807 ... Maroc" - coll. Simon, Mus. Paris. By courtesy.
+
Habrocestum shulovi Prószynski, 1999[2000] Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003: 66-67, figs 252-255 68By courtesy.
b)
c)
Habrocestum orientale +b) Hasarius adansoni +c) Habrocestum kweilinensis: Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 228-229,
f 211-216 + Prószynski, 1992a. Ann.zool., 44, 8: 96-97, figs 33-34 + Reasoning by Logunov D.V. 1999a.
Bull.Brit.Arachn.Soc.11 (4): 148. COMPARE WITH SUPPOSEDLY RELATED HASARIUS ADANSONI.
.
+
Habrocestum africanum + H. albimanum: Wesolowska, Haddad 2009, Afr. Invert., 50(1): 38-41, f 62-67 +b).Wesolowska & : Haddad 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1): 199-200, f 68-70. + Proszynski "H. albimanum Simon, Cape Town" coll. MCZ, Harvad Univ.
>
Habrocestum albopunctatum :Wesolowska, van Harten, 2002 Fauna of. Arabia 19: 370-372, figs 5-10, phot 1-2.
©Phot Barbara Knoflach, from Socotra, coll. van Harten. By courtesy
b)
Habrocestum auricomum + H. dubium : Haddad, Wesolowska, 2013 2013: 24(3-4): 473-475, f 31-33.
+ Wesolowska, van Harten, 2002 Fauna of Arabia 19: 373, figs 11-14. By courtesy.
b) c)
d)
Habrocestum ferrugineum +b) formosum +c) .gibbosum +d). ignorabile: Wesolowska, van Harten, 2002 .Fauna of Arabia 19: 374, f 15-17 +b) Wesolowska, 1999a. Arnoldia Zimbabwe, 10(15): 149-151, figs 11-15 +c) Wesolowska, van Harten, 2007 Fauna Arabia, 23: 209-211, 56-59 + 211, 62-64. By courtesy.
b) c)
Habrocestum flavipes + H. punctiventre H. subpenicillatum: Keyserling, 1882 : 1403, T. 119, F. 1.
+ 1412, T. 119, F. 6. + Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 38.
+
Habrocestum inquinatum : Wesolowska, van Harten, 2002. Fauna of Arabia 19: 375-376, f 18-22 = 23: 211-213, f 62-64.
++b) c)
Habrocestum luculentum + H. personatum+ H. virginale: Peckhams, 1903 Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Let., 14 (1): 241, tab. 27, figs 3-3a +b) Wesolowska 2012a: 20(2): 327-328, f 9-14: Ann. zool. 61(3): 571-572, f 62-64 +c) Wesolowska, van Harten, 2007. Fauna of Arabia, 23: 213-214, f 65-67. By courtesy.
>
Habrocestum namibicum : Wesolowska, 2006 . African Entomology, 14 (2): 231-233, f 26-37 By courtesy.
b) c)
Habrocestum socotrense +b) speciosum +c) tanzanicum: Wesolowska, van Harten 2002. Fauna of Arabia 19: 376, figs 23-25 +Wesolowska, van Harten, 1994. Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project 28-30, f 59-63 + Wesolowska, Russel-Smith, 2000. Tropical Zool., 13 (1): 31-33, figs 52-58. By courtesy.
>
Habrocestum superbum : Wesolowska, 1999[2000]. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 151-153, f 16-22 + Wesolowska & Cumming, 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. .7:78, f 8-10, 94. C By courtesy.

Gen. Hasarius Simon, 1871 (16 species)

Type species Hasarius adansoni.
NOTE. A "waste bucket" genus of only two species known from both sexes and 12 with single sex described, some of these pending revision. There are 17 unrecognizable species and 69 synonyms. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

>
Hasarius adansoni: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 68-69, figs 256-260. Singapore.©Phot H.K.Tang. By courtesy.
Hasarius kulczynskii: Zabka, 1985 Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 227-228, ff. 208-210. By courtesy
Hasarius mahensis : Wanless, 1983a. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr., ser. 8. Tervuren, 241: 54-55, ff. 18a-f. By courtesy
Hasarius rufociliatus: Simon,1898 Wanless F.R. 1983a. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr., ser. 8. Tervuren, 241: 51-52, ff. 17a-g.
+ + + +
Hasarius albocircumdatus + H. inhonestus + H. mulciber + H. obscurus + H. pumilio : Koch L., 1881 Die Arachn.
Austral.: 1250, T. 107, F. 4. Keyserling, 1881: 1312, pl 111, f 8. MISPLACED. Keyserling, 1881 Die Arachn.Austral. 1881:
1310 T. 111 F. 7. + 1315, T. 112, F. 2. + 1317, pl 112, f 3.
+ +
Hasarius cheliceroides +b) firmis +c) insularis : Borowiec, Wesolowska, 2002 Genus, 13(3): 405-408, figs 1-7. Wisniewski, Wesolowska, 2013 Genus, 2013b. 24(3-4): 503-507 + Wesolowska, van Harten, 2002 Fauna of Arabia 19: 377-378 figs 26-29. By courtesy.
+ >
Hasarius pauciaculeis +b) roeweri : Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 45 + Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 60 Wesolowska, Russel-Smith 2000. Tropical Zoology, 13 (1): 35-36, figs 66-68. By courtesy
>
Hasarius rusticus : Thorell, 1887 Type Birmania, Modha . Proszynski 1984c: 60. By courtesy
+
Hasarius sp [Philippines] + H. sp. "H. adansoni" : Prószynski, 2003 Quick sketch by J. Proszynski +
Barrion, Litsinger 1995. Internat. Rice Research Inst.: 93-94, fig 48a-l. By courtesy
Hasarius sp [Queensland] Brisbane. + "Hypoblemum" sp [Cedar Creek] - Brisbane : ©Phot R. Whyte,By courtesy

Hasarius tropicus : Jastrzebski, 2010 Bhutan: Phuntsholing, 200-400 m. Genus: 21(2): 321-323, f 2-3. By courtesy

Gen. Heliophanus (Heliocapensis) Wesolowska, 1986
[only two exceptional species out of 13: peckhami + termitophagus (2 species)

Heliophanus (H-cap) peckhami : Wesolowska 1986. Ann. zool. 40, 1: 8, 13, ff. 18-38.. By courtesy.

Heliophanus (H-cap) termitophagus : Wesolowska, Haddad 2002. Trop. Zool. 15 (1): 197-207, f 1-4
[also photo of environment - termite mound]. By courtesy.

Gen. Leptofreya Edwards, 2015, gen. n. (3 species)
including Megafreya Edwards, 2015, comb. n

Type species Leptofreya ambigua
NOTE. Separation of Leptofreya from Freya by Edwards 2015 is a good idea, but I think similarities with genus Megafreya. deserves also some consideration. The differences in palp between these genera is, in my opinion, modification of parts, while similarity in structure of epigyne is striking (unfortunately photos of these are poor). An interesting feature is analogy of epigyne with Pacific genus Xenocytaea, however these genera have very different structure of palps, excluding possibility of closer affinity.

Leptofreya ambigua : Edwards, Ruiz: 2013: JoA, 41: 11-17, f 11-13. From Florida [imported to the USA], also Edwards, 2015: 43, f. 16A-G . By courtesy.
> +
Leptofreya bifurcata: Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 225, 234, t. 19, f. 11 + Painting by Kuniko Arakawa + : Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 43, f. 16H, 17A-K. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Leptofreya longispina: Biol. Centr.-Amer., Zool.: 224, 230, table 17, figs 14 + 225, 234, table 19, figs 12 +Petrunkevitch, 1925a: 235, f. 146-148.

Gen. Megafreya Edwards, 2015 (1 species)

Type species Megafreya sutrix.
NOTE. Similarities of Leptofreya with genus Megafreya deserves some consideration. The differences in palp between these genera is, in my opinion, modification of parts, while similarity in structure of epigyne is striking (unfortunately photos of these are poor). An interesting feature is analogy of epigyne with Pacific genus Xenocytaea, however these genera have very different structure of palps, excluding possibility of closer affinity.

a)+
++c)+d)
Megafreya sutrix COMPARED WITH: +b) "Xenocytaea" mccooki + c) Siler semiglaucus +d) Carrhotus" viridiaureus: Edwards, 2015. Zootaxa 4036 (1) : 45, f. 18A-F© 2015 Magnolia Press + Buenos Aires City. © photo by C.J. Grismado, 2008 +b) Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 59 [Lectotype of Xenocytaea mccooki from Java: Thorell collection No 1773, Mus. Stockholm] +c) Kulkarni & Joseph, 2015: Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(10): 7701, f. 1a-b, 2a-b, 3a-b, 4 + d) Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 345-347, t. 15, ff. 11-14. REMARK: Analogies include hood like epigyne and expanded, long basis of eembolus, differs strikingly by external appearance. Two of the above 4 species have assumedly mixed up label data on continents they were collected from. By courtesy.

Gen. Nandicius Prószyński, 2016, gen. n. (10 species)

Type species Phintella mussooriensis Prószynski, 1992.
Etymology. Name combines name of the Nanda Devi National Park and Icius, grammar gender assumed masculine.


Diagnosis. Nandicius differs strikingly from Pseudicius and related genera by absence of subocular row of stridulatory bristles on protuberances and tibia I not modified. Male palpal organ resembling Chrysilla Thorell, 1887 and Phintella Bösenberg & Strand, 1906, embolus base has a form of thin, soft layer laying diagonally over bulbus, narrowing anteriorly and producing anterior embolus - short, claw-like and sclerotized. Only antero-lateral angle of spermophor is visible. Tibial apophysis variable, biramous with ventral ramus thin and gently bent (in N. pseudicioides even twisted "S" like), dorsal ramus robust, but in some species modified into short lobe, or even reduced to a vestigial tooth.
Epigyne with prominent oval depression medially, there is a pair of translucent pockets, spaced at the posterior rim of epigyne, which is somewhat bent anteriorwards, copulatory opening located medially, in mid-length of epigyne. Spermathecae resembling some Pseudicius, with spermathecae slightly elongate oval, set transversally or parallel to main axis, with distal part elongate and duct like, ducts sclerotized, semiarching.
Body small and fragile, not flattened or elongated, with brown pattern on whitish background. Legs whitish, the I not strikingly longer or more robust than legs II-IV.
Integral part of the definition are drawings below.

Remark. Taxonomic position of Nandicius (known to me from old type specimens and series of drawings of unidentified species from Central Asia) remained enigmatic for 30 years, because of mixture of poorly understood characters resembling other, unrelated genera. The breakthrough is due to photographs by Miss Shazia Quasin, of a species almost [?] identical with the drawings of epigyne, made in 1980ties. These epigyne structures, with simultaneous absence of Pseudicius-like features, could be accommodated only by erection of a new genus.

Composition. The following species are transferred from genus the Pseudicius Simon, 1885: Nandicius cambridgei (Prószynski, Żochowska, 1981) comb. n., N. deletus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n., N. frigidus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n., N. mussooriensis (Prószynski, 1992) comb. n., [syn. Phintella m.], N. pseudoicioides (Caporiacco, 1935) comb. n., N. szechuanensis Logunov, 1995) comb. n., N. sp. [Bhutan] Prószynski [unpublished], N. 2 sp [Shazia]) [unpublished] Shazia Quasin, 2011.

+ b)
NANDICIUS frigidus +b) Type of Icius icioides (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n.. Proszynski, Zochowska 1981: ol. pismo ent. 51: 26, f 16-18; +b) Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 56. By courtesy .
NANDICIUS mussooriensis comb. n.: Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 101-102, f 54-59 (note row of stridulatory microsetae on femur I - a character resembling Pseudicius). By courtesy .
+ + +
NANDICIUS sp. related to frigidus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool.: 84, 373-374, f 69-74. By courtesy
a)
b)
NANDICIUS sp [Shazia] +b) Nandicius sp [Nepal-5] : a) Documented by the ©photos by Shazia Quasin. Nanda Devi
Reserve 2000-4000 m,Uttarakhand, India +b) related species - drawings by © J. Prószynski. Nepal,
Northern Dhaulagiri, Suli Gad river, 2800-3300 m. 7-8. VI. 1973. Leg. Martens.
+
NANDICIUS cambridgei+ Nandicius deletus : Prósz., Zochowska, 1981 comb. n., Type species.
+ Proszynski, Zochowska 1981: Pol. pismo ent. 51: 26, f 14-15 + 26, f 14-15.
NANDICIUS pseudicioides : Andreeva, Heciak., Proszynski. 1984. Ann. zool., 3, 13: 374, f 63-68.
2)2)
3) 4) 5)
8)10)9)
NANDICIUS sp [Bhutan 2 male](m) + sp [Bhutan 2 female]) + sp [Bhutan 3] + sp [Bhutan 4] + sp [Bhutan 5] + sp [Bhutan 8]+ sp [Bhutan 10] + Epocilla praetextata [Bhutan 9] : Bhutan. Coll. Exp. NHM-Basel. © Prószynski [drawn, neither named nor described].

Gen. Natta Karsch, 1879 (3 species)

Type species Natta horizontalis.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Natta borreyi: Berland, Millot, 1941 Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur., 12, 2: 326 f. 29.
Natta chionogastra : Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool. 39, 2: 82-83, f 32, 35-38 + 1984c: 88. Wesolowska W. 1993a. Genus, 4 (1):
18-25, figs 1-16. ©Haddad, Wesolowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 90, f 74-75. By courtesy.

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Natta horizontalis: Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool. 39, 2: 82-83, f 32, 35-38 + 1984c: 88. ©Photo B. Knoflach..

Gen. Nycerella Galiano, 1982 (8 species)

Type species Nycerella decorata.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Nycerella decorata : Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 56, ff.9-12, 25-26, 33-35 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 47, f. 19A-B, 37K-P. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Nycerella delecta: Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 56, ff.9-12, 25-26, 33-35. Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 58. By courtesy.
b)
c)d)
Nycerella aprica +donaldi + melanopygia + neglecta: Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 56, 58; ff.1-3, 27, 28, 43-44
+ 58, f 7, 8, 42 + 60, 62; f 4-6, 46 + 62; ff. 15-17, 23-24, 36-37. By courtesy
+
Nycerella sanguinea: Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 60; f 13, 14. +Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 47, f. 20A-N, 28F. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Nycerella volucripes : Galiano M.E. 1982b. Physis C, 41, 100: 62-63; f 20-22, 31-32, 45. By courtesy.

Gen. Orsima Simon, 1901 (3 species)

Type species Orsima constricta .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Orsima ichneumon: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 90. By courtesy.
+
+
Orsima constricta: Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 70. Zabka M. 1992b. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 9 (1): 11-12, f 7-9.
Berland L., Millot J. 1941. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur., 12, 2: 325, f 28a-b. By courtesy
+ +
Orsima ichneumon : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 20.("20727 Cosmophasis ichneumon E.S. Padang/W, coll Simon") Zabka M. 1992b. BZabka M. 1992b. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 9 (1): 11-12, f 10-17 + Murphy F. and J. 2000. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 2000: 311-312. By courtesy.
+
Orsima thaleri + Orsima sp. (alarmed) : Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012 Arthr. select. 21(1): 53-54, f 127-129. +
©Photo D. & F. Knowles. By courtesy.

Gen. Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896 (6 species)

Type species Pachomius dybowskii .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

+
Pachomius dybowskii: F.P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Amer., Zoologia, 239, t 20, f 16 Galiano M.E. 1994. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc., 9(7): 215-216, f 1-3, 7, 13, 14, 18, 20, 24, 25 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 51, f. 22A-M. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Pachomius bilobatus: Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 208, f 174-177 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 51, f. 21A-I. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Pachomius hieroglyphicus
: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia: 236, t 19, f 17 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 51, f. 21J-L. © Magnolia Press. Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 51, f. 21A-I. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Pachomius niveoguttatus: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, 240, t 20, f 18, 19 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 51, f. 21M, 22N-O. © Magnolia Press. . By courtesy.
+
Pachomius hadzji + P. peckhamorum: Ruiz, Brescovit 2005b. Revta bras. Zool. 22(3): 754-755, f 7-8.
Galiano, 1994. Galiano M.E. 1994. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 9(7): 216-217, figs 4, 9, 12, 16. By courtesy.

b) c)
Pachomius viletta +b) maculosus +c) sextus Galiano, 1994. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 9(7): 219, figs 5, 10-11, 15, 19, 21, 28-29 + 220, figs 22, 30, 31 + 217-218, f 6, 8, 17, 23, 26-27. By courtesy.

Gen. Pachypoessa Simon, 1901 (1 species)

Type species Pachypoessa .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Pachypoessa lacertosa: Proszynski J. 1987. Mozambique; South African Rep.: Natal; Indian O Is; Madagascar. Atlas ...: 73

Gen. Phiale Koch C.L., 1846 (25 species)

Type species Phiale gratiosa .
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

++
+
Phiale gratiosa: Galiano 1981e. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 5 (5): 206, f 1, 5-6, 10-12 + Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 165 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 55, f. 24A-L. © Magnolia Press. .
Phiale bicuspidata: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. 224, 227, 238, t 20, f 8-9. ..
+
Phiale bilobata: Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 208, f 174-177
+ F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia: 230, t 18, f 15 .
Phiale bipunctata : Edwards, Rinaldi, Ruiz 2005. Biota Neotropica 5(2): 28, f 40-41, 60. By courtesy.
+b)
Phiale bisignata +b) cubana [Misplaced]: F. P.-Cambridge 1905. 236, t 20, f 1 +b) Bryant, E. B. 1940.
Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. 86: 490, t 21, f 283-284 .
+
Phiale bulbosa: Galiano M. E. 1981b. J. Arachnol., 9: 63, 82-83, f 9, 13-14 + ©Photo G. B. Edwards, 2001. By courtesy.
+
Phiale crocea: Galiano M. E. 1981b. J. Arachnol., 9: 75, 79-82, f 8, 9, 17-18, 22, 28
+ ©Photo Machado & Gasnier 2003. By courtesy.
b)c)
Phiale elegans +b) flavescens+c) geminata: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia,
238, t 20, f 7 +b) 238, t 20, f 15 +c) 240, t 20, f 20..
+
+
Phiale formosa: Rota, Wagner 2006. Predator Mimicry: .... : 1(1): e45 + ©Photo G. B. Edwards, 2001 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 55, f. 23A-K. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Phiale guttata: Galiano 1979d. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 5 (5): 345-348, f 1-7+ ©Photo G. B. Edwards, 2001. By courtesy.
b)c)
Phiale hieroglyphica +b) laticava +c) mediocava: F. P.-Cambridge 1901: 236, t 19, f 17 +b) 237, t 20, f 3 +c) 236, t 20, f 2..
b)
Phiale longibarba +b) huadquinae: Edwards, Rinaldi, Ruiz 2005. Biota Neotropica 5(2): 28, f 42-43, 61
+b) .Chamberlin R. V. 1916. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60 (6): 299, tab. 25, fig. 3. By courtesy.
+
Phiale mimica: Galiano 1981b. J. Arachnol., 9: 77-79; f 11-12, 23, 31 + F. P.-Cambridge 1901. 221, t 18, f 10- 10a. By courtesy.
b)
Phiale niveoguttata +b) pallida: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biol, Centr.-Amer., Zoologia, 240, t 20, f 18, 19 +b) 227, 237, t 20, f 5.
Phiale ortrudae: Galiano M. E. 1981b. J. Arachnol., 9: 75, 83; f 19-21, 24, 30. By courtesy.
+
Phiale roburifoliata: Galiano 1981e. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 5 (5): 212-215, f 2, 3-4, 7-9, 13 + ©Photo Galiano. By courtesy.
Phiale simplicicava: F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, 237, t 20, f 4.
>
Phiale tristis: Galiano 1981e. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 5 (5): 74-75, 76-77; f 15-16 + ©Photo Galiano. By courtesy.

Gen. Phintella Bösenberg, Strand, 1906 (49 species)

Type species Phintella bifurcilinea.
NOTE. A speciose genus with palps and epigyne resembling other genera of this group. I propose to separate them arbitrarily from Chrysilla by white pattern of spots (see photos below) on abdomen and carapace, and by body shape. However some species are pending revision and reclassification to new genera. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Phintella bifurcilinea : paralectotype (1-3) + Goto Is. Proszynski J. 1983d + Acta arachnol.: 7, f. 1-11 + Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987: 103-105, ff. 184-192. By courtesy. .
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Phintella abnormis: Bohdan., Proszy. 1987. Ann. zool., 41, 2: 100-103, f 172-179.Proszynski 1983d. Acta arachnol. : 6, f. 15-16. .
>
Phintella accentifera: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 156
++
Phintella aequipes: Prószynski 1984c: 106 +Wesolowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Inver., 50(1): .69, f 134-135 + Wesolowska, Cumming 2008. Ann. zool. 58: 203-205, 113-121.. By courtesy. .
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Phintella arenicolor : Proszynski J. 1971d. Annales zoologici, 28: 207, f 1-6. Logunov, Wesolowska 1992.
Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: 135-137, f 26. ©Ono, Ikeda, Kono. Salticidae of Japan. 2009: 572, pl 45-7. .
+
Phintella argenteola + P. assamica: Proszynski 1984c: 107 + Prószynski, 1992. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 196-197, f 132-133.
>>
Phintella australis: Wesolowska 2012a : 20(2): 332, f 24-29. Supposed synonym
(by Clark 1974) Almota quini: - Peckham, Peckham 1903.Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Aris. Let., 14 (1): 194, tab. XX, figs 1..
Phintella bifurcata: Prószyński,1992. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 196-197, f 134-140 .
Phintella caledoniensis: Patoleta, 2009. Genus: 20(3): 540-543, f 1-7. By courtesy.
>++
Phintella castriesiana: Proszynski J. 1979. Annales zool., 34:1979: 310-311, f 138-142 - comp. spec. from Rumania + Proszynski J. 1979. Annales zoologici, Warszawa, 34:1979: 310-311, f 131-137 specimen from E Russia: Primore. .
Metzner H. 1999. Andrias 14: 88, 207, t 53a-j, map 57. Specimen from Greece. Photo J. Holstein. By courtesy.
Phintella cavaleriei: Wesolowska, 1981b. Annales zoologici: 134, f. 18-21. By courtesy..
>
Phintella clathrata : Syntypes - Burma, Oates, coll. Thorell, Mus. Stockholm. Proszynski 1984c: 107.
+
Phintella conradi + Icius glaucochirus: Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 55-56, f 141-145
Sumatra: Mt. Singalang "Maevia glaucochira Thor. Holotype , Sumatra". Proszynski 1984c: 69.
Phintella coonooriensis: Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 100-101, f 46-53. By courtesy .
Phintella debilis : From Vietnam. Zabka M. 1985. Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 425-426, ff. 408-419, m. 29.
From India Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 198-199, f 141-145. By courtesy.
>
Phintella dives : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 108. Specimen #11294 Philippines: Manila, Antipolo, coll. Simon, MNHN . .
Phintella guineensis : Wesolowska, Wisniewski, 2013. Holotype + Paratype. GUINEA, Kéoulenta .
coll. M. Lamotte (NHM London).Genus 24(2): 247-250, f 1-9. By courtesy.
.
Phintella hainani : Song D., Gu M., Chen Z., 1988. The Spiders of China: 539, f 307P-Q. By courtesy .
+
Phintella incerta + indica : Wesolowska, Russel-Smith, 2000. Tropical Zoology, 13 (1): 82, f 217-220 + Wesolowska 1986: 230, f 862-865. By courtesy.
Phintella lajuma: Haddad, Wesolowska, 2013: 24(3-4): 492-494, f 78-79, 94. By courtesy. .
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Phintella linea : Proszynski 1973b. Annales zoologici, 30: 113, f 42-43.
Proszynski 1983d. Acta arachnol. Osaka: 6, 11, f 12-13.Logunov, Wesolowska. 1992. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: 138-139, f 30-31.
.
>
Phintella longirostris: Proszynski J. 1984c. Atlas ...: 106.( Euophrys linea Karsch - lectotype Syntypes "Telamonia aequipes
subsp. longirostris Lessert, MF, Sjostedt" Mus. Stockholm. Lessert R. 1925a. Rev. suisse zool., 31 (13): 448 figs 26-30.
.
Phintella lucida : Wesolowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008 Journal of Afrotropical Zoology, 4: 38-39, 147-149. By courtesy..
Phintella lunda : Wesolowska, 2010. Angola: Lunda. Genus 21: 111-114, f 2-9.
Phintella macrops : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 109: "17651 Chrysilla macrops ES. Sikkim". Coll, Simon - MNHN Paris..
>
Phintella melloteei Is it I. difficilis or P. parva ?: Proszynski 1979: 311, f 143-144.
Boesenberg, Strand, E. 1906. Japanische Spinnen. Abh. senck. naturf. Ges., 30: 341, f 379.
Comments: Acc. to Logunov = P. castriesiana = P. abnormis., Acc.to Proszynski = Icius difficilis.
Phintella monteithi: Żabka, 2012 ©Zootaxa 3176: 62-63, f 8-18. M holotype+paratype, Australia, Queensland. By courtesy.
+ Photo R. Whyte
.
Phintella multimaculata : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 109"17259 Chrysilla multimaculata ES. Kandy! Mutale". Coll, Simon .
Phintella munita : . Boesenberg W., Strand, E. 1906. Abh. senck. naturf. Ges., 30: 398, fig. 125,126, 374.
Wesolowska, 1981a: 59, f. 34-36. By courtesy.
Phintella nilgirica: Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 102-103, f 60-63. By courtesy.
++
Phintella versicolor [transfer from Chrysilla]: Proszynski J. 1973b. Ann. zool., 30: 107-110, f 25-32. + Maddison 1996. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.: 330, f 17. ©Photo J. Koh, 1989. By courtesy.
+
Phintella [?] diatreta [described as Viciria d.]: Proszynski J. 1984b. Ann. zool. 37: 18: 432, f 42-43 [India].[+ Caleb and Mathai 2014. JEZS: 2 (5): 63-71Caleb.India : Tamil Nadu, [Chennai]. © Photo J. Caleb. By courtesy.
Phintella anusuae (= syn.Marpissa a.) : Tikader et Biswas 1981. Rec. zool. Surv. India, Occ. Pap., 30: 97, f 18-20.
Phintella jesudasi: Caleb, Mathai, 2014. ©JEZS: 2(5): 63-64, 1-14. + © Photo J. Caleb. By courtesy.
Phintella paludosa : Wesolowska, Edwards, 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 756-757, f 80–84, 128. By courtesy.
Phintella parva : Wesolowska, 1981)1981a. Annales zoologici: 60, f 45-48 + Logunov, Wesolowska 1992.
Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: 139-141, f 32-33. By courtesy
Phintella piatensis : Barrion, Litsinger, 1995. Riceland Spiders ... IRRI: .76-77, f 36a-f. By courtesy.
Quick sketch of internal structure of epigyne of the holotype, by J. Proszynski.
.
+
Phintella vittata: Zabka M. 1985. Ann.zool. 39, 11: 429-430, f 435-441 + ©Photo J. Koh, 1989. By courtesy..
b)
Phintella aequipeiformis +b) lucai : Zabka, 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 429-430, f 435-441 +b0 430, f 444-446. By courtesy.
Phintella leucaspis: Phintella Bohdanowicz & Prószynski, 1987: 110, 112, f. 214-215. By courtesy.
Phintella minor : Peckham, Peckham 1903. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Aris. Lot., 14 (1): 188, t 19, f 3..
Phintella spp.:[spotted cf vittata] Borneo, Singapore, India .
Phintella sp [Biak]:Freudenschuss, 0 .
Phintella planiceps :Berry, Beatty, Prószynski,1996. J. Arachn. Vol. 24(3): 246-248, f 114-120, map 7. By courtesy.
Phintella popovi :Proszynski 1979. Annales zoologici, 34: 311, f 150-153, 310, also: f 130 (as Icius abnormis).
Note femur I dark stripe divided into 2 spots.
Phintella pygmaea : Wesolowska 1981a. Annales zoologici: 49-50, f 11-14. By courtesy. .
Phintella africana : Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology, 4: 37, f 144-146. By courtesy.
Phintella reinhardti: Zabka M. 1988b. Annales zoologici, 41 (14): 465, f 121-122. By courtesy. .
Phintella suavis "#4172 Tel.[amonia] suavis ES. Malacca" Proszynski1984c. Atlas ... 1984c: 106. .
Phintella suknana Prószynski, 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 200, f 146-147. By courtesy.
"Phintella" alboterminus: Caleb, 2014a: 9 (2): 605-608 f 1-12 (Chennai). By courtesy.

Gen. Plexippus Koch C.L., 1846 (20 species)

Type species Plexippus paykulli .
NOTE. Another "waste bucket" genus of 165 nominal species, of which 125 are just synonyms (Plexippus paykulli alone was published under 21 synonymic and combination names), for 8 species both sexes are known, but for 11 only single sex was described, 19 species are unrecognizable. The best know representative is Plexippus paykulli, cosmopolite in warmer areas around the globe, found also in hothouses in cooler areas. Both palps and epigyne are considerably modified, but confront to the general plan of this group of genera. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Plexippus paykulli: Type species Proszynskib 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 143-145, f 577-578, 583, 587-588 +
©Phot A. Senglet, 2002 + ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy
++ +
++
Plexippus petersi Japan. Proszynski 1973b. Ann. zool., 30: 120-124, f 61-66. + Solomon Is. Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 80 + Zabka M. 1990c. Senck. biol. 70 (1/3): 172, f 26-27 +Zabka 1985. Ann. zool.: 433-434, f 464-470, map 34 + ©PhotoJ. Holstein - Kenya + R. Whyte - Queensland. By courtesy.
+
Plexippus setipes Proszynski 1973b. Annales zool. 30: 120-124, f 61-66. + Bohdanowicz , Proszynski. 1987. Ann. zool.
41, 2: 117-119; f 229-232 + ©Phot Ono, Ikeda, Kono. Japan. 2009: 576, pl 47-1. By courtesy
+ +
Plexippus auberti Proszynski J. 1984c: 152. + Wesolowska 2012b. Genus. 23(2): 213-215, f 41-46 +. Lessert R. 1925a. Rev. suisse zool., 31 (13): 503-504, f 85-86. By courtesy
b) c)
Plexippus baro + P. fuscus + P. lutescens Wesolowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotrop. Zool., 4: 44-45, 167-170 +b) Rollard, Wesolowska, 2002 Zoosystema. Paris, 24 (2): 303-304, f 15A-B +c) Wesolowska, 2011 Genus, 22(2): 336-337, f 69-70, 94. By courtesy.
+
Plexippus bhutani +b) Plexippus pokharae Zabka M. 1990c. Sencken. biol. 70 (1/3): 173, f 28-33 + Zabka M. 1990c. Senck. biol. 70 (1/3): 175-177, f 34-37. By courtesy
+ +
Plexippus clemens (conspecific? P. similis) Proszynski 1984c: 85 (Left - "21" Attus clemens Cambr." "B. 1821", Right:
Algerian specimen) - reprinted in: Proszynski. Ann. zool. 2003: 142, f 592-593 +b) Logunov, 2010a. Bull. Br. arachnol.
Soc. 15(3) : 87, f 7-12 +c) Wesolowska W., van Harten A. 1994: 72, f 147-149 + ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy
>>
Plexippus tectonicus Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 145-146, f 581-582, 586, 591, 736-737. By courtesy
Uncertain identification -Wesolowska W., van Harten A. 1994. ... Salticidae ... of Yemen.: 72, f 147-149 - ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy.
Plexippus devorans Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 143-145, f 577-578, 583, 587-588
+ ©Phot A. Senglet, 2002. By courtesy
+
Plexippus kondarensis: Logunov D.V., Rakov. S.Y. 1998. Arthr.Sel. 7(2): 129, f 43-46 + ©Phot A. Senglet, 2002. By courtesy
Plexippus rubroclypeatum (comb. n.) (Habrocestum r.) Lessert, 1927: 435, 19. By courtesy.
b)
Plexippus iranus +b) minor: Logunov, 2009. Iran. Contrib. Nat. History 12: 908-909, 18-19 +b) Wesolowska,
van Harten, 2010: United Arab Emirates, 2010: 3: 49, pl 19, f 57-58 (compared with P. paykulli). By courtesy.
Plexippus perfidus Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 112. Birma: Tharrawaddy, Oates" "No, 1791" "Prep. 6518" - coll. Thorell,

+
Plexippus yinae + tsholotsho Peng X., Li S., 2003. Rev. suisse de zoologie. 110: 755, f 5A-E. By courtesy
Wesolowska, 2011 C Genus, 22(2): 337-338, f 71-72. By courtesy

Gen. Proszynellus Patoleta, Zabka, 2015 (5 species)

Type species Proszynellus nasalis
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

,
Proszynellus forsteri comb. n (s. Adoxotoma f.): Zabka, 2004 Ann. zool. 54: 93, f 5-7 + Prószyński 2015 - online.
Proszynellus nasalis: Patoleta, Żabka, 2015 . Zootaxa 3926 (2): 259, 1–18, 49. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Proszynellus occidentalis: Patoleta, Żabka, 2015 . Zootaxa 3926 (2): 264, 39-49. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
Proszynellus wandae: Patoleta, Żabka, 2015 . Zootaxa 3926 (2): 259-264, 19-21, 38, 49. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Gen. Rhondes Simon, 1901 (1 species)

Type species Rhondes neocaledonicus .
Present classification pending revision. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Rhondes neocaledonicus : Zabka M. 1988b. Ann. zool., 41 (14): 456-458, f 93-95. By courtesy

Gen. Salticus Latreille, 1804 (19 species)

Type species Salticus scenicus
NOTE. Well known genus, type genus of the family Salticidae, recognizable by characteristic pattern of white belts on abdomen and carapace (which however occurs also in unrelated genera in various parts of the world). Also body shape, low, narrow and elongate, is characteristic. Palps and epigyne vary quite widely, but are comparable. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

Salticus scenicus : Paquin P., Duperre N. 2003. Fabreries, Suppl. 11: 200, f 2242-2244 + ©Photo Senglet, 2002. By courtesy.
+
Salticus noordami (syn. amitai?): Logunov, 2009. Contrib. Nat. Hist. 2009c: 12: 915-916, f 36-42
+ Proszynski J. 2003a. Ann. zool. 166-167, f 677, 690-691 By courtesy.
b)c)
Salticus afghanicus +b) aiderensis +c) austinensis: Logunov, Zamanpoore, 2005 Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 13 (6): 230, f 40-43
. + Logunov, Rakov 1998. Artropoda Selecta, 7(2): 137, f 8-9 + Photo D. Richman.
+
Salticus canariensis + gomerensis: Wunderlich, 1987 Triops Verlag: 277-278, f 695-698. By courtesy. .

Salticus cingulatus : Proszynski + Zabka M. 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 81-82, f 290-296. By courtesy. .

+ b)
Salticus dzhungaricus + Salticus insperatus:Logunov, 1992 Logunov D.V., Rakov. S.Y. 1998.Artropoda Selecta, 7(2): 137, f 69-72, map 11 + 1992a: Arthropoda Selecta, 1 (1): 54, f 2g-i + Logunov, 2009. Contrib. Nat. History: 12: 913-915, f 30-35, map 3. By courtesy. .
Salticus iteacus: Metzner, 1999 Andrias 14: 112-113, 231, f 78a-h, map 84. By courtesy.

+++
Salticus latidentatus : Proszynski J. 1982. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 74: 288, f 43 [Mongolia] . + Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ... : 128 [Kulczynski, Tsingtau, Hofmann - Mus. Wien] + Wesolowska 1981a. Annales zoologici, 36: 79, f 106-107 + Logunov D.V. 1992a. Arthropoda Selecta, 1 (1): 57, f 2a-d. By courtesy.
b)+c)
Salticus mandibularis +b) olivaceus +c) ressli:
: Proszynski. 2003a. Ann. zool. 53, 1: 167-168, f 687-689 (S. olivaceus - Hebron specimen, the O. P.-C. collection) +b) 169, f 680-684 +c) Logunov, 2015. Arthropoda Selecta 24(1): 50, f. 72-74. By courtesy.
>
Salticus mutabilis : Flanczewska E. 1981. Annales zoologici, 36: 221, f 101-106. ©photo A. Senglet, 2002. By courtesy.
Salticus propinquus Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. : 168-169, f 678-679, 685-686, 692-693. By courtesy. .
Salticus palpalis : Peckham G.W., Peckham E.G. 1909. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Let., 16 (1): 477, t. 52, f. 10, t 54, f 7.
+
Salticus peckhamae : Peckham G.W., Peckham E.G. 1909. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Let., 16 (1): 16 (1): 478, t. 42, f. 9, t. 44, f. 6 + ©Photo D. Richman. By courtesy .
b)c)
Salticus proszynskii +b) turkmenicus +c) quagga Logunov 1992a. Arthropoda Selecta, 1 (1): 54-57, f 3a-g +b) Logunov, Rakov. 1998. Artropoda Selecta, 7(2): 138, f 65-68, map 11 +c) Szüts et al., 2003: 52, f. 6-9. By courtesy. .
b)
c) +
Salticus tricinctus + syn. marenzelleri: Logunov D.V. 1992a. Arthropoda Selecta, 1 (1): 57, f 4a-e, map 5 +b) Szüts et al., 2003: 52, f. 6-9 +Wesolowska W. 1996. Arthropoda Saelecta, 5 (1/2): 41, f 32a-g + c)marenzelleri (types) = tricinctus: Logunov, 2015. Arthropoda Selecta 24(1): 78, f. 107-113 + (lectotype) Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici 53, 1: 169, f 680-684. By courtesy. .

+
Salticus confusus: Simon 1937. Les Arachnides de France. Tome VI 1200, f 1906-1907 + Logunov, 2015. Arthropoda Selecta 24(1): 49, f. 63-71. By courtesy.
Salticus unciger Proszynski: 1984c. Atlas ...: 128. By courtesy. .
Salticus zebraneus Zabka M. 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 83-84, f 305-312. By courtesy. .

Gen. Siler Simon, 1889 (10 species)

Type species Siler cupreus.
NOTE. Genus recognizable by bright, shining coloration. Palp confront with other genera of this group. Pockets anterior, their rims for sort of a roof (or fold) over anterior part of epigyne. ATTENTION. Similar bright color pattern can be seen in unrelated genera on other continents. Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

++
b) ++
Siler cupreus: Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool.70-73, f 1 -11. Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987.41, 2: 125-127, f 250-251
+ .+ © Ono et al. 2009: 570, pl 45-1. + Ann. zool.70-73, f 1 -11. Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987.41, 2: 125-127, f 250-251 +b) Siler vittatus:[TENTATIVE SEPARATION FROM S. CUPREUS Body coloration shown in Boes, & Str. 1906 resemble rather several species of transversely striped Phintella, drawings of palp and epigyne VERY close to S. cupreus !] Boesenberg & Strand 1986: 346, pl. 8, f. 118, pl. 14, f. 368 +Proszynski 1984a. Atlas ... 135 + © Ono et al. 2009: 570, pl 45-1.
+
+c)
Siler semiglaucus +b)compare analogies with Megafreya s: Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool.: 75-76, f 24-26 + Kulkarni & Joseph, 2015: Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(10): 7701, f. 1a-b, 2a-b, 3a-b, 4 +c) compare analogies with Megafreya. By courtesy.
b)
S. collingwoodi +b) S. sp.:: Proszynski 1984: Atlas ... 135, Proszynski 1985a: 73-74, f 16-17 + © Photo Murphy F. and J. By courtesy.
Siler bielawskii: Zabka, 1985 Annales zoologici, 39, 11:446-447, f 567-570. By courtesy
Siler flavocinctus : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 135;"7474 Cyllob. [ellus] flavocinctus ES. Singapoore!"
+
Siler severus + hanoicus: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 136 + Zabka 1985: Ann. zool., 39, 11: 447, f 571-572.
Siler lewaense: Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010 Arthropoda selecta, 19(3): 179,130-132. By courtesy.
Siler sp [Hawaii]: Prószyński, 2002 Arthropoda Selecta 10 (3): 225-241, f 81. By courtesy.
Siler weyersi : Proszynski J. 1985a: 30-31."21277. Cosmophasis weyersi ES. Sumatra /Weyers" .

Gen. Tara Peckham & Peckham, 1886 (2 species)

Type species Tara anomala.
Diagnostic drawings below are integral part of definitions.

+
Tara anomala + Tara [?] cf anomala: Zabka 1987a: 447-448, f 22-25.
+ © Photo B. Foster. By courtesy
Tara gratiosa : Tara gratiosa: Richardson, 2016: Zotaxa 4114 (5): 549, f. 199-214. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+
Tara parvula : Keyserling, 1883) T. 122 F. 5: 1449 T. 122 F. 5. + Tara sp. Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., 27 (2): 215,t. 20. By courtesy.

Gen. Triggella Edwards, 2015 (1 species)

Type species Triggella infuscata.
Diagnostic illustrations below are integral part of the definition.

+
Triggella bifida : Ruiz, Brescovit. 2007a. Journal of Arachnology, 34: 647, f 4-5 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 67, f. 30A-E. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
++
Triggella infuscata : F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia,: 224, 233, t. 19, f. 7 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 67, f. 29A-K. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.
+B)
Triggella grisea+ b) distincta : F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia,: 224, 233, table 19, figs 6.+ Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 67, f. 29A-K. © Magnolia Press +b) Petrunkevitch, 1925a: 233, f. 143-145. By courtesy.
+
Triggella minuta : F. P.-Cambridge 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoologia, 1901: 225, 234, table 19, figs 10 + Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 67, f. 30F-J. © Magnolia Press. By courtesy.

Newly proposed subfamily Freyinae Edwards, 2015
contains some genera classified into this group of genera, recognizable by:
slightly more elongate, distinctive arrangement and unusually thick - states of selected characters

Freyinae: G. B. EDWARDS 2015 Zootaxa (1): 001–087 © 2015 Magnolia Press. By courtesy.