SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - KEY to groups of genera! - INDEX of Genera
KEY to groups of genera of INDIAN SUBCONTINENT - INDEX to Indian genera - Aelurillinae of India - Chrysillinae of India - Dendryphantinae of India - Euophryinae of India - Eupoainae of India - Evarchinae of India - Harmochirinae of India - Heliophaninae of India - Hyllinae of India - Iciinae of India - Lyssomaninae of India - Menemerinae of India - Myrmarachninae of India - Noticiinae of India - Pelleninae of India - Pseudiciinae of India - Simaethinae of India - Sitticinae of India - Spartaeinae of India - YAGINUMAELLINAE-India - Ylleninae of India - Unclassified-TEMPORARY of India - REFERENCES to Salticidae of India - Literature quotation proposals.- Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - Omoedus synonymy
OUT OF DATE CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS -Simon's classification - Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - Bonnet's list of subfamilies - Prˇszynski's revision of subfamilies 1976.
Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2014
a chapter
Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae

A Key to Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent
Introduction and key to groups of genera
working version

by Jerzy Prˇszynski & John T.D. Caleb
Version June 22nd, 2015

Please, help develop this Key - share your photos of Salticidae

Disclaimer. This is a work in progress, continually being developed and revised. Proposed taxonomic names included here are not valid unless subsequently published in accepted taxonomic papers. Note on images. This introduction to a classification of Salticidae includes only species with diagnostic illustrations in the taxonomic, literature arranged by similarities of embolus and spermophor. Images are displayed as thumbnails to save space and allow for rapid scanning of theoretically closely-related species. Sources and permissions of illustrations are displayed in other parts of the monograph.


This "Introduction to alternative classification of of Salticidae" provides:
I. Proposal of new diagnostic characters delimiting and defining groups of genera ~ subfamilies;
II. Survey of these characters in ALL 4568 species divided into 636 genera, documented by diagnostic drawings and photos in the whole relevant literature. [ATTENTION: Current World Spider Catalog of the NHMB lists 5790 described species, divided into 602 nominal genera, including those having no diagnostic drawings and considered here as species inquirenda and dubia] .
III. Permits to check stability and diversity of these characters, including also cases of their misapplication,
IV. Proposes new, tentative subdivision of the family Salticidae, based on the above characters.

ATTENTION. Due to incomplete and often unclear documentation in the literature, the proposals of delimitation have working character, pending further research and tests.

The guide to groups of genera mentioned on this page consists of the following groups of genera ~ subfamilies, linked from here : CHRYSILLINAE , DENDRYPHANTINAE, EUOPHRYINAE, EUOPOAEINAE, EVARCHINAE, FOSSILS , HARMOCHIRINAE , HELIOPHANINAE, HYLLINAE, ICIINAE, LYSSSOMANINAE, MENEMERINAE, MYRMARACHNINAE, NOTICIINAE, PELLENINAE, PSEUDICIINAE, SIMAETHINAE, SITTICINAE, SPARTAEINAE, Thiratoscirtinae, YAGINUMAELLINAE, YLLENINAE. (Switch also to interactive index of all genera).
Each entry consist of short definition, thumbnails of drawings/photos of exemplary species, name of a group and a a link to plate with thumbnails of diagnostic charateres for ALL SPECIES of each group).

Why new kind of subfamilies - groups of genera?

The most important step in identification of Salticidae, and other groups of animals, is recognition of a genus. Species within genus are usually similar enough to recognize them as members of the genus, if their mutual features are memorized. Memorizing of 636 genera is, however, difficult, because similar features repeat in various unrelated groups in various parts of the world - to recall an example an ant-likeness, appearing in various groups of Salticidae (and several other families as well). Grouping of genera into groups of genera by their shared properties is therefore procedure facilitating identification. That may be superfluous for the best known faunae of Europe and North America, where identification is assisted by numerous atlases and keys, but is highly desirable for less known faunae.
Problem of division into subfamilies become acute when studies concentrate on incompletely, rather poorly known faunae of the tropics, or other insufficiently known parts of continents and archipelagoes. There are practical questions requiring immediate answer: how to place a species into one of earlier described genera? How to decide that it deserves description as a new genus? Into which subfamily should it be classifies? There seems to be three approaches, attempting to answer these questions.

1. Traditional system popularized by works of Simon 1901-1903, modified by Petrunkevitch 1928, and summarized by Bonnet 1959, based on body proportions, arrangements of eyes, cheliceral dentition, distribution of spines and characteristic groups of setae. These characters are artificial, in a sense that are not related to affinities, are imprecise (eyes II "closer" to eyes I, versus "somewhat more distant"), do not account for diversity within groups. A mess, created by that approach is well illustrated in the subchapter Comparison of HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae. Modern authors try to update the system by listing some exemplary exceptions and additions to particular subfamilies, but without solving the essential problem. They use names of subfamilies, but there are no definitions, no stated criteria of classification of particular genera.

2. There are attempts to base division into subfamilies on molecular data, especially on gene sequencing, developed by Maddison at al. (among other 2003b, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2015). Valuable for study of evolution, as they seem to be, they are not translated yet into practical classification, there are no correlations with observable, morphological characters. ["... In the molecular phylogeny ... all fall in a strongly supported clade. ... A high genitalic diversity could occur even in closely related species, if for instance strong sexual selection drives rapid divergence..." Zhang J., Maddison W.P., 2015: 938 (1): 30 discussing synonymy case of genera Junxattus, Laufeia and Orcevia.]. With inductive interpretation, how can we know whether presented data are sufficiently representative for a group they purport to characterize? The credibility of conclusions is not increased by incidents of apparent misidentification of representative species, and some strange pairing of taxa.

3. Comparison of selected diagnostic characters checked for representability and stability of ALL species known. That approach is possible now, owing to accumulation of diagnostic morphological drawings during 55 years by several researchers, using similar methodology and purporting to define particular species and genera. Accessible trough the database of Salticidae these are now displayed in orderly fashion in a chapter "Introduction to alternative classification". So regular pattern of similarities and their gradual changes emerges, presented as a new system of Salticidae (see below). It is displayed here as series of groups of genera' definitions, consisting of: a) a name, b) indication of type genus with its type species, c) diagnostic drawings of palps and epigyne of an exemplary representative, d) text of definition, d) linked up comparative survey of ALL species of group of genera, whenever possible including also photos. Composite character of definitions is necessary to account for broad diversity in majority of genera, containing also numerous misidentified species, pending transfer to proper genera and groups of genera. However, due to insufficient data, the contents of genera, and their classification into groups of genera, is a temporary compromise, with some transfers already proposed, but bulk of species pending reclassification after complementary research.

4. Practical solution to application of subfamilies in Salticidae. Lack of consent on contents of genera included by different authors into particular subfamilies, their definitions and diagnostic characters, create difficulties in application of formal subfamilies. For simplification this series of Keys uses informal GROUPS OF GENERA designed for practical purposes of facilitating identification of genera. There is no provision for usage of GROUPS OF GENERA in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, so they can be used informally, however, they were used by Simon 1901-1903 as equivalent of subfamilies, so we can follow that tradition, provisionally, in the present study. Each GROUP OF GENERA is followed by temporary definition and list of comparable taxa used by classical authors: Simon 1901-1903, Petrunkevitch 1928, and Bonnet 1959. The similarity of genera within each group can presumably indicate their affinities, but establishing of affinities is not purpose of their delimitation. To indicate differences with formal subfamilies, the names of those groups of genera are written in CAPITAL LETTERS.

Some explanations and comments.
Wide scope of application of male palps resulted from empirical observation. Palps are conservative, stable structure, characterizing large groups of genera, with small modification of details in related genera and species. This is the only structure which, after quick glance, permits identification of groups of genera. There are no other structures serving that level of identification so well.
Types of internal structure of epigyne characterizes well groups of species within a genus, their fine details help to identify species. There are some traits of structures characteristic for groups of genera but these require further comparative studies. An arachnologists must be warned that evolution of spermathecae and ducts runs parallel in not related genera and this may be in some cases misleading (for instance ducts making double spiral in some Marpissa and Yllenus). Examination of internal structures of epigyne may take a day (macerating soft tissue, rinsing, staining in Chlorazol Black E, mounting as temporary slide in transparent medium, finally storage after examination in a microvial) but expenditure of time may be shortened by making a series of preparations at a time.
External appearance of epigyne may help identify species within a genus, but is unreliable for larger groups of species, cannot substitute for its internal structures.
Natural coloration of alive or fresh specimen, preserved on a photo (also dry specimens, preserved like insects, retains their coloration for hundred of years) are probably one of best characters for identification of local species. But WARNING - they are adaptative and are often developed independently in several unrelated genera in the same or distant areas, even on different continents (for instance patterns of light reflecting, iridescent scales). These properties were unrecognized, when research was conducted on long preserved, faded specimens).
Other body features like cheliceral dentition, spines, bunches of setae, spots of color setae, etc., were popular among arachnologists as easily observable. These can be useful if compared directly, but described in a routine manner, as generally practised, are often useless. Body shape, proportions and size - may be very well memorized, but are difficult and tedious to describe. They are variable to large extent.
Non visible features, described by specialized techniques, are useless for diagnostic purposes, which is the domain of taxonomy.

Practical difficulties in applying Alternative Classification
First difficulty is incomplete material, especially from the less studied areas of the world. Presumably large part of Salticidae species is not even discovered, many existing collections are still not described. Proposed classification is based primarily on male palps, leaving classification of unmatched females difficult. Diagnostic drawings and photographs, if they exist at all, are of various quality. Species of Eastern Hemisphere, studied for 50 years by several taxonomists with comparable methods, are relatively much better known. Comparison of these structure with Salticidae of Western Hemispheres is difficult, because these were little studied, even in intesively studied genera like Habronattus. For large part of genera there exist only diagrammatic or semidiagrammatic diagnostic drawings of little value for comparison. Strangely, there are no collections of color photos utilizable for taxonomic purposes. Photography of alive Salticidae is developing particularly well in Australia, and there is a significant progress in SE Asia and India. Serious harm is inflicted by policy of several Publishers, refusing permission to copy their diagnostic drawings and photographs. How the diagnostic properties of newly published Salticidae could be digested and included into the classificatory system, if they cannot be compared with series of those already known?

Other problem is application of nomenclature.
None of the groups of genera, mentioned here, corresponds with similarly named taxa of the traditional system. Their philosophy is different, meaning is different, contents of genera is different. The only elements they seem to have in common are name and type genus. New meaning assigned to well accustomed names may be misleading to many - if so, should new names be invented? Who should be authors of such groups of genera? Wouldn't spirits of Simon and Petrunkevitch protest against infringement of their intellectual authors' rights by using names, they introduced, with entirely different meaning? Because of these difficulties, the names used here have provisional character.

History of research on Salticidae of the Indian Subcontinent

Active research on Salticidae of the countries of the Indian Subcontinent, both field and laboratory, are already carried out for 80 years by arachnologists of the countries concerned. Information on Salticidae, including descriptions of new species, data on distribution, ecology and behavior contains papers published by Dyal S. (1935), Bhattacharya G.C. (1937), Tikader B.K. (1965, 1967, 1973a, 1973b, 1974b, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1977a, 1977b:), Tikader B.K. & Biswas B. (1978, 1981), Tikader B.K. & Malhotra M.S. (1978) [to see bibliographic data and information on published species please click on provided links].
More papers were published by Biswas B. (1984), & Biswas K. (1984, 1992, 2006), Biswas B. & Roy R. ( 2008) , Biswas V. ( 1999), Biswas V. & Begum A. ( 1999), Biswas V. & Raychaudhuri D. ( 1998), Bradoo B.L. (1980), Ganesh Kumar M. & Mohanasundaram M. (1998), Monga K., Singh J.P., Sadana G.L. ( 1989), Sadana G.L. (1979 ), Sadana G.L. (1991 ), Sadana G.L. & Gupta A. (1998), Sadana G.L. & Kaur M. (1974), Majumder S.C. (2004, 2005).
Of special importance are modern taxonomic revisions by Benjamin S.P. ( 2004, 2006, 2010, 2015) setting new standards in the world's taxonomic literature. He has also coauthored an important paper on Myrmarachne (Edwards G.B. & Benjamin S.P. 2009). There is also a number of valuable PhD Theses, containing important information. Apart from information alone, these research yielded rich collections of specimens, which, if preserved in some collections) constitute formidable basis for future taxonomic revisions.
For ALL publications related to Salticidae of Indian Subcontinent in the world literature see References chapter.

Zoogeographical relations of Salticidae fauna of the Indian Subcontinent

Relationship of Salticidae fauna of the Indian Subcontinent is underestimated and inadequate to expected diversity, developed during millions o years in vast environments, ranging from nival altitudes of high mountains to tropical rain forest, from wet deltas and mangrove swamps to hot deserts. Study of species proliferation in local hotspots of such genera as Yaginumella ( Zabka 1980c, 1981b) and Synagelides (Bohdanowicz 1987) are example of potential richness of the fauna and suggest that genera know at present by a single or a few species only, may in reality contain dozens of related species and spread to other countries.
Indian Subcontinent constitute an important crossroad for spreading faunae of Salticidae to, and from, neighboring lands and archipelagos (by walking overland, ballooning with winds, rafting on pieces of vegetation down the river and across seas, finally by human agency: cargoes and travels). So the Subcontinent fauna is mixture of local species developed on the Subcontinent as well as species arrived from other zoogeographical Regions (South Palaearctic, Central Asia Mountains, Afrotropical, Madagascar, remaining parts of Oriental Region). Of the other hand, it was also a source of species migrating elsewhere during XIX and XX centuries.
Deciphering these faunal relations is fascinating scientific project, requiring, however, specialized methods and much deeper knowledge of the subcontinent fauna, and faunae of neighboring areas.

Definitions of proposed new groups of genera of Salticidae
based on palps and epigyne
ATTENTION: taxa mentioned below are defined by diagnostic drawings of ALL species (to see them please follow links).
Proposed division does not include characters based on invisible, not morphological structures.

Type genus Menemerus Simon, 1868 , of which type species is M. semilimbatus [Attus semilimbatus Hahn 1827 [1829])

Menemerus semilimbatus
Definition. Male palps with robust, fleshy base of embolus, with small, sclerotized embolus atop, often double, in some cases there is soft looking attachment, hidden behind embolus (like in Menemerus bivittatus), of unknown function. Epigyne well sclerotized, ducts in Menemerus and Leptorchestes straight and thick walled, spermathecae located posteriorly. In Kima, however, ducts, are thin and entangled. Menemerus has body relatively flattened and broad, characteristic, two remaining genera are ant-like, but their carapace is not constricted.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Spartaeus Thorell, 1891, of which type species is Spartaeus spinimanus [= Boethus spinimanus Thorell 1878].

Cyrba algerina
Definition. Considered primitive"Basal Salticidae", are characterized by proportionally enormous, globular or oval spermathecae, in males embolus is robust, arising antero-laterally and encircling tightly anterior part of bulbus.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Supergroups of genera CHRYSILLOIDA
Groups of genera with embolus atop narrowing structure overlaying bulbus,
with bulbus and spermophor emerging partially - anterolaterally or anteriorly

Type group of genera Chrysillinae

Type genus Chrysilla Thorell, 1887, of which type species is Chrysilla lauta Thorell,Chrysillinae 1887

Phintella versicolor [= Plexippus v., Chrysilla v.]
Definition. Basis of embolus triangular, overlapping bulbus as a thin, apically narrowing layer, ending by short, thin embolus in front of bulus, laterally to it. Only anterolateral part of bulbus, with part of spermophor loop extends from under that layer. That combination of characters: obliquely running basis of embolus and anterolateral angle of bulbus, emerging from under it, seems to be mark of Chrisillinae. Diversity in exact direction of edge of basis (which may be also tranverse accross bulbus), seemingly lateral position of basis in relation to bulbus, length of embolus and its' bending laterally in a characteristic way, creates difficulty in placement of some genera, and led to separation of groups of genera Iciinae, Noticiinae and Thiodininae, requiring further, more precise studies and, possibly, searching for supporting correlations.
Spermathecae are usually oval or globular, ducts usually straight, running anteriorly, or their derived states.
REMARKS. Chrysillinae is large group of genera, distributed worldwide, it contains several well known, prolific genera considered as types of traditional subfamilies of their own, like Freya, Plexippus, Salticus and other. Acceptation of relationships of oblique basis of embolus and emerging from beneath anterolateral angle of bulbus, leave no other choice of interpretation. Unless more convincing morphological correlations would be found.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
ICIINAE [Chrysillinae-2?]
Type genus Icius Simon, 1876 of which type species is Icius hamatus [= Icelus notabilis Koch C.L., 1846 - preoccupied]

Icius hamatus
Definition. Characters of the group of genera close to Chrysillinae, differ by indistinct branching of embolus, without prominent separate base, spherical spermatheca. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
NOTICIINAE [Chrysillinae-3?]
Type genus Holoplatys, of which type species is Holoplatys planissima [= Marptusa planissima Koch L. 1879].
Habrocestoides bengalensis
Definition. Characteristic mark of the group of genera is lateralward bent of embolus, arising medially near the anterior edge of bulbus, the basis of embolus covers considerable part of bulbus, leaving only small part of it visible. Structure of spermatheca diverse, either simple, oval vesicle, or complicated two chambers. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Simaetha Thorell, 1881, of which type species is Simaetha thoracica Thorell, 1881
Ligurra latidens + Stertinius onoi
Definition. Genera with pretty uniform genitals, with basis of embolus intersecting bulbus obliquely, short tibial apophysis, eye field usually flattened and trapezium shaped, posterior slope of carapace step. Body usually with scattered numerous scales. Epigyne with prominent median anterior pocket, resembling Harmochirinae, from which differ by spermathecae consisting of two globular chambers, ducts short, running posteriorly. ATTENTION: body shape caused mistakes with Rhene, from which differs by palps and epigyne.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type subgenus Heliophanus Koch C.L., 1833 (Heliophanus) Wesolowska, 1986, of which type species is Heliophanus (Heliophanus) cupreus [= Aranea cuprea) Walckenaer 1802].

Heliophanus curvidens + Heliophanus dampfi
Definition. Palpal organ has, more or less, triangular outline and is covered by thick and opaque tegument together with embolus, which is therefore "fixed" to bulbus. Many species have developed lobes or protuberances on bulbus ("bumps" in definition by Maddison). Nominal subgenus of Heliophanus has prominent process on tibial femur, single or split apically, and two slender apophyses on tibia, other subgenera may have apophysis on tibial patella. Females have strongly sclerotized epigyne, plate like or concave, ducts are simple but very strongly sclerotized, spermathecae differ little from ducts. External appearance of males and females is uniform, usually dark, often with some colorless scales scattered, or grouped into white abdominal spots, or semilunar whitish line on anterior edge of abdomen.
Memorized picture of Heliophaninae is bazed on nominal subgenus Heliophanus (Heliophanus), containing 81 species and distributed mainly in Palaearctic Region, remaining less prolific and little known genera, are distributed in Asia and Africa. Numerous genera placed by Petrukevitch 1928 into his compilatory subfamily Heliophaninae do not conform to the definition and are reclassified here to Chrysillinae and elsewhere.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Supergroup of genera HYLLOIDA
groups of genera with embolus arising directly from bulbus,
beneath tegulum edge, spermophor translucent marginally,
without making any loop in the centre of bulbus

Type group of genera Hyllinae.

Type genus Hyllus Koch C.L., 1846, of which type species is Hyllus giganteus Koch C.L., 1846

Hyllus semicupreus
Definition. Embolus arises directly from bulbus, usually beneath edge of tegulum. In typical case, in severall genera, point of arising is located near posterior part of bulbus rim, embolus makes initial bend leaving narrow space to bulbus, next running parallel to side of bulbus, close to it, after reaching apical rim of bulbus it continues to run ahead, slightly bent. Embolus is continuation of spermophor and has sclerotized narrow appearance, but not hair thin, only in posterior part has narrowing fleshy component. In some cases embolus encircles bulbus entirely, in other embolus arises somewhere on lateral side of bulbus, exceptionally anterolaterally. Tibial apophysis usually short, often truncated blunt.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885, of which type species is Pseudicius encarpatus [= Aranea encarpata Walckenaer, 1802]

Afraflacilla asorotica
Definition. Embolus of Hylloidea type, the group of genera can be recognized by a number of somatic characters, including subocular row of stridulatory spines, characteristic tibial modification, additional accessory characters are body flattened and elongated, color pattern and robust, long legs I. Epigyne usually with well developed pair of sclerotized pockets, duct form often complicated coils, with prominent armature of scent exuding opening, often developed atop specialized branch of a duct.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Pellenes Simon, 1876, of which type species is Pellenes tripunctatus [= Aranea tripunctata Walckenaer, 1802].

Pellenes nigrociliatus + Pellenes lapponicus

Pellenes lapponicus + Habronattus elegans + Habronattus banksi
Definition. Status of the Pelleninae become understand owing to ingenious SEM photo of Pellenes lapponicus (see enclosed fig 22) by D.V. Logunov, showing thin embolus hidden inside fleshy sheath, which permit to interpret fleshy "embolus" in other species in the same way. Epigyne with prominent median, anterior pocket, followed laterally by a pair of sclerotized grooves, ducts form entangled knot so heavily sclerotized that its structure cannot be analyzed and synthetics. Internal structure of epigyne in Pellenes lapponicus, P. ignifrons and P. ostrinus intermediate to that in Habronattus.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Harmochirius Simon, 1885, of which type species is Harmochirus brachiatus [= Ballus brachiatus Thorell, 1877)]
Bianor albobimaculatus
Definition. Palp cofronting Hylloida structure, with hair thin embolus, bulbus oval, often with truncated anterior rim. Epigyne with white,
membranous "window" in anterior half, bisected incompletely by prominent median pocket, with complicated loops of, originally, soft
walled and later sclerotized ducts, making in some genera characteristic "C" connection; spermatheca usually hidden by loops of ducts.
Pretty uniform. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Type genus Evarcha, of which type species is

+Evarcha kochi + Evarcha patagiata
Definition. Differentiated group of genera, recognizable mainly by memorized external appearance, with some species confronting with general
type of Hylloidea, other departing in shape and location of embolus and shape of bulbus. Epigyne with membranous "window", through which
transluce sclerotized spermathecae of different shape; there is always a pair of pockets posteriorly, visible externally or hidden beneath sclerotized
epigyne. REMARK. Diversity of species suggests advisability of transfers between genera, or even splitting and redefining the group of genera.
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Type genus Yaginumaella Prószynski, 1976 , of which type species is Yaginumaella striatipes Simon, 1868.

Yaginumaella striatipes

Yaginumaella senchalensis
DIAGNOSIS. Characterized by presence of pair of external pockets on surface of epigyne, in majority of species small, varying in position, in a few species making broad, collar lobes on sides of copulatory opening. Copulatory openings in form of anterior, diagonal slits. Copulatory ducts broad, run almost straight posteriorly, near end of epigyne pass into a few narrower loops of spermathecae. Palpal organs with bulbus oval or narrowing posteriorly, in some (Y. stemmleri) with anterior protuberance. Embolus vary in length, in majority of species naked, parallel to bulbus, in type species inside boader sheath. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Yllenus Simon, 1868, of which type species is Yllenus arenarius Simon, 1868
Yllenus squamifer [=LOGUNYLLUS s.]
Yllenus mongolicus [=MARUSYLLUS m.] + Yllenus arenarius
Definition. Subfamily recognizable by possession of adaptative "scopula" brush of ventral setae on tarsus I, serving for quick submerging spider in sand, also shape of carapace with long slope beginning immediately behind eyes III. Diagnostic characters of palps and epigyne display exuberant evolution, with embolus and bulbus confronting to Hylloidea in some species, in other unique by development of enormous "conductor", strangely shaped tibial apophysis and crazy looking cymbium. Internal structure of epigyne evolving from simple, strongly sclerotized ducts, through thin walled loops, to unique, elegant double spiral. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Supergroup of genera AMYCOIDA
Western Hemisphere jumping spiders, represented in Palaearctic Region and in Indian Subcontinent
by single sufamily Sitticinae. Palp with central loop of spermophor, tooth on anterolateral edge
of chelicerae multicusp, saw-like.
Type group of genera Amycinae.

Type genus Sitticus Simon, 1901, of which type species is Sitticus terebratus [= Attus terebratus (Clerck, 1757 [1758])

Chelieral dentition in Sitticus terebratus + Sitticus floricola
Definition. Recognizable by prominent "S" shaped central loop of spermophor, continuing later marginally before entering embolus. Another striking character is saw-like multicusps tooth on anterior median edge of chelicerae, with posterior edge and its tooth, an apparent modification of the cheliceral teeth state in other Amycoida. Spermatheca developed from oval to elongate bent structure, thick walled, joined in the middle with weakly sclerotized ducts, either simple and bent, or forming coils of various degree of complication.
REMARKS. Taxonomic characters of Sitticinae (as defined in present usage) agree with conclusions from gene sequencing research, and geographic evolution of the group, in which only genus Sitticus underwent intensive species radiation in Palaearctics, with a few species ultimately returning ultimately Norh America. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Supergroup of genera EUOPHRYOIDA
characterized by "free" embolus sitting atop membranous anterior haematodocha.

Type genus Euophrys Koch C.L., 1834 of which type species is Euophrys frontalis [= Aranea frontalis Walckenaer, 1802 [Platnick: "preoccupied by Olivier, 1789, but amply protected by usage"]].
Euoprys frontalis +Chalcoscirtus infimus +Lakarobius alboniger + Zenodoru durvillei + Gambaquezonia
Euoprys pseudogambosa +Lakarobius alboniger + Zenodoru durvillei + Gambaquezonia itimana [Holotype] + Gambazonia sp.

Chalcoscirtus infimus

Definition. Genera characterized by embolus twisted into single coil or spiral, in some cases reduced to incomplete bend. Position of coil variable, usually in either side, or ventral surface of embolus, in some cases, however, on posterior part of lateral surface, in some species tight coil on anterior surface of bulbus (Attention: latest photographic documentation of some genera show double "embolus" structure, which requires further consideration). Associated character is meandering course of spermophor, consisting of two, or one and half incomplete bends, on prolateral surface of bulbus, usually extending on ventral surface. In some cases bends of spermophor is reduced to indistinct waving, or is straight. Epigyne with two white, membranous "windows", sometimes fused into single one, with translucent globular spermathecae, ducts often simple, running anteriorly or laterally. In some cases internal structures resembling Dendryphantinae, with copulatory openings located anteriorly, initial part of ducts running posteriorly and then passing into a number of coils, a knot, or a compact body with internal convoluted ducts (a case of Omoedus niger, type species of genus Omoedus). REMARKS. Largest group of genera containing worldwide 1054 species (placement of some genera being disputed) To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Aelurillus Simon, 1884, of which type species is Aelurillus v-insignitus [= Araneus litera v insignitus Clerck 1757 [1758]].

Definition. Bulbus covered entirely by thick, opaque tegulum through which spermophor does not transluce, embolus coiled behind anterior part of tegulum, with only tip emerging. Tibial apophysis usually split into two rami, usually short, in Langona tibia is single but accompanied ventrally by a bunch of stiff setae. Spermathecae usually compact body convoluted inside, or consisting of complicated chain of chambers (like in Phlegra or Langona).
To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839, of which type species is Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839

Myrmarachne tristis
Definition. Genera recognizable by parallel "pipes" like spermathecae with membranous large but irregular ducts attached to their posterior end [the latter visible ONLY on cleared slides, stained with Chlorazol Black E]. Males with palps uniform, bulbus encircled twice by embolus, usually with thin, incomplete "additional" loop of spermophor. Tibial apophysis twisted cork-driver like in Myrmarachne, in other genera also short but straight. In males chelicerae enormously elongated, with multiple isolated teeth (true "pluridentati"). Body usually ant-like, with carapace also constricted; since body appearance is adapted to mimicking ants, same habitus may repeat in independent species. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!
Type genus Dendryphantes Koch C.L., 1837, of which type species is Dendryphantes hastatus [= Araneus hastatus Clerck 1757 [1758].
a) Dendryphantes hastatu +b) Tomocyrba thaleri (= group of genera Dendryphantinae?)
Definition. Genera with embolus atop membranous anterior haematodocha, in front of bulbus; embolus  short, straight or branched, single or split, but usually not coiled. Spermophor after initial anterolateral bend runs almost straight along lateral surface of bulbus. Epigyne heavily sclerotized, with a pair of lateral, or anterior depressions, with copulatory openings at the bottom, often connected by semi-lunar furrow, copulatory ducts broad, running posteriorly,  spermathecae in a form of  entangled loops or compact body internally convoluted. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Originally defined by eyes arranged in four rows, however, there are unrelated genera with similar eyes arrangement,
or intermediate to three rows. Better characters could be palps and epigyne, but these are insufficiently studied.

Type genus Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845, of which type species is Lyssomanes viridis [= Attus viridis Walckenaer, 1837].
Asemonea tenuipes + b & c - American Lyssomanes: b) Lyssomanes viridis + c)Lyssomanes longipes
Asemonea tenuipes +b) Lyssomanes viridis + c)Lyssomanes longipes
Definition. Eyes arranged in 4 rows, the 2nd (anterior lateral) distinctly above the 1st (anterior median). Prolific genus Lyssomanes is known from the Western Hemisphere (allmost all species in Central and South America). In S and S Asia onlt Asemonea and Hindumanes Several genera have eyes arranged in four rows (or intermediate between four and three rows( but their palps and epigyne are incompatible so should be reclassified elsewhere. These are Athamas, Leptathamas (Euophryinae), Onomastus, Orthrus (Astieae). To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Pending placement

Type genus Eupoa Żabka, 1985 of which type species is Eupoa prima Żabka, 1985

Eupoa nezha + Eupoa prima + Eupoa sp from Thailand

Tarne dives
Definition. According to Maddison 2006 presence of a median apophysis in the male palps and of a tarsal claw in the female palps place Eupoa inside Basal Salticidae. My own knowledge is insufficient to comment upon that yet. Pending further studies. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species of this group of genera click here!

Taxon of uncertain position - Thiratoscirtinae
a new clade of subfamily rank, proposed by Bodner & Maddison 2012, p. 221-222),
with taxonomic documentation limited to a list of genera included.
(Use Index to find data of proposed genera).


Eolinus tystschenkoi +b) Baltic sp [photo Hill] Baltic amber fossils.
Fauna of the past - amber preserved Eocene Salticidae - these specimens are remnants of Tertiary pine forests fauna, preserved in amber resins leaking from trees, found, for example, in sands submerged in the Baltic Sea and inland. REMARKS. Affinities with tropical extant fauna assumed, but not precisely identified. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL species click here!
Resemblance to fossil Prolinus by location of Eyes Anterior Lateral and Posterior Median (the latter strikingly reduced in size)
on the same protuberance in extant Tomocyrba, Hispo, some "Massagris" and Lystrocteissa - was interpreted as relict