RETURN TO DATABASE - CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORLD - KEY TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to subfamilies! - INDEX of Genera
KEYS TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT -KEY to subfamilies of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae

a subchapter

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
group of genera
CHRYSILLINAE

trial version

by Jerzy Prószyński & John T.D.Caleb
Version May 23rd, 2015

Disclaimer. This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed new taxonomic names, included here are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images. This introduction to a classification includes only species with diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic literature and Internet, arranged by similarities of embolus and spermophor. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of supposedly closely-related species. Thumbnails are small versions of illustrations in other parts of the monograph, where are displayed together with particulars of their sources and permissions.

Abstract

Interactive index of genera. Type genus Chrysilla .
Akela Bavia, Bristowia, Carrhotus, Chrysilla , Epidelaxia, Epocilla, Flacillula, Habrocestum, Hasarius, Lechia, NANDICIUS, Phintella, Plexippus, Siler.

Introduction

CHRYSILLINAE are characterized in males by antero-lateral angle of spermophor loop, emerging from underneath thin fleshy layer, running diagonally over bulbus and narrowing anteriorly, ending by short sclerotized embolus. Typical structure is developed in Hasarius adansoni or in Phintella, in some genera structure of embolus and bulbus is comparable or possibly derived. Females with spermathecae globular, relatively small, with ducts running anteriorly. In some genera there is a pair of pockets, developed posteriorly on epigyne. Diversity in this character in particular genera is illustrated below. Body shape not specialized, medium sized, or small spiders living mainly on vegetation. Large group of genera, distributed world wide, containing several subgroups, previously recognized as independent subfamilies.

Characters of most important, exemplary genera

Chrysilla lauta:Type species Proszynski J. 1983c. Acta arach., XXXI, (2): 44, f. 4-6. © Photo H. Tang + Marcus Ng. By courtesy. + Other characteristic forms.
Phintella castriesiana Proszynski J. 1979.. Photo J. Holstein. By courtesy.
>
Hasarius adansoni. Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 68-69, figs 256-260. Singapore.©Phot H.K.Tang.
Plexippus paykulli: Type species Proszynskib 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 143-145, f 577-578, 583, 587-588 + ©Phot A. Senglet, 2002 + ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy


Guide to identification of genera
including expected in Indian Subcontinent but not yet discovered
by male palps

Guide to identification of genera by internal structure of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by external appearance of epigyne

Guide to identification of genera by body shape and color pattern

Gen. Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896

Type species Akela charlottae from Central America
Akela fulva [MISPLACED]: Dyal S. 1935. Fauna of Lahore. 4 : Bull. Dep Zool., Panjab Univ. 1: 117-252.
Species misplaced and irrecognizable, type presumably lost Pakistan.
.

Bavia Simon, 1877
genus consists at present of species of similar appearance, but diverse palps and epigyne, should be separated into different genera

Type species Bavia aericeps.

>
Bavia aericeps + elegans : Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1997. J. Arachn. 25 (2): 117-118, 31-34, 45.
©Phot H.K. Tang.By courtesy. Type species: Indonesia, Australia, Pacific Isl.
Bavia sp [Kerala 1] India: Kerala. © PhotoSamson Davis. By courtesy.

Gen. Bristowia Reimoser, 1934
Alternative classification - Dioleninae.

Type species Bristowia heterospinosa .

+ b)
Bristowia heterospinosa +b) sp. Proszynski 1984c:14 [Krakatau] + © Photo H.K. Tang (Singapore) TYPE SPECIES.
+ © Photo J. Caleb (India). By courtesy.
Bristowia afra: Szüts, 2004. Folia ent. Hungarica 65: 30, f. 1-4, 8-10, 12-13, 16-17. By courtesy. Africa.

Gen. Carrhotus Thorell, 1891

Type species Carrhotus viduus.

>
Carrhotus viduus: (type species) Proszynski 1984c: 16 (Burma - coll. Oates) +Andreeva, Kononenko,
Proszynski 1981. Ann. zool., 36: 103, f. 39-42. - from Malacca + Zabka in Prószyński 2009b: 18(3-4): f 10-23. By courtesy.
>
Carrhotus sannio: Proszynski 1984c: 16 (Burma - coll. Oates) + . © Phot H.K. Tang (Singapore). By courtesy.
+ +
Carrhotus catagraphus + C. erus + C. kamjeensis: Jastrzebski,1999
Senck. biol., 79 (1): 7, figs 22-24. + 4-5, figs 12-15 + 5-6, figs 16-18. By courtesy.
b)
Carrhotus fabrei +b) decoratus : Andreeva, Kononenko, Proszynski 1981. Ann. zool.,36: 103, f 39-40.Ramuad, Madura +b) [Marpissa d.] Tikader B. K. 1974b. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 79: 206-207, ff 4-6. By courtesy.
+ +
Carrhotus operosus + C. samchiensis: Jastrzebski, 1999 Senck. biol., 79 (1): 7-8, figs 25-27+ 6-7, f 19-21, photo 5. By courtesy
b)
Carrhotus s-bulbosus +b) sufflavus : Jastrzębski, 2009. Nepal. Genus 20: 533-537, f 1-2. + b) 535, f 3-4, photo 6. By courtesy.
+
Carrhotus tristis: Proszynski J. 1992b. 1992b. Ann. zool., 44, 9: 168-169, figs 9-11. By courtesy.
+
Carrhotus sp [Chak 17 + 16]: Carrhotus sp [Chak 17] Chakrabarti 2011. India. © Photo Dr. S. Chakrabarti. By courtesy.

Gen. Chrysilla Thorell, 1887

Type species Chrysilla lauta Thorell, 1887 .
DIAGNOSIS. Differs from Phintella by rich color pattern and slim, light reflecting body.

Chrysilla lauta: Type species Proszynski J. 1983c. Acta arach., XXXI, (2): 44, f. 4-6. © Photo H. Tang + Marcus Ng. By courtesy.
b)
++b)
Chrysilla volupe + sp [Bhutan] : Zabka 1988b. Sri Lanka Ann. zool., 41 (14): 465-466, f 122-125
+ Caleb Mathai, 2014. ©JEZS: 2(5): 64, 15-23 (captioned Phintella volupe) + ©Photo Shazia Quasin
[ Nanda Devi Res. 2000-4000 m, Uttarakhand] +b) from Bhutan ID? Drawn by J. Proszynski. By courtesy.
b)
Chrysilla lauta-cf = ? : Caleb (in press) [including palp comparison with Ch. lauta] Mathai, 2014. ©JEZS: 2(5): 64, 15-23 (captioned Phintella volupe). By courtesy.

Gen. Epidelaxia Simon, 1902

Type species Epidelaxia albostellata.

b)
Epidelaxia albostellata +b) E. sp [Sri Lanka] : Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 22 (Type, Colombo, "20475")
TYPE SPECIES +b) Sri Lanka, coll. Deeleman. Drawn by J. Prószynski. By courtesy.

Gen. Epocilla Thorell, 1887

Type species Epocilla praetextata.

+>
Epocilla praetextata TYPE SPECIES: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 39 (Java, van Hasselt, "1648")
+ Jastrzebski 2007. Acta Arachn., 56 (1): 16-19, f 5-13, 16-19. By courtesy.
Epocilla aurantiaca (Simon, 1885)Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 38 (specimens "16293 Coll. Simon. MNHN-Paris)
Epocilla calcarata Zabka 1985. Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 217, ff. 132-148. © Photo H.K. Tang. By courtesy.
Epocilla chimakothiensis Jastrzebski 2007a. Acta Arachnologica, 56 (1): 15-16, f 1-4, 14-15. By courtesy.
b)
Epocilla kalapani +b) sp [Mumbai 10X]: Tikader B. K. 1977a: 72: 200, figs 23A-B +b) ©Photo Manisha Shah
[Sanjay Gandhi N P, Borivali-Mumbai]. By courtesy. .
Epocilla xylina Simon, 1906 -Specimen "18922. Bas. pl. de l'Himalaya /type/. Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 40.

Gen. Flacillula Strand, 1932
expected but not yet found in the Indian Subcontinent

Type species Flacillula lubrica .

Flacillula lubrica Type species Ceylon "20542", Simon coll: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ... 77. By courtesy.

Gen. Habrocestum Simon, 1876

Type species Habrocestum pullatum

Habrocestum pullatum Type species +b) H. simoni: Proszynski 1987. Atlas: 35-36 "11.121 Pyrenees" coll. Simon, Mus. Paris.
Habrocestum sp [Shazia 1] : ©Photo Shazia Quasin [Nanda Devi Reserve, Uttarakhand]. By courtesy.

Gen. Hasarius Simon, 1871

Type species Hasarius adansoni.

>
Hasarius adansoni: Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 68-69, figs 256-260.Type species. Singapore.©Phot H.K.Tang. By courtesy.
"Hasarius" rusticus : Thorell, 1887 Type Birmania, Modha . Proszynski 1984c: 60. By courtesy
"Hasarius" tropicus : Jastrzebski, 2010 Bhutan: Phuntsholing, 200-400 m. Genus: 21(2): 321-323, f 2-3. By courtesy

Gen. Lechia Zabka, 1985

Type species Lechia squamata .

Lechia squamata Type species +b) L. minuta : Zabka 1985. Annales zoologici, Warszawa, 39, 11: 236, f 259-262.
+b) Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 172-173, f 30-32. By courtesy.
.

Gen. "NANDICIUS" gen. n.
[for Pseudicius frigidus and related, unpublished]

Type species NANDICIUS frigidus
ETYMOLOGY. Name combines words NANDa and ICIUS, grammar gender assumed male.
REFERENCES.Proszynski Ann. zool.,1984 - 3, 13: 350, f 12-14; 1992a - 44, 8: 102, f 104-105.

COMPOSITION. Nandicius cambridgei Prószynski, Zochowska, 1981) comb. n., N. deletus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n., N. frigidus (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1885) comb. n., N. pseudicioides (Caporiacco, 1935) comb. n., N. szechuanensis Logunov, 1995) comb. n., N. sp [Bhutan] Prószynski) comb. n.,, N. 2sp [Shazia]) comb. n., Shazia Quasin, 2011

+ + + /td>
NANDICIUS frigidus Type species +b) Type of Icius icioides comb. n.. Proszynski, Zochowska 1981:
Pol. pismo ent. 51: 26, f 16-18; +b) Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 56. By courtesy .
+ + +
NANDICIUS sp. related to frigidus : Andreeva, Heciak, Proszynski 1984. Ann. zool.: 84, 373-374, f 69-74. By courtesy
a)
b)
NANDICIUS sp [Shazia] +b) Nandicius sp [Nepal-5] : a) Documented by the ©Photos by Shazia Quasin. Nanda Devi
Reserve 2000-4000 m,Uttarakhand, India +b) related species - drawings by © J. Prószynski. Nepal,
Northern Dhaulagiri, Suli Gad river, 2800-3300 m. 7-8. VI. 1973. Leg. Martens.
NANDICIUS (syn. Phintella) mussooriensis : Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 101-102, f 54-59.
Note row of setae on lateral surface of femur I - resembling Pseudicius.
.
+
NANDICIUS cambridgei+ Nandicius deletus : Prósz., Zochowska, 1981 comb. n., Type species.
+ Proszynski, Zochowska 1981: Pol. pismo ent. 51: 26, f 14-15 + 26, f 14-15.
NANDICIUS pseudicioides : Andreeva, Heciak., Proszynski. 1984. Ann. zool., 3, 13: 374, f 63-68.
++
+ ++
+++
NANDICIUS sp [Bhutan 1] + sp [Bhutan 2] (f) + sp [Bhutan 2] (m) + sp [Bhutan 3] + sp [Bhutan 4] + sp [Bhutan 5]
+ sp [Bhutan 8]+ sp [Bhutan 10] + Epocilla praetextata [Bhutan 9]
: Bhutan. Coll. Exp. NHM-Basel. © Prószynski.

Gen. Phintella Bösenberg, Strand, 1906

Type species Phintella bifurcilinea .
REMARKS. Phintella vittata and similarly colored should presumably be transfered to a genus of their own.

Phintella bifurcilinea : Type species paralectotype (1-3) + Goto Is. Proszynski J. 1983d + Acta arachnol.: 7, f. 1-11.
+ Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987: 103-105, ff. 184-192. By courtesy. [Borneo: Brunei, Sabah; China; Japan; Korea; Vietnam].
>
Phintella accentifera: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 156
Phintella suavis Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ... 1984c: 106 ["4172 Tel.[amonia] suavis ES. Malacca"]
(also reported from Nepal?). By courtesy.
Phintella assamica : Prószynski, 1992. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 196-197, f 132-133.
Phintella bifurcata: Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 196-197, f 134-140 . By courtesy. .
++
Phintella versicolor [transfer from Chrysilla]: Proszynski J. 1973b. Ann. zool., 30: 107-110, f 25-32
+ Maddison 1996. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.: 330, f 17. ©Photo J. Koh, 1989. By courtesy.
Phintella jesudasi: Caleb, Mathai, 2014. ©JEZS: 2(5): 63-64, 1-14. + © Photo J. Caleb. By courtesy.
b)c)
d)
Phintella [?] sp : :©Photo Anurag (Uttarakhand, Dehradun) +b) © Photo Dr. S. Chakrabarti
+c) Photo © Binu KS (Kerala) . By courtesy.
+
Phintella [?] diatreta [described as Viciria d.]: Proszynski J. 1984b. Ann. zool. 37: 18: 432, f 42-43 [India].[+ Caleb and Mathai 2014. JEZS: 2 (5): 63-71Caleb.India : Tamil Nadu, [Chennai]. © Photo J. Caleb. By courtesy.
>
Phintella clathrata : Syntypes - Burma, Oates, coll. Thorell, Mus. Stockholm. Proszynski 1984c: 107.
Phintella coonooriensis: Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 100-101, f 46-53. By courtesy .
Phintella debilis : From Vietnam. Zabka M. 1985. Annales zoologici, 39, 11: 425-426, ff. 408-419, m. 29.
From India Proszynski J. 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 198-199, f 141-145. By courtesy.
Phintella indica : Wesolowska 1986: 230, f 862-865. By courtesy.
Phintella macrops : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 109: "17651 Chrysilla macrops ES. Sikkim". Coll, Simon - MNHN Paris..
Phintella multimaculata : Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 109"17259 Chrysilla multimaculata ES. Kandy! Mutale". Coll, Simon .
Phintella nilgirica: Prószynski, 1992a. Annales zoologici, 44, 8: 102-103, f 60-63. By courtesy.
b)
Phintella[?] sikkimensis +b) singhi [?] : Tikader B. K. 1967. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 66: 120, f 3a-b (described
as Lyssomanes, syn. n. )
+b) Monga, Singh, Sadana 1989. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 85: 592-593, f 1-2. By courtesy.
.
>
"Phintella" vittata: Zabka M. 1985. Ann.zool. 39, 11: 429-430, f 435-441. ©Photo J. Koh, 1989. By courtesy.
Phintella vittata and similarly colored should presumably be transferes to a genus of their own..
Phintella suknana Prószynski, 1992b. Annales zoologici, 44, 9: 200, f 146-147. By courtesy. .
Phintella parva : Wesolowska, 1981)1981a. Annales zoologici: 60, f 45-48 + Logunov, Wesolowska 1992.
Ann. Zool. Fennici, 29: 139-141, f 32-33. By courtesy
"Phintella" spp.:[spotted cf piatensis] Borneo, Singapore, India .
+
"Phintella" sp [Chakrabarti]+ sp [Kerala 1] © Photos Dr. S. Chakrabarti and Samson Davis. By courtesy.

Gen. "Phintella" alboterminus Caleb, 2014 gen. n.

Type species Phintella alboterminus .
DIAGNOSIS Differs from Phintella by color pattern and body shape. Single, reduced spine (tooth-like) ventrally on male tibia I).

"Phintella" alboterminus: Type species Caleb, 2014a: 9 (2): 605-608 f 1-12 (Chennai). By courtesy.

Gen. Plexippus Koch C.L., 1846

Type species Plexippus paykulli .

Plexippus paykulli: Type species Proszynskib 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 143-145, f 577-578, 583, 587-588 +
©Phot A. Senglet, 2002 + ©Phot B. Knoflach. By courtesy. Cosmopolitic in warm climate.
+
Plexippus bhutani +b) Plexippus pokharae Zabka M. 1990c. Sencken. biol. 70 (1/3): 173, f 28-33 +
Zabka M. 1990c. Senck. biol. 70 (1/3): 175-177, f 34-37. By courtesy
+
Plexippus wesolowski +b) sp. [cf paykulli] Biswas V., Raychaudhuri D. 1998. Rec. zool. Surv. India, 96 (1-4):
167-171, f 1-5.3 + ©Photo Vipin Baliga (S-Kodagu District, Karnataka). By courtesy
+b)
Plexippus perfidus +b)devorans Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 112. Birma: Tharrawaddy, Oates" "No, 1791" "Prep. 6518" - coll. Thorell, +b) © photo A. Senglet (Greece)
+ +
+ +
Plexippus petersi . Zabka M. 1990c. Senck. biol. 70 (1/3): 172, f 26-27+ Proszynski 1973b. Ann. zool., 30: 120-124,
f 61-66 (Japan) +Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 80 (Solomon Is.)+ ©Photos: J. Holstein (Kenya) + S. Chakrabarti (India)
+J. Nigl (Philippines-Samar).

Gen. Salticus Latreille, 1804

Type species Salticus scenicus.

Salticus scenicus Paquin P., Duperre N. 2003. Fabreries, Suppl. 11: 200, f 2242-2244 + ©Photo Senglet, 2002.
[Type species, Europe, N America]. By courtesy.

[Salticus biguttatus + candidus Blackwall, 1867 from India – both unidentifiable].
+
Salticus noordami (syn. amitai?) Logunov, 2009. Contrib. Nat. Hist. 2009c: 12: 915-916, f 36-42
+ Proszynski J. 2003a. Ann. zool. 166-167, f 677, 690-691 By courtesy.
[Mediterranean].
Salticus latidentatus: Proszynski J. 1982. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 74: 288, f 43 (Mongolia). By courtesy. .
Salticus propinquus Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. : 168-169, f 678-679, 685-686, 692-693
+ Proszynski: 1984c. Atlas ...: 128. By courtesy.(Mediterranean).
.

Gen. Siler Simon, 1889

Type species Siler cupreus.

++
++
Siler cupreus: Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool.70-73, f 1 -11. Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987.41, 2: 125-127, f 250-251
+ © Ono et al. 2009: 570, pl 45-1 + Siler vittatus:[TENTATIVE SEPARATION FROM S. CUPREUS Body coloration shown in Boes, & Str. 1906
resemble rather several species of transversely striped Phintella, drawings of palp and epigyne VERY close to S. cupreus
!]
Boesenberg & Strand 1986: 346, pl. 8, f. 118, pl. 14, f. 368 + Proszynski 1984a. Atlas ... 135 + © Ono et al. 2009: 570,
pl 45-1. China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan.
+
Siler semiglaucus : Proszynski 1985a. Ann. zool.: 75-76, f 24-26 + ©Photo S. Kulkarni (agrees with Simon’s lectotype). Male + female . By courtesy.